Gender equality

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Gender equality

  1. 1. Gender equality
  2. 2. Agenda1. Warm-up questions2. Gender equality in the USA – historical background – current state3. Parks and Recreation “Women in Garbage” – about the series – gender issues in the episode4. Discussion
  3. 3. Warm-up questions1) American women can vote since: a)1989 b) 1789 c)19202) The majority of the US population constitue: a) men b) women c) no difference3) On avarage, women in the USA earn: a) more than men b) as much as men c) less than men4) The first book by a woman writer was published in: a)17th century b)15th century c)1920s
  4. 4. Gender inequality – dispairityin status, power and prestigebetween people who identifyas women or men.
  5. 5. Historical background• Puritans believed that a woman should be subordinate to her husband and dedicate herself to bringing up children.• In some colonies wives: – couldn’t work with men – worked with men in the field and stables – were treated as property – could only own clothes and some items they brought with them into marriage
  6. 6. Tax-supported schooling for girls began in 1767 in New England.
  7. 7. • The first published woman writer was Anne Bradstreet in 1650 (book of poems The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up In America).• For centuries women used pseudonyms to conceal their gender
  8. 8. • Women got right to vote: – in New Zealand - in 1893, – in Australia- in 1894, – in the USA - in 1920, – in Britain - in 1928, – in Canada - in 1918.
  9. 9. Role of a woman• The typical housewife was expected to spin, sew, preserve food, cook, and clean while caring for her children and raising vegetables, chickens and geese. A wife was expected to be subservient to her father until she married and then to her husband.• Sometimes they worked in typical female professions as: – teachers, nurses, servants, weavers, factory workers, seamstresses
  10. 10. Beginning of 20th century• Between 1930 and 1931, 63% of cities dismissed female teachers as soon as they became married,• 77% cities did not hire married women as teachers,• ¾ of cities did not employ married women for any job,• during the Great Depression womens unemployment rate was higher than that of men, because they earned less.
  11. 11. World War II• Workforce: – at the beginning of the war – 12 million – at the end of the war - 18 million• During the war: – 350,000 women served in the military – 150,000 women computed the speed of bullets, measured bomb fragments, mixed gunpowder, and loaded shells – many more worked as draftswomen, mechanics, and electricians, and some received training in ordnance engineering
  12. 12. After the war• In 1946 4 million women were fired.• Woman - a housewife and man - a breadwinner• Women went to college to find a husband.• The average working woman in the 1950s earned 60% of the average working mans salary.
  13. 13. Feminist movement• A series of campaigns for reforms on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, womens suffrage, sexual harassment, and sexual violence.• The first womens rights convention was held in Seneca Falls, New York on 19th and 20th July 1848. 68 women and 32 men signed a Declaration of Sentiments, which outlined grievances and set the agenda for the womens rights movement. A set of 12 resolutions was adopted calling for equal treatment of women and men under the law and voting rights for women.
  14. 14. What was achieved• the right to initiate divorce proceedings and ”no fault” divorce• the right to have access to contraceptives and abortion• the right to own property• the right to vote• more equitable wages• access to university education
  15. 15. Gender equality - current state• 2012 World Economic Forum report on gender equality – indicators: economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival, and political empowerment – the US placed on the 22nd position (behind Cuba and Canada) – in 2011 – the 17th position• The Time Magazine – almost 40% of American wives make more money than their husbands – almost 60% of collage students are female – the wage gap: women earn 81% of what men do• U. S. Census Bureau – in 2010 women became half of all workers – small rise in management positions (35 to 38% in the last 20 years)
  16. 16. • Possible problems: – theoretically equal rights, – need to join the role of a housewife and an employee, – women getting pregnant are often fired, – no legal guarantee of paid maternity leave, – need for equality in workplace to make use of feminine skills, e.g. negotiation skills.
  17. 17. A bit of statistics: Aspect CommentPopulation (in Mil.) 311.59Sex ratio (male/female) 0.97 More women than men Women expected to liveLife expectancy (female/male) 1.066 longerIncome ratio (f/m) 0.62 Women earn less on avarageLiteracy ratio (f/m) 1 No difference Most politicians are male, noWomen in Paliament (in %) 15.2 woman president
  18. 18. Parks and Recreation “Women in Garbage”Ron Swanson Ann Perkins
  19. 19. Ben AndyWyatt Dwyer Tom Haverford
  20. 20. Leslie KnopeApril Ludgate
  21. 21. In the episode
  22. 22. Warm-up questions1) American women can vote since: a)1989 b) 1789 c)19202) The majority of the US population constitue: a) men b) women c) no difference3) On avarage, women in the USA earn: a) more than men b) as much as men c) less than men4) The first book by a woman writer was published in: a)17th century b)15th century c)1920s
  23. 23. Discussion1. What do you understand by inequality and feminism? Do you think these two terms are still present in modern societies? Give examples.2. Look at the problem of equality from the male/female perspective. Try to find arguments for preserving typically female and male roles.3. Nicholas D. Kristof from The New York Times claims that ”we have gender equality when we’re no longer talking about it”. Do you agree with this statement? Why? What is your definition of gender equality?

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