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Research Report on "Sexual Content on Television and Youth in Malaysia"
 

Research Report on "Sexual Content on Television and Youth in Malaysia"

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A research report on "Sexual Content on Television and Youth in Malaysia." ...

A research report on "Sexual Content on Television and Youth in Malaysia."
RQ1: To what extent is the youth population exposed to sexual content shown on television today in Malaysia?
RQ2: How does sexual content on television affect the youth of Malaysian Society in terms of beliefs, behaviour, and emotions?
RQ3: What is the attitude and level of acceptance among the youth in Malaysian Society towards the amount of sexual content shown on television today?

(Though no actual research was carried out, so there are no results and discussions in this paper, although all the other elements of a research paper are present - This is more like a project proposal in depth).

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    Research Report on "Sexual Content on Television and Youth in Malaysia" Research Report on "Sexual Content on Television and Youth in Malaysia" Document Transcript

    • Table of ContentsSerial No. Title of Section Page Number 1 Introduction 2-9 2 Background 10 3 Research Problem 10-11 4 Objective 11-12 5 Significance of study 12-13 6 Literature Review 14-18 7 Methodology 18-20 8 Research Instrument – Survey Questionnaire 20-25 9 References 26-31 1
    • Introduction This research investigates the sexual content on television and the youth inMalaysian society.What is Sexual Content? Firstly, the meaning of ‘sexual content’ needs to be operationalized in order toproceed with the research. Sexual content is thus defined as any depiction of sexualactivity, sexually suggestive behaviour, conversations on topics about sexuality orsexual activity (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005). To be considered as sexualbehaviour, actions must convey a sense of potential sexual intimacy (Kaiser FamilyFoundation, 2005). For example, a passionate kiss between two characters with anapparent romantic interest would be classified as sexual behaviour, but a kiss on thecheek as a form of greeting between two friends would not be. Usually, sexualbehaviour appears in the form of passionate kissing, intimate touching, nudity, andintercourse (Kunkel, et al., 2005). Sexual dialogue involves a range of different types of conversations. It canultimately be classified into one of six distinct categories: comments about own orothers’ sexual actions or interests; conversations about sexual intercourse that havealready occurred; conversations hinting or leading towards sex; conversations aboutsex-related crimes; expert advice on sex, and other (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2005).Implied sexual activity or intercourse is said to occur when a program portrays one ormore scenes immediately adjacent (considering both place and time) to an act ofsexual intercourse that is clearly inferred by narrative device (Kaiser FamilyFoundation, 2005). For example, a scene involving a couple kissing, groping, or 2
    • undressing one another as they stumble into a darkened bedroom, followed by thedissolving of the scene; or a couple shown waking up in bed together. All types of sexual content in media may include the above portrayed via songlyrics, internet, online and television advertisements, television programmes, movies,dramas, music videos, posters, magazines, newspapers, novels etc.Media and Effects Media has become a strong influence in society, especially on the youth oftoday. People are constantly exposed to a huge number of images of violence, sex,celebrities, products, and so much more on television that it has become the mostinfluential media distribution channel. So, it can be said that it affects the children (6years to 12 years of age), teenagers (13 years to 17 years of age) and young adults (18years to 25 years of age) in various ways. These effects of sexual media content onviewers include cognitive, emotional, attitudinal, and behavioural outcomes (Huston,Wartella, and Donnerstein, 1998). In other words, sexual content on television caninflict effects on its audience in terms of their beliefs, behaviour, and emotions. Media shapes the thoughts and views of its audience in various ways. Forexample, in a study done by Dr. Michelle M. Garrison, of the Seattle Children’sResearch Institute (Anon, 2011), use of media including video games, internet, andtelevision, was examined to determine its impact on the sleep patterns of pre-schoolaged children. It was found that exposure to violent content, usually from youngchildren’s television programming, had a significant negative impact on sleep patterns,causing nightmares, decreased alertness, and difficulty in falling asleep. Anotherexample would be the Cultivation Theory developed by George Gerbner in 1977 thatstates that long-term exposure to television causes people to actually believe the social 3
    • reality portrayed on it (Evra, 1990). Then, there is the Agenda-setting theorydeveloped by Dr. McCombs and Dr. Shaw that says that the news media has thepower to influence the salience of topics on the public agenda (Shaw, 2008). Apart from these, there are numerous other examples that demonstrate theinfluence of media on society. Therefore, it can be concluded that different forms andtypes of media affect people’s behaviour, their thought processes, their emotions, andtheir beliefs.Media Consumption Patterns and Role of Television in Society This research also calls for examining the role of the television and the mediaconsumption patterns in society. In regards to media consumption, in a recent INMAReader’s Loyalty conference in London, the CEO of Evolt’s UK, Jim Chisholmpointed out in an article that different demographic groups show distinctly differentconsumption patterns in loyalty, frequency, and intensity (Miller, 2011). Although hewas talking about print media, this can easily be applied to different types of media,for example the television. Besides that, an article by Reinberg (2010) regarding astudy by the Kaiser Family Foundation reported that the amount of hours used inmedia consumption by youths from the age of 8 to 18 has markedly increased over asix year period, from 6 hours and 21 minutes to 7 hours and 38 minutes. The studyalso showed that overall TV consumption increased by 38 minutes. Concerning the role of the television, both in society and also as a massmedium, it has been said that the television is a transitory medium, one that doesn’trequire door-to-door circulation unlike newspapers. In Mass Communication (Anon.,n.d.), it’s said that there are a large amount of illiterate people. Such people may not 4
    • be able to read a newspaper, but they can watch the television. Anyone with atelevision receiver can access the information shown on television, making it an idealmedium to transmit messages to a large audience, especially as television also has awide output, range and reach. In his paper, presented at the 4th Nordic Conference onthe Anthropology of Post-Socialism, Vukanovich (2002) states that the television‘delivers the world’ into the household, bringing both good and bad influences; thelatter of course, includes sexual content.Malaysian Values and Television Malaysia has always prided itself on its traditions and values. However, withincreasing modernism and globalizations, speculations are being made whether thesevalues are slowly becoming westernized. Allegedly, media has a major role to play inthis. In Malaysia, recent claims that Asian values have eroded started when thereality TV program, Akademi Fantasia, first came on air on Malaysia’s governmentcontrolled satellite television station, Astro, in 2003. Concerns about this show fromconservative parties, religious groups and members of Muslim faith were expressed ina website petition in support of taking reality talent shows off Malaysian TV (ThePetition, n.d.). The concerns were based on the fact that these shows weredemonstrating values which are against Islamic principles, beliefs and traditionalpractices such as “hugging between males and females” and “tactless comments fromjudges” (Associated Press, 2005). The promotion of confrontation and harshly puttingthe other down goes well against Malay values as it connotes lack of respect betweenfellow Malaysians. According to conventional Malay practices, conflicts are meant tobe avoided at all times and tolerance and acceptance to be practiced always – anger 5
    • and dissatisfaction should be suppressed. Therefore, when these reality TV programsallow ‘tactless comments from judges’, conventional Malay values are seen to beviolated. A criticism cited in the abc13.com website states that Malaysian Deputy PrimeMinister, Najib Razak, commented that these shows “borrow extensively fromWestern culture which [he] feared could threaten Eastern values and lead to moraldecadence” (Associated Press, 2005). In another report on the same website, theMalaysian elite also commented on religious values. Najib notes that “hugging scenesare not suitable”, therefore contestants are ordered to “act decently” (Associated Press,2005). In the same report Harussani Zakaria, a cleric with the Malaysian Council ofMuftis representing religious groups, criticized the reality TV program Mencari Cintaas “promoting extreme behaviour”. He also commented that “being Asian, we arerisking our heritage when we borrow from the Western lifestyle” (Associated Press,2005). Although the definition of “extreme behaviour” is not elaborated, it indicatesbehaviours that violate Islam’s religious teaching. As retrieved from analyses by the New Straits Times groups of newspapers,local historian, Ramlah Adam notes that economic success, entertainment and work-related aspects are attributes that contribute to the demise of traditional (Asian) valuesin the Malaysian society (Dinin, 2005). She fears the excitement of the entertainmentindustry, which includes the reality TV phenomenon and influenced by the Westernculture, would promote extreme behaviours that are in opposition to traditional values.What worries her most is that the older generation or the parents of these youngsters,who watch the programs, approve such programs and deem them to be suitable fortheir youngsters. In her opinion, the influence of Western values from the reality TV 6
    • programs has weakened local values and lead to social and moral decadence. Localacademician Hamdan Adnan agrees with the argument that Malaysian reality TVprograms are too eager to imitate Western genres and that they have gone beyond theAsian cultures and values (Badruddin, 2005). According to him, Malaysian reality TVprograms, produced and aired on television, are baseless and conflict with local values.To Hamdan, “hugging and crying” when other contestants are eliminated is shamefuland should neither be promoted nor permitted. He condemns Malaysian TV stationswhich he thinks are more concerned with the program ratings than the content of theprogram. He adds that the quest for profit and commercial values will leave an impacton the younger generation and their outlook on the national and Asian values.Hamdan believes that not all Western programs are deemed negative, and questionswhy local producers and TV stations are more inclined to imitate the “negativeattributes” rather than the “positive Western values”. Although he acknowledges thepositive values from Western inspired programs, no specific program or value wasmentioned.International Television Statistics There is a large amount of data and statistics recorded internationally thathighlight the presence of sexual content on media as well as the impact and attitudes itevokes. For instance, Nielsen estimated that 6.6 million kids aged 2-11 were watchingthe CBSs little halftime fiasco develop when Justin Timberlake ripped off a piece ofJacksons bodice, exposing her right breast to the nationwide audience. Another 7.3million teens aged 12-17 were tuned in at that time as well (Nielsen, 2004). Moreover,this number of 2-11 year olds and 12-17 years old was both estimated to be over 1million and they comprised more than 20% of the total viewing audience. 7
    • Following up, in a 2005 Time Magazine Poll, it was found that 53 percent ofrespondents think that the FCC should place stricter controls on broadcast-channelshows that depict sexual scenarios. Furthermore, as reported by Kaiser FamilyFoundation (2004), a majority of parents said they are "very" concerned about theamount of sex (60%) and violence (53%) their children are exposed to on TV, andthat a majority (55%) of parents say ratings should be displayed more prominently Besides, in a study conducted by RAND (2004) of 1792 adolescents aged 12-17, it was proven that watching sex on television influences teens to have sex. Hence, it is safe to conclude that the broadcast of sexual content on televisionis more likely to promote sexual activity among adolescents than it is to discourage it.Malaysian Television Statistics and Censorship Exclusively Malaysian statistics and data records can also be found in regardsto sexual content on television and its audience. For instance, in a research publishedin the New Straits Times, it was found that 50% of 727 university students areinvolved in sexual activities, and these huge numbers raised a lot of questionsconcerning the factors that generate Malaysian adolescents to engage in sexualactivities (Mokhtar, 2006). Furthermore, a shocking outcome was found by Norton from Symantec in 2009stating that from the top 100 websites accessed by kids, pornographic websites standon the fourth and fifth ranks. With 14.6 million kids and adolescents taken fromdifferent parts of the world that also included Malaysia, this end result has becomequite a concern (Norton, 2009). 8
    • Surprisingly, as strongly as Malaysian government tries to prevent sexuallyexplicit content from distributing in media, the content still manages to move across,particularly through Malaysian traditional media such as television and films. Also,the development of online television can also be said to play a part in allowing peopleaccess to “sexual” programs anytime. However, Malaysian government is making an effort to strain it using FilmCensorship Act 2002 and establish Film Censorship Board of Malaysia, a Malaysiangovernment ministry that vets films, to supervise contents of films; and thegovernment also specifies rating for every film. For instance, until September 2011, atotal of 22 films have been censored by Malaysian government due to severe sexualand violent content (FINAS, 2010). The government has also published some policies in regards with sexually explicitcontent on media by establishing the Communication and Multimedia Act 1998 whichstated “Forbidden dissemination of sexual content through Section 211 & 233 andindustry coordination under Content Code”. However, they still do not have completepower over the general implications of sexually explicit content on media in Malaysia(Legal Research Board, 1998). 9
    • Background As the above section has shown, it has become essential to understand howcontent on the television influences people that are considered to be part of the ‘youthdemographic’, as arguably, the youth represent the society of the future years to come.Hence, the current situation of sexual content on media in relation to the youth is thesole context of this research as it specifically intends to deal with how teenagers andadolescents are affected by the broadcasting of sex on television. Seeing the powerful role the television plays in the society, whether that oftutor, entertainer or perhaps an indoctrinator, and the varied yet alarming statisticsfrom previously collected data make it necessary to research further to find outexactly the extent, i.e. the amount as well as the frequency, to which the youth isexposed to instances of sex screened on the television today and the youth’s attitudetowards it all.Research Problem As discussed in the above sections, it is quite apparent that the amount ofsexual content on television is becoming more and more prevalent with each passingyear, slowly on its way to become a trend on television, as media already being astrong influence uses this as a way to gain more attention and popularity from theirviewers. Media portrayals can also play an important role in educating youths aboutsexuality but at the same have the potential to change the viewer’s attitudes andknowledge. Therefore, in light of all the factors discussed in the previous sections, thisresearch attempts to investigate the following research questions – 10
    • RQ1: To what extent is the youth population exposed to sexual content shown ontelevision today in Malaysia?RQ2: How does sexual content on television affect the youth of Malaysian Society interms of beliefs, behaviour, and emotions?RQ3: What is the attitude and level of acceptance among the youth in MalaysianSociety towards the amount of sexual content shown on television today? Objective Various data from past studies and analyses have shown a significant increasein the amount of sexual content on television over the years. For example, it wasreported by the Parents Television Council that sexual content had appeared in 64%of all American television programs in a sample of programming from the 2001-2002TV seasons. Moreover, those programs with sexually related material had an averageof 4.4 scenes per hour. However, the level of exposure to such content that theMalaysian youth is subjected to, is not yet entirely known. Therefore, the objective ofthis study is to find out the extent (amount and frequency) of the Malaysian youth’sexposure to sexual content on television. Furthermore, as stated in the previous sections, people spend a lot of their timewatching television and thus are also prone to being subjected to greater influence bycontent aired on television than any other media; and sexual content on television hasthus become a pressing issue for concern. Moreover, young people are considered themost vulnerable target for coming under the influence of “sexual media” as opposedto the older generation. For example, in a study conducted by RAND (2004), it wasfound that youths who were exposed to more sexual content were more likely to 11
    • initiate intercourse. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to investigate thepositive or negative effects that sexual content broadcasted on television can have onthe youth in Malaysian society, be it in terms of their beliefs, emotions or behaviors. Finally, it is also important to discover what the youth actually thinks aboutthis sexual content and the amount it is broadcasted in on the television. Finding thisout could help the government of Malaysia, as well as the parents of the youths, ingauging their current mindset regarding sexual media, and if unfavorable, perhaps tryto change it and steer them in a better direction. Therefore, the research also intends toexamine the youths’ level of acceptance towards sexual content on television and theirgeneral views on it.Significance of the Study The associations or people that may be interested in this research and itspotential results would be scholars, educators, parents, the government, and thetelevision industry. This research can be said to interest scholars and educators as the study helpsto fully understand the relationship between broadcast of sexual content on televisionin relation with youth. Looking at all the past researches conducted around similartopics dealing with ‘sexual media’ and adolescents, fellow mass media researchersmay be interested in the potential findings about the effects that sexual content ontelevision have on Malaysian youth, and perhaps wish to delve deeper into the topic.Lecturers and teachers may also be interested to know about these effects since theymay be studying a similar topic, or that the universities and schools may be willing tospread awareness am on such issues among its students. 12
    • Then, the potential results also have significance to parents of youths who maywish to know the effects sexual content have on their children, the level of acceptancethat they have towards ‘sexual media’ as well as their level of exposure to suchcontent. So, they can perhaps take some action like discussing their views andopinions on sex and sexual behaviours, and watching television along with theirchildren, thus reducing their exposure to and the negative effects of sexual content. Besides that, results about the youth’s acceptance levels of and exposure levelsto sexual content may also interest the government of Malaysia. This is due to the factthat this research is entirely restricted to television and youth in Malaysian society,and the government might be concerned with what the outcome of the study is –keeping in mind the welfare of the future of the nation which is in the youth’s hands.Moreover, it would also want to protect its traditional and cultural values and identity,and thus might want to look into issues such as censorship on television, or at leastlend a hand in reducing the amount of sexual content in entertainment programming. Finally, the results of the research may also be useful to various televisionindustries, especially the production houses, so that they can steer themselves in abetter direction – moving away from the trend of sexual content being aired ontelevision. 13
    • Literature Review As is apparent, the display of sexually explicit content on television hasalways been a matter of much concern among mass media researchers, and thisconcern has only increased year by year. A large portion of research related to sexualcontent on television has been devoted to examining the increasing amount of suchcontent on prime time television, commercials, and other programs, as well as on theeffects that ‘sexual media’ can inflict upon the knowledge, behaviour, and perceptionof its audience, particularly the younger audience. For instance, there have been many researches in the past that haveinvestigated the consumption of sexual content on media and its correlation withadolescent sexual behaviour, two of which are mentioned in this section. One of such researches is a longitudinal survey conducted by Rebecca L.Collins, Marc N. Elliott, Sandra H. Berry, David E. Kanouse, Dale Kunkel, Sarah B.Hunter and Angela Miu (Collins, et al., 2004) that examined whether watching sex ontelevision predicts adolescent initiation of sexual behaviour. 1762 adolescents from12-17 years of age, belonging to different nationalities such as Americans (77%),African-Americans (13%), Hispanic (7%), and Asians (4%), both males and females,were surveyed over telephone about their television viewing habits, sexual knowledge,attitudes, and behaviour, and then re-interviewed a year later. This research, based on its results, concluded that watching television canpredict and cause hastening of adolescent sexual initiation. Similarly, another research– an in-home longitudinal survey – conducted by Jane D. Brown, Kelly LadinL’Engle, Carol J. Pardun, Guang Guo, Kristin Kenneavy, and Christine Jackson 14
    • (Brown, et al., 2005) also produced similar results. It assessed whether exposure tosexual content in four mass media – television, movies, music, and magazine – usedby early adolescents predicts sexual behaviour in their middle adolescence. Therespondents were 1017 black and white adolescents from 14 middle schools inNorthern Carolina, and were all interviewed at baseline at the age of 12 or 14 years,and then again after a period of two years, to construct a new measure of each teen’ssexual media diet (SMD) by weighting the frequency of use of the four media by thefrequency of sexual content in each television show, movie, music album, andmagazine used by them regularly. The results answered the research question of ‘whether early adolescents withheavier sexual media diet are more likely than those with lighter SMD to have moreadvanced pre-coital and coital behaviour by middle adolescence’ in affirmative in thecase of white adolescents; however black teens on the other hand appeared moreinfluenced by perceptions of their parents’ expectations and their friends’ sexualbehaviour than by what they observed in media. Then, researches have also been conducted on assessing correlations betweenviewing of sexual content on television and sexual perceptions and attitudes amongyouth, and two such researches are highlighted in this section. One such survey research was conducted solely among 113 female studentsaged 18-24 years studying in a medium-sized Midwestern public university, by SarahLund and Lindsey Blaedon (Lund and Blaedon, 2003) to study the role of televisionin regards to sexual attitudes and perceptions. 15
    • The results supported one of the hypotheses that those participants exposed tosexually explicit videos before responding to sexual scenarios rated the scenarios asless sexual than those not exposed to the videos. However, no significant correlationswere found between amounts of television watched and sexual opinions, and neitherbetween variables measuring television habits and sexual and appropriateness ratings. Therefore, the primary hypothesis of this study that television habits aresignificantly related to sexual attitudes and perceptions was not supported. In contrast,another research on a similar topic carried out by L. Monique Ward and KimberlyFriedman (Ward and Friedman, 2006) three years later produced somewhatcontradicting results to Lund and Blaedon’s study (2003). In this research, an experimental and survey research was performed on 244students aged 14-18 years attending a college-oriented suburban high school in LongIsland, New York. Three hypotheses were tested– whether students exposed to clipsthat show sex as a form of recreation, flaunt women as sex objects, or men as sexdriven, would offer a stronger support of corresponding stereotypes about sexual orgender roles than students exposed to content that is not sexual; whether the levels ofexposure of students, their motives of viewing, and identification of characters relatesto their sexual attitudes; and whether several aspects of media use are associated withadolescents’ level of sexual experience. The support for first hypothesis was produced for only one of the three sexualstereotypes – students who had viewed women depicted as sex objects offeredstronger support for this notion. The second and the third hypotheses were supportedby the results completely as television viewing in its various forms was found to besignificantly correlated with sexual attitudes of students, and the greater the students 16
    • were exposed to sexually oriented genres, such as music videos and talks shows, thegreater they closely identified with famous characters and the bigger were their levelsof dating and sexual experience. Furthermore, researches have also been carried out about evaluatingadolescents’ use of media as a source of information, two of which are discussedbelow. One such research is the content analysis study by Enid Gruber and Joel WGrube (Gruber and Grube, 2000) which reviewed the scientific literature onadolescents and sex in the media – using searches of MEDLINE – and thepsychological and media literature, using Kaiser Family Foundation, the Centre forMedia Education, and other professional societies and organizations as some of theirsources. The study derived that adolescent sexuality is associated with media use, andthat adolescents are exposed to a large number of sexual images and messages ontelevision that are almost universally presented in a positive light, with littlediscussion on potential risks and adverse consequences. Most importantly, it wasconcluded that adolescents use the media as a source of information about sex, drugs,AIDS, and violence, as well as to learn how to behave in relationships. Then, a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study investigating a similar topicwas conducted by Chaohua Lou, Yan Cheng, Ersheng Gao, Xiayun Zuo, Mark R.Emerson, Laurie S. Zabin from 2006-2007 (Lou, et al., 2007). 17,016 Asianadolescents and young adults, aged 15-24 years, out of which 16,554 were unmarried,completed face-to-face interviews as well as computer-assisted self-based interviews 17
    • to fulfil the objective of the research which was to explore the associations betweenexposure to sexual content in the media and adolescents’ sex-related knowledge,attitudes, and behaviours. The study concluded from the results that access to and use of mass media andthe messages it presents are influential factors on sex-related knowledge, attitudes,and behaviours of unmarried Asian young adults, the results being slightly similar towhat was determined in the content analysis by Gruber and Grube (2000).Research Methodology This research would be carried out on the basis of the following methodology.Location and Population For the purpose of this research, the location from where the respondents willbe selected is restricted to Malaysian cities, and specifically those belonging tohouseholds in possession of at least one television set, since respondents falling underthis category can fulfil the research objectives most aptly. This research intends to investigate the sexual content on television and itsimpact on the youth in Malaysian society, thus the population for this research is thedemographic group of teenagers and adolescents ranging from the ages of 14 to 22years, inclusive of both males and females. The reason for choosing this particular agegroup is quite apparent – teenagers and adolescents are considered to have the highestrates of exposure to sexual content on the media, especially on television, and are alsoconsidered to have more vulnerable minds as compared to adults belonging to higherage groups. 18
    • Sample and Sampling Method It is not possible to examine an entire population due to time and resourceconstraints, therefore, a sample of respondents is chosen from the entire population. Asample is the subset of the population that represents the entire population. Thisresearch chooses a sample of 100 males and 100 females respectively from thepopulation of adolescents aged 14-22 years of age, studying in high schools andcolleges, living in cities, and owning one or more television sets at home. This studyis not restricted to one gender, thus samples of both genders are chosen. Also, onlythose that live in cities, own television sets, and are pursuing an education are chosensince they tend to have the highest exposure to ‘sexual media’. Moreover, the samplescannot be generalized to a very large population as this is treated as an exploratorystudy. In this research, nonprobability samples will be used, since using them allowsan easier investigation of the variable relationships between sexual content and itseffects on Malaysian youth. This also enables the collection of exploratory data todesign questionnaires or as a measurement instrument for a bigger research.Furthermore, the available/convenience type of nonprobability sample is chosen,since subjects are readily accessible, as for this research, 100 students (50 males and50 females) will be chosen from a high school, and 100 students (50 males and 50females) will be chosen from a college in the city. It will be ensured that all studentsstudying in the chosen high school and college have one or more television sets athome. Then, their e-mail ids will be obtained from the school and college studentdatabases respectively. The focus being teenagers and adolescents, enough content forthe research can be gathered using this sample itself. 19
    • Data Collection Method and Research Instrument The data collection method of this study is Survey Questionnaire. Surveys willbe conducted using the online survey method as the topic of ‘sexual media’ is quitesensitive and may cause respondents to be uncomfortable if asked questions in directconversation. The questionnaires will be distributed via e-mail to the students. The research instrument to be used in the research is the survey questionnaire.The respondents are asked questions that can ultimately lead to finding out theanswers to the three research questions. The demographics of the respondents are alsoinquired in the end, though their identities will be kept anonymous. Once the research instrument is distributed, data will be collected andanalyzed, and the results and findings will be presented.Research Instrument: Survey Questionnaire1. How many hours a day do you usually watch television? a) 1-2 b) 3-4 c) 5 or above d) I don’t watch television2. What kind of shows do you usually watch on television? (Tick all that apply) Music videos Dramas Sitcoms Documentaries Others ____________ 20
    • 3. What do you consider as ‘sexual content’ on a television program or commercial? (Tick all that apply) Scenes inclusive of any type of kissing, hugging, and touching Scenes inclusive of baring body parts such as back, tummy, chest etc. Scenes inclusive of touching intimate body parts Scenes inclusive of intercourse and oral sex. Other _____________4. On a scale of 1-10, 10 being the highest, rate the following programs on the amount of sexual content you expect them to show: a) Reality shows – b) b) Drama – c) Music Videos – d) News – e) Documentaries – 21
    • 5. In one day, how much time do you think you spend watching sexual content, unintentionally (via commercials etc.) or intentionally, aired on television? a) None b) 15 minutes-30 minutes c) 1-2 hours d) 3 or more hours6. Do you feel comfortable watching scenes containing sexual content? a) Yes, comfortable enough b) No, not comfortable at all. c) I simply do not mind watching such scenes. d) I like watching them e) Other ___________7. Have you ever dreamt about or imagined similar scenarios of the scenes containing sexual content? a) Yes, I dream or imagine it every time I watch it b) Yes, frequently c) Yes, but only some times. d) No, never. e) Other__________8. How do you feel after watching sexual content on television? a) Disturbed b) Aroused 22
    • c) Indifferent d) Other__________9. Do you watch programs containing sexual content with your family members around? a) Yes, I don’t have any problem b) Yes, but I am not very comfortable with it c) No, I watch them when I am alone d) I never watch such programs e) Other ___________10. Have any of your actions ever been encouraged by the sexual content shown on television? If yes, justify. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________11. Has the portrayal of sexual content on television changed any of your opinions or beliefs about how you viewed sex previously? If yes, how? If no, why not? ____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________12. Would you watch a television program inclusive of sexual content willingly? a) Yes b) No 23
    • 13. State your opinion on the broadcast of sexual content on television on the scale below: Very Somewhat Neither Somewhat Very much muchMakes me open- Makes meminded conservative and shyDegrades moral and Doesn’t affecttraditional values values and traditionsI like it I dislike it 14. According to you, shows containing sexual content should be (tick all that apply): Restricted to hours after 10 PM Be under Pay-Per-View section Censored I think the way they are run now, is fine Other ______________ 15. On a scale of 1-10, 10 being the highest, rate your tolerance level of sexual content on television: 24
    • Demographics:1. Your age group: a) 14-15 years b) 16-17 years c) 18-19 years d) 20-22 years2. Your race: a) Indian b) Malay c) Chinese d) Other_____3. Occupation: a) School student b) University student c) Employee in a company d) Other ______4. Gender: Male Female 25
    • ReferencesAnon, 2011, Two New Studies Address Psychological Impact of the Media,goodtherapy.org Therapy News, [blog] 5th July, Available at:<http://www.goodtherapy.org/blog/psychological-impact-media-youth/> [Accessed17 May 2012].Anon, n.d., Television Programme Production, Mass Communication, [pdf] Availableat: http://download.nos.org/srsec335new/ch16.pdf [Accessed 12 May 2012].Associated Press, 2005, Reality TV in Malaysia Stirs Controversy, ABC13, [online]Available at:<http://abclocal.go.com/ktrk/story?section=news/entertainment&id=3435778>[Accessed 11 May 2012]Badruddin, M. N. 2005, Hiburan Reality TV Perlu Dihalusi, Harian Metro, p.10.Berita Harian, August 31, p. 16.Brown, J. D., et al., 2006, Sexy media matter: Exposure to sexual content in music,movies, television, and magazine predicts black and white adolescents’ sexualbehaviour, Pediatrics [online] Available at:<http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/117/4/1018.full.html> [Accessed 12 May2012].Collins, R.L. et al., 2004, Watching Sex on Television Predicts Adolescent Initiationof Sexual Behavior, Pediatrics: Official Journal of the American Academy ofPediatrics [e-journal] 114 (3) Available through:<http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/114/3/e280.full> [Accessed 18 May2012]. 26
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