Broadcasting: TV Programs on Air


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A brief but educational presentation on how TV programs are made and go on air.

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Broadcasting: TV Programs on Air

  1. 1. A Presentation on:“TV PROGRAMS ONAIR” Group members:  Aditi Verma  Brenda Yeoh  Brandy Chai  Chelsea Orie  Brynn Z. Lovett
  2. 2. • Television: Most widely-used means of mass communication.• There are 112.3 million television households in the United States; the average home has more television sets (2.73) than people (2.55; Average, 2006)! {Baran, S.J., 2010}.
  3. 3. Organization of the Broadcast Industry• Two types of television systems in the Broadcast Television Industry:1. Commercial Television system2. Non-Commercial Television system• FCC – Federal Communications Commission• The TV industry is classified into1. Production2. Distribution3. Exhibition
  4. 4. Ownership In The Television Industry:• All major networks in the industry are owned by conglomerates such as NBC, ABC, Fox etc.• Telecommunications Act allowed a person or organization to own unlimited number of TV stations < 39% of the US population (2008).Producing Television Programs:• A TV station divided into 5 departments namely Sales, Engineering, Production/Programming, News and Administration.• There is a station manager who is the chief of all the station activities.Getting TV Programs on Air:• News• Interview programmes• Prime time shows
  5. 5.  Almost every station has a studio that contains a set for one or two anchor-people, a weather forecaster, and a sports-caster (Dominick, J. R., 2011). News director for the station allocates the stories to the reporters and the camera crews. They then do the video-recording of the report by going to the scene of the story. Meanwhile, the newscast producer and the news director decide what stories would be aired and in what time slots. This schedule is drawn up while the reporters and the camera crews arrive with their stories. It is then the job of the reporters to write copies of the stories and the editors to prepare the segments of the videotape.
  7. 7. Slides by Brynn
  8. 8.  Two individuals A host and an artist / experienced individual Example : Charlie Rose / Jeff Randall Live - Local Program presented by WNET - One hour show every night
  9. 9.  Consists of segments videotaped on location Later edited into final form Provides a variety of topics Format in an interview or commentary
  10. 10.  America’s Next Top Model - appeal to both men and women - competition, age and popularity - emotional attachment American Idol - celebrity judges - appropriate for all ages
  11. 11. PILOT. Two And A Half MenPilot is the first episode of every series.Pilot is very important because we do not know if theaudience may like it. Thus, “If the idea looks promising thenetwork and the producer will enter a contract of a pilot”(Dominick, J.R.,2011).When a pilot show gets good attention from genuineaudience, five or six episodes that are produced may beordered by the network and may show them in the next fallschedule. Slides by: Brenda
  12. 12.  “From the hundreds of ideas that are sent to the network, only a few ever make it to prime time”. (Dominick, J.R.,2011) If the ratings of a program is successful, then as expected, few episodes will be ordered by the network for the rest of the season. In the meantime, network executives carefully going through the hundreds of program ideas for the coming season and the whole process will repeat once again.
  13. 13. Slides by Chelsea
  14. 14.  Prime time is when the viewing of television is at its highest. In the Eastern and Pacific time zones, it is from 7 – 11 pm and in the Central and Mountain time zones prime time is 6 – 10 pm. (Mitchell E. Shapiro, Primetime, viewed 17 September 2011, e=primetime)
  15. 15.  It all starts from an idea. Hundreds of ideas are received every year (ex. From independent producers, network employees, amateurs) From hundreds, 50 – 75 would be selected The list is trimmed again after examining the plot outlines and background sketches of the potential series. A request of a sample script is made by the networks.
  16. 16. An American sitcom about the main character, TedMosby, telling his kids in 2030 of how he met theirmotherBroadcasted by the network CBSShow starts at 8pmVery popularReasons why – it reminds most viewers of anothershow called ‘Friends’ the actors and actresses acting in it already had theirfan base from other shows the way of how the story is told intrigues viewers –keeps them wanting to know who Ted will eventuallymarry
  17. 17. Where Did The Money Go? Network programming is quite expensive and the cost varies on the type of show. Quiz and reality shows are much cheaper to produce than sitcoms, dramas etc. Rating And Network Executing: • National Advertisers • Local Advertisers • National Spot AdvertisersSlides by Brandy
  18. 18. Measuring TV Viewing Nielsen Ratings are coupled with detailed analysis of consumer viewing behavior and demographic information.(Nielsen.nd) Deciding factor in canceling/ renewing television shows by television networks.
  19. 19. Nielsen Media TV Rating Collect data through Nielson Television Index Using a device called People Meter (>12000) Portable People MeterLocal- Market TV Rating Surveys more than 200 markets Diary & electronic meter techniques( Set Meter & Local People Meter) Collect more than 2 million papers diaries during the “sweep” every year.
  20. 20.  “Sweep” happen 4 times a year (Feb, May, July,& Nov) to measure the local television market in the entire country. Nielsen long-term plans call for the phasing out of paper diaries. C3 rating defined as the rating of the average commercial minute including live viewing & DVD playback within 3 days.(Dominick.J.R.,2011,pg 252)
  21. 21. Ratings Reporting Rating= Number of households watching a program divided by total number of TV household (TV HH) Share of Audience = Number of households watching a program divided by households using television at that time. (HUT)
  22. 22. Determining accuracy of Rating Media Ratings Council (MRC) previous named Electronic Media Rating Council(EMRC) Monitors Audits ratingsBroadcast ratings are still criticized by the public. Participants may have different viewer habits Nielsen reports based on the 55% of the diaries sent out, it is possible that “returners” behave differently from “nonreturners” .(Dominick.J.R.,2011,pg 253) Ratings companies having difficulties to measure the viewing of a certain groups. Exp: Stations that are being measured engage promotions to “hype” the rating.
  23. 23. Example of the diary that used to collect the rating of TVprogram.
  24. 24. Television Audiences TV set has become firmly entrenched in America. In year 2009, 99% of all homes in the country have at least 1 working TV set; 75% have more than 1. TV audience change in daily, it’s grow from 7 A.M., reaches high peak from 8.A.M to 11 P.M. and drops again after 11 P.M.
  25. 25. Viewing is heaviest: Winter months & smallest during July and August(outdoor activities) Preschool & female viewers dominate during day time hour, from Mon-Fri Saturday morning viewers are under13; prime time viewers are those in 18-49 year-old. People with low in-come Female viewersFactors affect viewership: Age Sex Social class Education
  26. 26. Career Prospects• Not very bright• Further declines• Better at Local level
  27. 27. Presenters: Slides by:Brynn Z Lovett Brenda YeohAditi Verma Brandy Chai Chelsea Orie Brynn Z. Lovett Aditi Verma
  28. 28. References:• Baran, S.J., 2010, Introduction to Mass Communication: Media Literacy and Culture, 6th edition, McGraw-Hill.• Dominick, J. R. (2011);The Dynamics of Mass Communications: Media in Transition, 11th edn; McGraw Hill; Boston• CBS, 2011.Most Popular Reality TV Shows. Interactive inc. <>• Nielsen, ND, Television Measurement. viewed by 13th September 2011.• Museum TV, http://www.museumtv/eotvsection.php?entrycode=primetime• Quora,