All construction stakeholders are responsible for safety and health at construction site Contractor Sub contractor Client Consultants Authority Workers
Construction is the most dangerous land- based work sector Average of 5000 construction accidents cases reported Construction has about 6% of Malaysian. workers, but 20% of the fatalities - the largest number of fatalities reported by industry sector. It is re very difficult to control construction hazards and risks in a constantly changing work environment
The concise Oxford Dictionary defines risk (noun) in terms of a hazard, chance, bad consequences, loss, etc., exposure to mischance. It defines risk (verb) in terms of: to expose to chance of injury or loss, venture on, accept the chance of.
In professionals in the field of Occupational Safety, Health and Environmental : Hazard is the potential to cause harm Any facility, location, equipment, tool, job, task, or action that presents a potential of serious injury, loss or death Example : ???
Falling hazards Electrical hazards Struck by hazards Caught in between hazards Overhead Hazards, Objects Falling Cranes, Rigging Scaffolding, Shoring, Props Temporary Floors Access and Egress to Work Areas Concrete Placing Emergency Rescue Considerations Cranes and Hoisting Floor and Shaft Openings Copyright Fadzil_Hassan @ CPIM, FSPU, UiTM
Risk isthe likelihood of harm (in defined circumstances, and usually qualified by some statement of the severity of the harm).
Risk levels are categorized in a numbered format. Each hazard is given a rating and this is multiplied by the probability that these hazards will occur, as shown in the following equation. Risk level = Hazard severity x Likelihood of occurrence Step OneGive each hazard a severity marking as indicated in the table below:Risk Level Effect of hazard 5 Fatal injury 4 Permanent disabling injury 3 Disabling injury 2 Injury causing time off work 1 First aid only For example: If slipping on the stairs (hazard), could result in death or disablement, then it must be given a rating of 4 or 5.
Step TwoThe next step is to consider how often each hazard is likely to occur as indicated in the table below Risk Level Likelihood of occurrence 5 Certain 4 Near certain 3 Very likely 2 Frequent 1 SeldomFor example:If slipping on the stairs (hazard), was very likely to happen, then it must be given a rating of 3.
Step ThreeMultiply the two scores together and you will get the risk level.For example: 5 (hazard) multiplied by 3 (occurrence) = 15This figure should be entered into the risk assessment form. Step FourThe following bullet points are guidelines to help how quickly you need to put the controls in place Where hazard is given a risk ranking of 22-25 then action must be taken immediately to reduce that risk. Where hazard is given a risk ranking of 16-22 then the manager must be informed for the action to be taken at the end of that working day. Where hazard is given a risk ranking of between 1-15, then action needs to be taken at the earliest opportunity, as soon as it is reasonably practicable to do so, taking into account local circumstances.
Employers must ensure that risks are reduced to the lowest extent reasonably practicable. Thelegal definition of reasonably practicable is any measure which can be reasonably carried out having regard to technical knowledge and acceptable expense.
The leading safety hazards on site are: - falls from height, - equipment crashes - excavation accidents - electrocution - struck by falling objects. Some of the main health hazards on site are: - asbestos - solvents - noise - manual handling activities - dengue Copyright Fadzil_Hassan @ CPIM, FSPU, UiTM
Construction Hazard is a situation that poses a level of threat to life, health, property, or environment Most hazards are dormant or potential, with only a theoretical risk of harm However, once a hazard becomes "active", it can create an emergency situation. Construction Hazard: - Hazards to construction workers - Hazards to non-workers Copyright Fadzil_Hassan @ CPIM, FSPU, UiTM
• Lack of trained workers and competent site supervisors• Lack of occupational safety and health information, training materials, courses and programmes• Lack of standard guidelines on construction industry requirements for the development of safety and health solutions in the industry;• Poor enforcement Copyright Fadzil_Hassan @ CPIM, FSPU, UiTM
Lack of communication between those in charge of construction processes and the workers executing them; Misconception that occupational safety and health protection is an unnecessary expenditure that can be saved; Lack of information and know- how’s on occupational safety and health latest technology; Copyright Fadzil_Hassan @ CPIM, FSPU, UiTM
Senior managers of the construction industry do not understand the benefits of having occupational safety and health programs Inadequate budget and unclear specification on safety and health requirements in construction projects Lack of enforcement on mandatory safety requirements. Copyright Fadzil_Hassan @ CPIM, FSPU, UiTM
Employers Liability Public Liability Product Liability Motor Vehicle
Product and material damage Lost production time Legal costs Overtime & temporary labour Investigation time/Administration Supervisors time Fines Loss of expertise/experience Loss of morale Bad publicity
Contractor (15 workers) Scaffolding collapse 4 Workers fall from height 2 employees died, 2 injured -12 days in hospital Off work for 3 months Admin duties for 5 months Unable to work for 8 months Managing Director Prosecuted Stop work order for investigation
Wages for injured worker over period = 10000Lost production/remedial work required = 8000Overtime wages to cover lost production = 3000Wages for replacement worker = 7000Loss of time of manager/MD = 4000Legal expenses =3000Fines and court costs = 4000Increase in Insurance Premiums = 6000New scaffolding = 5000 Total cost to business = RM50,000
Limitation of PPE PPE does not eliminate a hazard source If PPE fails and failure is not detected, the hazard increases greatly E. R. Vaidogas, OSH in Construction 36
The main types of PPE Hearing protection Eye protectionRespiratory protection Protective clothing E. R. Vaidogas, OSH in Construction 37
Hazards related to hearing protection Ear plugs do not reduce the sound transmitted through the bone around the ear Wrongly-used and poorly-fitted ear muffs can loose much of their protection E. R. Vaidogas, OSH in Construction 38
Hazards related to eye protection Safety spectacles do not assist against dust Safety goggles have the tendency to mist up inside and provide limited vision Face shields restrict the vision, are heavy and expensive E. R. Vaidogas, OSH in Construction 39
Hazards related to respiratory protection Most equipment will not provide total protection May restrict vision Can be uncomfortable or cumbersome to wear E. R. Vaidogas, OSH in Construction 40
Hazards related to protective clothing PVC clothing can be uncomfortable to wear and cause stress and fatigue Helmets and bump caps have limited useful life Gloves can be entangled in machinery E. R. Vaidogas, OSH in Construction 41
Safety harnesses: fall from height hazard E. R. Vaidogas, OSH in Construction 42
Safety harnesses: typical occupationsWork at height Confined space entry E. R. Vaidogas, OSH in Construction 43
Safety harnesses Do not replace effective fall prevention practices May induce impact effect in the case of a fall Restrict comfort and freedom of movement E. R. Vaidogas, OSH in Construction 44
A social safety scheme through the insurance to cover the workers in the accidents factors. Two type of scheme social security namely Skim Insurans Bencana Pekerjaan and Skim Pencen Ilat. Skim Insurans Bencana Pekerjaan give protection to workers from jobdisaster including disease and accident during trip to work Skim Pencen Ilat on the other hand give protection 24 hours to staff on diability or death result any reason. both scheme ensure cash benefit payment to staff and liability person when incident happened to the employee.
National Institute of Safety and Health (NIOSH) was established on 1st December 1992 Promote Occupational Safety and Health. Role: - Ensure a safe and healthy working environment to all employees and others involved in or affected by its operations. - Provide training program for the works. - Review all safety and health management systems and program to ensure continuous improvement.
Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 provide for the appointments of enforcement officers, establishment of National Council for Occupational Safety and Health, formation of policy and arrangement of measures to protect safety, health and welfare of people at work and others who might be endangered by the activities of people at work. With the approval of this Act, starting from April 1994 the Department of Factory and Machinery has been renamed as the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) and the Inspectors are called Occupational Safety and Health Officers. The powers to enforce, to inspect and the liabilities for breaking the law are defined. Industrial sectors that are covered by it are as follows: Manufacturing mining and quarrying Construction agriculture, forestry and fishing utilities - gas, electric, water and sanitary services transport, storage and communication wholesale and retail traders hotels and restaurants finance, insurance, real estate, business service public services and statutory authorities