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Indian librarian Shiyali Ramamrita Ranganathan introduced the Colon Classificationsystem, which classifies all knowledge into broad, fundamental concepts. The Colonsystem then divides these concepts into several distinguishing characteristics, whichRanganathan called facets. The classification system uses colons (:) to distinguishbetween the various facets in a single notation. The name of the Colon Classificationsystem is derived from its use of the colon in its notation scheme. Although use of theColon Classification system is limited to a few Indian libraries, Ranganathan’s concept offacet analysis in classifying knowledge has been widely influential. Some of its keyconcepts have been adopted by subsequent editions of the Dewey and Universal systems,among others.Libraries that serve users in very specialized fields of knowledge may also develop theirown classification systems. They are especially likely to do so if the major libraryclassifications do not adequately provide for the organization of the literature theycollect. For example, organizations specializing in the study of mathematics developedthe Mathematics Subject Classification to categorize material on advanced mathematicaltheory covered in specialized academic journals. The Mathematics Subject Classificationallows mathematicians to classify works to a much greater degree of specificity than anyof the major systems would allow.Numerous classification systems have been created for use in other special libraries aswell. The National Library of Medicine classification system, for example, has beenadopted by most major medical libraries in the United States. That system, which isstructured like the Library of Congress Classification, uses the letter W (unused by theLibrary of Congress system) for medical works. It also takes advantage of unused parts ofthe Library of Congress Classification class Q, for science. For other subject areas, theNational Library of Medicine system applies the Library of Congress Classificationunchanged.Subject HeadingsMany single works in a library deal with multiple subjects. These works may be difficultto classify using traditional classification systems such as Dewey Decimal Classificationor Library of Congress Classification, because these systems typically assign only oneclassification number to each item. As a result, only one subject is represented, and thework’s other topics are not expressed in the classification number. Users searching thelibrary’s catalog under one of the alternate topics would never find that particular work.To avoid this problem, most libraries also identify their materials with subject headings,which assign multiple index terms to a work. This enables users to find works using anyof a number of different search terms. Subject headings may be single words, compoundwords, or phrases that describe the subjects of a given document. Subject headings areparticularly useful for executing online searches, which allow for a high degree offlexibility in identifying search terms.In the United States, the two most frequently used systems for creating subject headingsare those developed by the Library of Congress (LC) and the Sears List. The LC subject
headings, first introduced in 1914, provide detailed terms for a vast number of topics. TheLC headings are used in academic libraries, medium-sized to large public libraries, andmany special libraries. The Sears List, developed in 1923 by American librarian MinnieEarl Sears, consists of a much smaller set of terms and is designed primarily for publicand school libraries. The two lists are not entirely compatible and cannot be used in thesame catalog.Unlike index entries in an individual book, subject headings are generally used only if amajor portion of the work deals with that particular subject. Under Library of Congressguidelines, at least 20 percent of a document must address a given subject for asubheading on that subject to be assigned to the book. Examples of LC subject headingsinclude:RiversFunctional literacyGroup homes for childrenEducation, PreschoolBurnout (Psychology)All of the works in a library’s collection that deal with rivers in general would be listed inthe catalog under the “Rivers” subject heading. Works dealing with a specific river, suchthe Mississippi River, would be indexed under the name of that river. “Rivers” is arelatively straightforward subject; subject headings may also represent complex conceptsfor works dealing with more than one theme. In order to express complex subjects,catalogers add subdivisions to the basic headings. These subdivisions can indicate, forexample, specific time frames (20th century, 1860s, Middle Ages), geographical areas(Cairo, Pennsylvania, Canada), or the form of the document (bibliography, dictionary,fiction). Subdivisions may be added to the basic heading or combined with othersubdivisions. They are usually separated from the subject heading by dashes. Forexample, the book National Dreams: Myth, Memory, and Canadian History (1997), byDaniel Francis, is listed under the following LC subject headings. Users could find thebook by searching under any one of these headings:Group identity—CanadaPopular culture—CanadaCanada—HistoryOnline computer catalogs provide far greater power for subject searching than do book orcard catalogs. Most online catalogs allow users to execute keyword searches by using oneor more of the important words in the subject-heading string. In keyword searching,library users can locate the subject heading “Universities and colleges—Graduate work—Examinations” simply by entering the words universities and examinations. This willretrieve catalog entries for all the library’s works on that subject. The keyword approachresults in larger, less-targeted retrievals, often requiring the catalog user to review manyrecords to find the works desired. The great advantage of keyword searching is thatcatalog users do not have to be familiar with the exact wording of the subject heading to
locate desired items. In addition, they can easily browse large numbers of related workswithout having to physically locate the items on the shelves. D. Locating Library MaterialsVisitors to a library can locate materials in different ways, depending on their ownparticular needs and interests. Someone looking for recreational reading material maywish to simply browse through the library’s selection of recently published best-sellers.Libraries typically maintain a section that showcases these popular materials. Most users,however, come to the library in search of information about a particular subject. Thereference desk is often the best place for these users to start their search, becausereference librarians are trained to help library users locate the materials they need.However, users must also learn how to search for information themselves if they are tomake the best use of the resources the library has to offer.Searching for and locating relevant information requires careful thought and strategy.Users can often find answers to their questions by first looking through general referencesources, such as encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, and other materials that are usuallylocated near the library’s reference desk. These sources can provide overviews of thesubject that may lead to more-detailed sources of information. Users looking for a widerange of literature on a particular subject can search through the library’s catalog, whichprovides an index of the library’s collection. In addition, users can search through variousother indexes, abstracts, and databases. These sources provide references to relevantmagazine and journal articles. The Internet can also be a useful source of information. 1 . Searching the CatalogLibrary users can generally find the information they need by searching the library’scatalog, which is an index to all the materials in the library’s collection. Catalog entriestypically list each item’s author, its title, its subjects, the date it was published, the nameof its publisher, and for some materials, the names of editors, illustrators, or translators.Users can search for items in most online catalogs by entering keywords in any of thesecategories. Users of specialized collections might have the option of searching for othercharacteristics of library materials as well. A rare-book collection, for example, mightallow users to search for materials by the name of the printer or binder of the book.By searching through the catalog, users can easily determine whether the library ownsworks by a particular author or whether it has a work with a specific title. For example,consider a user searching for the book What Is Natural: Coral Reef Crisis (1999), by JanSapp. This user could simply conduct a title search of the catalog by typing in What Is
Natural: Coral Reef Crisis. Or, by searching under the last name of the author, Sapp, theuser could see whether the library has this book or other works by that author.Searching for materials on a particular subject can be more difficult than searching formaterials by authors or title. Before beginning a subject search, the user should firstcarefully consider various aspects of the information needed, identifying keywords andsignificant concepts associated with the given subject. These words and concepts canfunction as possible search terms. If searching under one term turns up too many possibleworks to realistically examine, a more specific term might be more useful. Likewise, if asearch term reveals too few items, the user might achieve more productive results bysearching under a more general term.Some libraries feature union catalogs, which list the holdings of multiple libraries. Userscan search union catalogs for materials that are unavailable at their local library but thatmay be accessible through interlibrary loan. For more information on library catalogs, seethe subsection Catalogs in the Organization of Resources section of this article. 2 . Searching Indexes, Abstracts, and DatabasesEven though library catalogs contain listings for every item in a given library’scollection, catalogs do not list individual articles in the library’s magazines and scholarlyjournals. To find details of articles on a given subject, library users must consult indexes,abstracts, or databases. These resources provide information on articles contained inperiodicals, which are publications such as newspapers, magazines, and journals that areissued at regular intervals. Each index, abstract, or database typically focuses on aparticular subject or range of related subjects. For example, some indexes list informationabout articles on art, whereas others contain information about articles on medical issues.An index of periodicals lists citations containing bibliographic information about eacharticle, including article title, author, publication title, and date of publication. An abstractcontains the same information that a periodical index contains, as well as a paragraph oreven a few paragraphs summarizing the article. Library databases are indexes andabstracts organized for easy access on a computer. Library databases are typically storedon CD-ROM or accessed via the Internet. Nearly all libraries have printed abstracts andindexes of periodical literature, but periodical information at most libraries is morecomplete on computer databases.The Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature is the best-known print index to English-language periodicals of general interest. Published twice per month, the Reader’s Guidelists articles in more than 150 magazines commonly subscribed to by public and schoollibraries. It arranges its listings alphabetically by author and subject, but not by title. TheReader’s Guide generally lists six pieces of information in each citation: article title,author, publication title, volume number, page number(s), and date of publication. TheReader’s Guide is cumulated regularly. This means that listings in the latest issues are
merged with the previous issue, so that to find recent articles, users need to consult onlytwo or three issues of the Reader’s Guide. Each of the older, bound volumes of theReader’s Guide covers a two-year period. Some smaller libraries subscribe only to theAbridged Reader’s Guide, which indexes about 45 magazines. The Reader’s Guide seriescontains listings as far back as 1890. An earlier index, Poole’s Index, provides referenceinformation for English-language articles published from 1802 to 1890. Although theReader’s Guide is still available in public and school libraries, most library patrons nowuse computer databases to find magazine and journal articles.Computer databases typically cover a particular subject or range of subjects. Forexample, the PsychLIT database contains bibliographic information on articles in thefield of psychology. The Modern Language Association Bibliography contains citationsfor articles in the arts and humanities. The Educational Resources Information Center(ERIC) maintains a database of articles from education journals. Most databases offeronly indexed or abstracted information, but some databases, known as full-text databases,provide the entire text of articles. Searching strategies can vary considerably from onedatabase to the next, but most databases give tips to guide users in searching theparticular database. In addition, reference librarians are specially trained to assist users insearching through databases.Many public, academic, and school libraries have compendiums of computer databases,such as the InfoTrac catalogs of databases. Introduced in 1985, InfoTrac catalogsintegrate many different kinds of databases into a single collection that can be accessedon CD-ROM or via the Internet. For example, patrons of public or academic libraries canuse a single InfoTrac catalog to search computer databases of general interest magazines,government publications, academic journals, legal publications, and health-relatedperiodicals. InfoTrac catalogs in school libraries may be tailored to support classroomassignments at various grade levels. These catalogs typically include computer databasescontaining the full text of articles in leading magazines, newspapers, and reference books. 3 . Finding Materials on the Library ShelvesCatalog citations indicate each item’s call number, which classifies the subject of thework and also identifies the item’s location on the library shelves. After finding an itemin the catalog, a user can refer to maps in the library indicating the general placement ofworks within a wide range of call numbers. For example, a library using the Library ofCongress Classification system might place together on one floor all of its works withcall numbers ranging from H (social sciences) through P (languages and literature).Another floor might hold the library’s works with call numbers ranging from Q (science)through Z (library science). Signs on each row of shelves indicate the more specific rangeof materials located there. For example, one row of shelves might contain works withLibrary of Congress call numbers from PS3511 through PS3523. Each book in thelibrary’s collection will display the call number on the book’s spine or on the outside ofthe back cover. Because call numbers indicate the subject content of a given work as well
as its location, once a user finds one relevant item on the shelf, he or she may find otheruseful items simply by browsing through the materials in the same location.Finding periodicals in the library is similar to finding books. After a user finds a usefularticle citation in a library database, abstract, or index, he or she must determine whetherthe library owns the periodical in which the article appears. The user can determinewhether the library owns the publication by conducting a search of the library’s catalogby publication title. Most libraries arrange all of their periodicals in one general locationin the library. Therefore, if the library subscribes to the periodical in question, the usercan generally find the publication by searching for the magazine or journal title on theshelves of the periodical section. Some libraries also maintain periodical archives onmicrofilm (a small roll of film printed with rows of very small images that can be viewedusing a library’s microfilm viewer), microfiche (similar to microfilm, but printed on asmall sheet), and CD-ROM.The shelves on which a library’s materials are arranged are known as stacks. Open stacksare accessible to patrons for selecting their own books and other materials. Some librarieshave such large collections that many books have to be kept in closed stacks, which arenot open to the public. To obtain books from closed stacks, the patron fills out a call slip,writing on it the call number, author, and title of the requested book. A librarian thengives the patron a number, which is also written on the slip. A library assistant finds thebook in the closed stacks. In large libraries the number given to the patron may be flashedon a lighted board when the book is ready to be picked up. V. BORROWING LIBRARY MATERIALSThe great majority of libraries allow users to borrow materials from their collections, andmany public libraries consider this their most important service to users. Libraries thatlend their materials to users are known as circulating libraries or lending libraries. Usersborrow library materials from the circulation department, which keeps track of thelibrary’s collections. The circulation desk is typically located near the entrance of thelibrary. To ensure equitable distribution of materials among different users, librariesestablish policies about who can borrow items, which items may be borrowed, for howlong they may be borrowed, and what happens when an item is not returned on time. A. RegistrationTo borrow library materials, a user must be registered with the library’s circulationdepartment. The registration procedure involves recording the user’s name, address,telephone number, and other basic information. Upon registration, the library usuallyprovides users with a library circulation card in addition to a printed handout with
information about the library’s hours, any fines charged for overdue books, descriptionsof various library services, and other information. Most public libraries limit registrationto residents of the area served by the library. Public libraries generally allow children toborrow materials, but parents or guardians usually must sign the registration form toverify their consent and to assume responsibility for any borrowed items. College,university, school, and special libraries generally require users to be affiliated with theparent institution to borrow library materials. Libraries of all types usually exclude thosewho have abused the library’s circulation policies in the past by failing to return items. B. Circulating and Noncirculating ItemsIn most lending libraries, selected items of the collection are unavailable for circulation.For example, libraries generally do not lend general reference books, in order that thesepopular items are available to all users at any given time. Libraries also rarely lendcurrent issues of magazines and journals, although some libraries bind older issuestogether and allow users to borrow them. In addition, libraries usually do not lend rare,fragile, or expensive items that they could not afford to replace if the items were lost ordamaged. C. Circulation Systems Automated Library CirculationIn the past, a lending library attached pocket envelopes containing circulation cards toeach circulating item in its collection. When a user wished to check out a book from thelibrary, the circulation desk would record the due date and the user’s name on the card.Libraries used the information printed on these cards to monitor and control thecirculation of their collections. Libraries would also replace the card with a slip of paperindicating the due date for the user. To remind users of the borrowing period, thecirculation desk also generally stamped a due date on a slip attached to the item.Today, most libraries use optical scanners to read and record information on barcodelabels attached to library materials and on user identification cards. Using this automatedsystem, libraries can quickly and accurately determine the status of borrowed items,monitor overdue materials, and inventory library collections. As in the past, however,circulation desks continue to record the due date on a slip attached to each borroweditem.
D. Borrowing PeriodsMost public libraries allow users to borrow materials for two to four weeks. However,some libraries establish shorter borrowing periods for selected popular items—such asnew best-selling novels, popular nonfiction, and videos—so that greater numbers of usersmay have access to them. Libraries also try to provide greater access to popular materialsby stocking multiple copies of these items, so that even if one or two copies are lent out,additional copies may remain for other users. Public libraries often allow users to borrowfine art, such as framed prints or photographs, for longer periods, sometimes as long assix months.Most libraries allow users to reserve or place holds on items already borrowed by anotheruser. When a user places a hold on a particular item, the library adds her name to a list ofpeople waiting for that same item. When the item becomes available, the library contactsthe user by phone, mail, or e-mail. Most libraries allow users to renew borrowedmaterials for another complete borrowing period if there are no other users waiting forthe same items. Libraries with automated circulation systems typically allow users torenew their borrowed materials over the telephone or through e-mail. E. Overdue PoliciesWhen borrowed items become overdue, libraries send users an overdue notice,sometimes followed by a telephone call. If the item is still not returned after a timeestablished by the library’s circulation policies, the library sends the borrower a finaloverdue notice or a bill listing any fines the user has incurred. Most libraries suspend auser’s borrowing privileges after the user fails to return items. An increasing number oflibraries also have a policy of using collection agencies or credit bureaus to collect finesfor long-overdue materials. F. Interlibrary LoansMost circulation departments provide interlibrary loan services, which allow users torequest items from other libraries that participate in interlibrary loan networks.Interlibrary loans give users access to resources not available in their own libraries.However, most libraries limit the kinds of materials that are available in an interlibraryloan. For example, videos, sound recordings, and computer software are often notavailable through interlibrary loan even though they may be borrowed directly from thelibrary that maintains these items. In large library systems, the circulation department at
the central library generally coordinates interlibrary distribution of library materials tousers of the various branches who request these items.Library users typically request interlibrary loan materials at the circulation desk of theirlocal library. Users with connections to the Internet can access the catalogs of remotelibraries online. That way the users can determine whether these libraries own desiredmaterial and whether that material is available through interlibrary loan. In addition,online users can often request items directly from a remote library that participates in aninterlibrary loan network with the user’s local library. When users request materialsthrough an interlibrary loan program, the materials from the remote library are usuallydelivered to the user’s local library through mail or delivery services. Increasingly,however, libraries share copies of materials using the Internet or facsimile transmissions(faxes). This enables libraries to share subscriptions to expensive journals, reduceinstitutional costs, and save space on library shelves while providing access to manymore titles than any one library can afford. VI. REFERENCE Reference Librarian Full SizeBecause libraries provide access to ever-expanding sources of knowledge, findingspecific pieces of information is often a complex procedure. To assist users in findinginformation, most academic and large public libraries employ professional referencelibrarians who have special training in research techniques and information retrieval.Reference librarians help individuals and organizations find information and make
effective use of library resources. Reference librarians are also available to recommendnotable works of fiction, nonfiction, and poetry, as well as videos and sound recordings.Materials in the library’s reference section include items such as encyclopedias,dictionaries, atlases, and handbooks. These materials are generally stored next to thelibrary’s reference desk. They are typically unavailable for circulation so that all userscan access them at any given time. Some public libraries offer quick reference servicesover the telephone. For questions that require more extensive research, a referencelibrarian will often refer users to staff members who specialize in a particular subject, orthey will consult online databases. At some public and academic libraries, referencelibrarians charge a small fee to perform research using online resources.Large public libraries may employ reference librarians who specialize in children’smaterials. Because children are often relatively inexperienced in library use, theyfrequently turn to reference librarians for assistance in finding materials. Many childrenask questions related to their school work, but they also request information abouthobbies, popular culture, and social issues that interest them. Parents, guardians, andchild-care providers also turn to children’s reference librarians for assistance in findinginformation on issues such as child development, education, nutrition, and health.Reference work requires skill in interpersonal communication, familiarity with theexpanding array of information sources, and a command of general knowledge.Reference librarians attempt to anticipate users’ questions and to improve the quality oflibrary services by preparing guides, brochures, multimedia presentations, and self-tutorials on effective library use. In many academic institutions, reference librarians offercourses in library use and research strategies. VII. CAREERS IN LIBRARY WORKLibrarianship—the science of managing the operations of a library—did not emerge as adistinct and separate profession until the end of the 19th century. Until then, theindividuals who oversaw library operations usually combined these duties with theirwork in other professions. For example, in the Middle Ages priests or universityprofessors often assumed the responsibilities of managing library operations. Aseducation for librarians became standardized during the 20th century, the professioneventually became well established. Librarianship developed further as professionallibrarians established networks and associations through which they shared a body ofknowledge, published professional journals, and instituted codes of ethics. A. Librarians and Library Staff
The typical library staff consists of three levels of employees: professional librarians,support staff, and part-time assistants. The proportion of each of these in any giveninstitution depends on the type of library, its budget, and the types of users it serves.Professional librarians usually constitute the smallest number of a library’s employees.Most professional librarians have earned at least a master’s degree in library science orinformation science, the study of information and the manner in which it is generated,recorded, stored, retrieved, transmitted, and used. Some professional librarians haveearned additional graduate degrees as well. Professional librarians require a wide range ofskills and talents. They must have solid bibliographic and technological skills, as well asstrong communication and interpersonal abilities. Advances in library technologies havealso led to a high demand for professional skills such as database searching andcompetence in using the Internet and other computer networks and systems.The librarian in charge of administering the entire institution is usually referred to as thedirector. Other professional librarians typically administer the library’s variousdepartments. In small libraries, however, the director may be solely responsible formanaging all of the library’s departments. In addition to their managerial work,professional librarians assume primary responsibility for providing reference assistance,developing and managing the collections, and overseeing cataloging.Nonprofessional support staff commonly assume most of the responsibility for directlyserving library users. Their activities include essential functions such as inputting,coding, and verifying bibliographic and other data; ordering library materials; assistingwith catalog development; performing circulation duties such as checking out books tousers; and performing other services vital to the library’s daily operation.Most libraries employ part-time staff members in addition to full-time professional andsupport staff. Part-time staff members typically shelve books, perform low-level clericalduties, and carry out other relatively simple but essential tasks. In academic libraries,large numbers of part-time student-assistants play a critical role in the day-to-dayfunctioning of the library. Public libraries also hire so-called library pages to helpperform tasks that require no professional training, such as shelving books andperiodicals. In addition, many public libraries make use of community volunteers to assistlibrary staff in simple tasks. Many professional librarians were first attracted to theprofession while they were working as library assistants, pages, or volunteers.In small libraries, librarians might perform a range of tasks, with one or two librariansand possibly a clerk handling all of the activities of the library. Because of the small sizeof the staff, a single librarian might combine clerical and professional tasks. In largelibraries, the support staff have taken on many of the tasks previously performed byprofessionals. Much of this transfer of responsibility has been made possible by theintroduction of relatively simple and efficient computer technology, which has permittedsupport staff to accomplish large portions of cataloging that were once done byprofessionals. Additionally, while professional librarians usually manage library
functions such as circulation and acquisition, support staff or part-time workers oftenperform the bulk of the actual tasks in these departments.The patterns of library staffing vary from country to country. In general, libraries in moredeveloped countries distinguish clearly between the tasks done by professional andnonprofessional staff. In less developed countries, the smaller size of staffs and a lack ofnew, efficient computer technology have made this separation more difficult. B. Education of LibrariansFor centuries, young people learned to be librarians while on the job with moreexperienced practitioners. Librarians often performed difficult tasks, but their dutiesusually did not require specialized professional training. Since the late 19th century,however, the tasks performed by librarians have become more complex and moredependent on technology. As a result, the study of library science has moved from thework setting to professional schools in universities.In the United States and Canada, education designed for the professional librarian is atthe postgraduate level. Prospective librarians attend one- or two-year professionaleducation programs leading to a master’s degree in library science or its equivalent, suchas information science. Traditionally, professional librarians studied subjects in theliberal arts, such as literature or history, before beginning their professional education.An increasing number of librarians now have undergraduate degrees in the naturalsciences, computer science, business, or other related areas. 1 . Growth of Library Education ProgramsAmerican librarian Melvil Dewey began the first formal education program for thetraining of librarians in 1887 at Columbia College (now Columbia University) in NewYork, where he was librarian. The program moved to the New York State Library inAlbany when Dewey became director there in 1889. The success of Dewey’s program intraining highly skilled professional librarians soon led other universities, institutes oftechnology, and large public libraries to establish their own professional degree programsin library science.Early library schools largely based their teaching on providing students with experiencein actual libraries. However, this practice began to change in 1923 with the publication ofTraining for Library Service, a book by economist Charles Williamson. The so-calledWilliamson Report advocated continuing the trend of moving library-science programs touniversity settings. It also called for an increase in educational theory for librarianship,
the development of professional journals and other literature on the profession, and theemployment of full-time faculty as instructors of library science.Over time, universities implemented the changes called for in the Williamson Report, andthe quality of education for librarianship gradually increased. In the first part of the 20thcentury, graduates of these schools received bachelor’s degrees in library science. Thesedegrees designated completion of four years of undergraduate work and an additionalyearlong course of study in library science. In the 1950s universities began makinglibrary science a professional degree, generally called a master’s degree of libraryscience, or M.L.S. degree. 2 . Modern ProgramsThe skills and specialized knowledge demanded of librarians have continued to increase,and schools of library science have adjusted their curriculums accordingly. Most schoolsof librarianship have responded to the heightened use of technology by increasing thenumber of courses in information science. Information science combines aspects oflibrarianship with technical elements such as computer programming,telecommunications, database management, and computer graphics. It also includes thestudy of ways in which humans process information and ways in which people interactwith machines. Information science programs integrate study from the fields ofcommunication, computer science, cognitive psychology, artificial intelligence,mathematics, philosophy, engineering, business, and others. This interdisciplinarybackground gives graduates a broad knowledge of library automation, systems, budgets,online searching, research, and cataloging. Since the 1980s, most schools of libraryscience have become schools of library and information science or simply schools ofinformation science.Many schools permit or require students to gain some practical training in a library beforeapplying for their first job as a librarian. A growing number of schools also requirecourses in research methods. To have sufficient time to teach the new skills needed bylibrarians without sacrificing any of the traditional bibliographic skills, a number ofschools have increased the amount of class hours required for a degree.All programs to educate librarians share certain characteristics. They provide courses incataloging and classification, reference, management, and collections development.Programs typically offer courses in the history of books and librarianship to give studentsa background in the profession’s past. Students in most schools of library and informationscience have the opportunity to develop at least some degree of specialization. Some maytake advanced courses in a particular library function, such as reference work, whileothers may take courses related to a particular type of library, such as a course in medicallibrarianship or public librarianship.
Few four-year colleges and universities offer programs specifically for the training oflibrary support staff. Because the range of work done by support staff varies so greatly,there is no uniform educational system for these nonprofessional positions. Many supportstaff have a four-year college degree, and some have graduate degrees. Others have onlya high school education or a two-year associate degree from a community college.Library support staff often have no training specifically designed to prepare them forwork in a library except for the training they receive on the job. In the United States andCanada, some library support staff are graduates of formal library training programsoffered by two-year community colleges.Library employees at every level benefit from ongoing study in continuing educationprograms. At one time it was possible for new employees to come to the job knowingalmost everything they would need for a lifetime of employment, but that is not the casetoday. All library systems are continually changing, and employees need to update theireducation and training to keep abreast of these developments. Most schools of library andinformation science offer a range of continuing education courses designed for libraryemployees who wish to modernize or expand their skills. In addition, various professionalassociations offer continuing education courses for library employees. C. Professional AssociationsLike members of other professions, librarians have banded together in professionalassociations to solve common problems and to advance the profession. Theseprofessional associations address issues such as financial support for libraries, censorship,and cooperative acquisition of library materials. They also attempt to influence legislationthat affects libraries, establish policies and standards relating to libraries and librarians,and support continuing education for librarians. Almost all of these organizations publishjournals or monographs relating to their particular areas of interest. Professional libraryassociations hold conferences on a regular basis so that librarians may come togetherwith colleagues to develop policy and share ideas.Professional associations for librarians operate at the local, regional, national, andinternational levels. Most professional librarians belong to at least one professionalorganization. This section of the article lists some of the largest and most influentiallibrary associations. For more information about library associations worldwide, see theLibraries of the World section of this article.The American Library Association (ALA), founded by Melvil Dewey and others in 1876,is the oldest and largest library association in the world. Headquartered in Chicago,Illinois, the ALA’s membership comprises librarians from all types of libraries. The ALAholds a large annual conference each summer, as well as a midwinter meeting each year.The association is highly influential in the publishing field and in lobbying on behalf oflibrarians.
The Canadian Library Association (CLA), founded in 1946, is the national libraryassociation of Canada. Like other national library associations, it holds an annualconference featuring workshops, exhibits, and awards ceremonies to present researchgrants and scholarships. It has its headquarters in Ottawa, Ontario.The Library Association is the national library association of the United Kingdom.Founded in 1877, the Library Association consists of members throughout the UnitedKingdom and in more than 100 countries around the world. It maintains headquarters inLondon, England.The Special Libraries Association (SLA), founded in 1909, has a large membershipdrawn from various types of special libraries. It offers continuing education courses andpublishes a range of professional materials for special librarians. The SLA has itsheadquarters in Washington, D.C.The Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE), founded in1915, is the professional association for faculty members in schools of library andinformation science. Its purpose is to promote excellence in education for library andinformation science. The ALISE maintains headquarters in Arlington, Virginia.The American Society for Information Science (ASIS) was founded in 1937 as theAmerican Documentation Institute, and changed its name to its present one in 1967. Itsmembers work to develop new and better theories, techniques, and technologies toimprove access to information. It has its headquarters in Silver Spring, Maryland.The Association of Research Libraries (ARL), founded in 1932, represents the libraries ofNorth American research institutions. The organization addresses issues common toresearch libraries, such as teaching, research, community service, and scholarship. Itmaintains headquarters in Washington, D.C.The Society of American Archivists (SAA), begun in 1936, is an association ofarchivists, librarians, record managers, historians, and manuscript curators. Located inChicago, Illinois, it provides leadership to help ensure the identification, preservation,and use of the nation’s historical records. D. International Library ProgramsSeveral professional organizations and private foundations around the world work topromote international cooperation in establishing new libraries and in improving serviceat existing libraries. These organizations also provide librarians with international forumsin which they can exchange ideas, develop networks for sharing resources, and createcompatible standards and protocols for various library procedures. Some of the mostprominent international library programs are those sponsored by the InternationalFederation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA); the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); the InternationalFederation for Documentation and Information (FID); the International Council onArchives (ICA); the British Council; the United States Department of State; and theInternational Association of School Librarianship (IASL). Private foundations alsopromote increased and improved library services around the world.The International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) is anindependent association that represents libraries and library associations around theworld. The organization maintains headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands. It adviseslibraries on matters such as interlibrary loan practices, copyright laws, library buildingdesign, and development of legal deposit regulations that entitle national libraries toreceive copies of every work registered for copyright in their respective countries. It alsostimulates cooperation among writers, scholars, publishers, and libraries, and it assistslibrarians in promoting literacy and universal access to knowledge. In addition, IFLAadvocates the formation of a worldwide information network.The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)promotes international cooperation in the areas of education, science, culture, andcommunication. As part of this mission, UNESCO funds programs for the construction oflibraries around the world and for the improvement of existing library services. Forexample, its support has enabled countries in the Middle East to establish the ArabInformation Systems Network, through which member libraries can share collections andservices. UNESCO maintains headquarters in Paris, France.The International Federation for Documentation and Information (known as FID) is oneof the world’s oldest and most influential international library organizations. FID wasfounded in 1895 in Brussels, Belgium, by bibliographers Henri LaFontaine and PaulOtlet, who first developed the Universal Decimal Classification system. Today, FIDmaintains headquarters in The Hague, Netherlands. Over the years, FID has beenresponsible for creating standards for microfiche reproduction; conducting research onthe theoretical aspects of information; and promoting research on the impact ofinformation, communications, and knowledge on national economies and society.The International Council on Archives (ICA) is an alliance of archival institutions,professional associations, and individual professional archivists. Founded in 1948, theICA is concerned with the management of records and archives in all media and formatsthroughout their life cycle. The council also facilitates and promotes the use of recordsand archives by scholars and the general public. Areas of ongoing interest includemaintenance of electronic archives, disaster preparedness planning, and automation ofarchival resources. The ICA has its headquarters in Paris, France.The British Council is the United Kingdom’s international network for education, culture,and development services. It has established libraries in many countries of LatinAmerica, Eastern Europe, Asia, and Africa, all managed by local staff. It has alsodeveloped an online library based in Helsinki, Finland, that is available to other libraries
around the world. The British Council has headquarters in London and Manchester,England.The U.S. Department of State, through its Office of International Information Programs,maintains about 150 information resource centers in more than 110 countries. Thesecenters were administered by the United States Information Agency until 1999, when theagency was abolished and its functions transferred to the State Department. The centersfeature electronic equipment that can rapidly deliver information promoting U.S. intereststo foreign governments, media, and educational institutions. In developing countries, theState Department supports public libraries that encourage study and understanding ofAmerican society and institutions. The department has its headquarters in Washington,D.C.The International Association of School Librarianship (IASL) encourages thedevelopment of school libraries and library programs throughout the world. Founded in1971, the IASL also promotes collaboration among libraries in all countries, including thelending and exchanging of library materials. The organization maintains headquarters inSeattle, Washington.Private philanthropic organizations also provide leadership in the establishment andmaintenance of libraries around the world. In the early 20th century the CarnegieCorporation of New York was instrumental in establishing free public libraries in Africa,Latin America, and the South Pacific, but the organization stopped this program in 1917.Today the Ford Foundation, based in New York City, provides vital financial support forlibraries in the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. VIII. TRENDS AND CHALLENGESLibraries of all types are experiencing a period of radical change. Technological andsocial developments that began in the late 20th century have fundamentally altered theways libraries accomplish their traditional missions of selecting, organizing, preserving,and providing access to information. A. Growth of Information and Technology Library Computer Services
Electronic sources of information and low-cost microcomputers have introducedunprecedented changes to the services and operations of modern libraries. Computingtrends that began in the 1980s have enabled low-cost digital storage of information, rapidtransmission of data across computer networks, and sophisticated retrieval and processingof electronic documents and information. These changes—especially the rapid spread ofthe Internet—have reshaped the feasibility and economics of information distribution soradically that they have permanently altered the ways in which librarians perform theirwork. Against this background of increased information availability and technologicalinnovation, libraries are developing new, at times revolutionary, methods of providingusers with access to an ever-expanding amount of information. 1 . Automation of Library FunctionsLibraries first sought to automate their internal operations in the 1960s. The Machine-Readable Catalog (MARC) project, begun in 1966 by 16 American libraries, establisheda standard format for electronic versions of the card catalog. Because a number oflibraries collaborated to form the MARC standard, they shared the enormous burden ofcreating records for the electronic catalog. By 1972 libraries around the world were usingand contributing to the development of the revised MARC standard, known as MARC II.The potential of saving tremendous amounts of time and money through sharedcataloging led to many other cooperative projects among libraries. In the United Statesand Canada, several regional organizations grew out of these efforts, including the OhioCollege Library Center (OCLC), a computer network for Ohio’s college and universitylibraries; the Research Library Information Network (RLIN) of the Research LibrariesGroup, a consortium of libraries founded by Columbia, Harvard, and Yale universitiesand the New York Public Library; and the University of Toronto Library AutomationSystem (UTLAS). In addition to the initial goal of providing shared cataloging, regionalorganizations offer an array of services to libraries, including online acquisitions servicesand interlibrary loan systems.Many of these regional organizations evolved to become national and internationalnetworks. Large organizations that share catalogs with one another are known asbibliographic utilities. Their massive catalogs compile materials from many memberlibraries, creating a vast resource for catalogers and researchers alike. For example,OCLC eventually grew to become the Online Computer Library Center, which serves asan international library computer service, bibliographic utility, and research center that bythe 1990s contained more than 41 million records in its union catalog, known asWorldCat. Similarly, the UTLAS consortium of Canadian libraries was purchased by theU.S. firm Auto-Graphics, which set up a subsidiary in Canada to run this shared catalogof Canadian library databases. The new name of this service is AG Canada.In the early 1980s some libraries began to feature online public access catalogs (OPACs),which allow users to access the libraries’ catalogs via computer. Previously, the high cost
of acquiring the new computer technology and the difficulty in using the first softwareprograms meant that libraries had to restrict use of online catalogs to a few speciallytrained librarians. By the 1980s, however, advances in technology and reductions in costallowed libraries to begin offering public access to online catalogs. For example, theUniversity of California system introduced its massive online public access catalog,MELVYL, in 1981.Today, online public access catalogs are a common feature of all types of libraries. Theyhave replaced and integrated four separate card catalogs: one each for author, title, andsubject, as well as a card for the call-number shelf list. Online catalogs allow for rapidsearching in each of these designated fields, as well as in some fields—such as the typeof publication or the language in which a work was written—that were not searchable inthe past. Since they were first introduced, online catalogs have been enhanced by theaddition of keyword searching, which allows a user to search for works using any word ina given field. Online catalogs also typically allow users to determine whether a givenitem has been checked out by another user, and if so, when the item is due back in thelibrary. 2 . Automated ResearchAs early as the 1960s some researchers gained improved access to information with theintroduction of electronic databases that contain abstracts and indexes of library holdings.These databases—known as abstracting and indexing (A&I) databases—containpublishing data for articles and books as well as abstracts that summarize each work’scontent. By the early 1970s, commercial online services provided researchers with waysto remotely search through large databases, such as the Dialog Information RetrievalService (DIALOG), the National Library of Medicine’s Medical Literature Analysis andRetrieval System (MEDLARS), and the Educational Resources Information Center(ERIC) database published by the U.S. Department of Education. Several othercommercial databases now provide researchers with access to an enormous amount ofinformation. For example, the DIALOG Corp., Dow Jones Interactive (a division of DowJones & Company), and Lexis-Nexis (a division of Reed Elsevier) all enable researchersto search for a single word or phrase in the full text of millions of articles published overmany years.The first abstracting and indexing databases—like the first online library catalogs—werevery expensive and difficult to use. They generally required a trained researcher whoworked as an intermediary for library patrons searching for information. Beginning in themid-1980s, however, commercial vendors began publishing databases on CD-ROM.These databases were less expensive to produce and easier to use. The new formatallowed users to quickly search databases with relatively little assistance from trainedprofessionals.
3. The InternetSidebarsPOINT/COUNTERPOINTShould the Government Subsidize Internet Access?The explosive growth of the Internet has raised concerns about the creation of a “digitaldivide” between those who can afford Internet access and those who cannot. Will thepoor be left behind as jobs and other opportunities in the United States economyincreasingly shift to Internet-related businesses? Will those with Internet access enjoyeducational advantages over those without such access? Should the government step in tohelp? In this Point/Counterpoint Sidebar, attorney Mark Schwartz argues that free-marketforces are lowering costs and expanding access more quickly and efficiently than anygovernment action could. Tony Wilhelm, director of the Benton Foundation’sCommunications Policy Program, counters that the government needs to intervene toguarantee access for all citizens.open sidebarThe Internet, a computer-based worldwide information network, has had an enormousimpact on libraries. Librarians use the Internet and its multimedia component, the WorldWide Web, to answer reference questions and to provide access to materials notpreviously available to their patrons. When the Internet was first introduced in the 1960s,access to computer networks was limited almost exclusively to government and scientificcommunities. In the 1980s and 1990s, however, the speed and availability of computernetworks and data communications lines increased tremendously, and greater numbers ofpeople gained access to the Internet. On university campuses, investment in personalcomputers and high-speed local area networks (LANs) provided students and faculty withthe ability to access vast new sources of information via the Internet.Americans who cannot afford access to the Internet have increasingly turned to publiclibraries to bridge the information gap between rich and poor. Many public libraries haveattempted to meet that challenge by making Internet access a top priority. As a result,libraries have extended their traditional roles of facilitating self-education and individualenrichment by providing low-cost or free computer access to online resources such asgovernment, consumer, medical, and legal information. In 1996 fewer than 28 percent ofpublic libraries in the United States offered their users access to the Internet. By 1999 thatfigure had climbed to more than 72 percent. For more information, see the subsectionIntellectual Freedom in the Trends and Challenges section of this article. B. FundingBeginning in the late 1980s, an economic recession in the United States led to dramaticcuts in funding for all kinds of libraries. These cuts were especially damaging to publiclibraries and to libraries in public schools. With their budgets severely reduced, publiclibrary systems across the country began closing many of their branches. Many
communities—such as Worcester, Massachusetts, and Merced County, California—wereforced to close their entire public library systems, including the central library and all ofits branches. Public libraries that remained open often could not afford to update theircollections with new books and magazine subscriptions. Even after the U.S. economyrebounded in the mid-1990s, public libraries continued to struggle in their efforts to meetincreased public demand for information while facing rising costs for staff training,materials, and equipment.Public schools also face budget shortfalls for their libraries. For example, demand forInternet access strains most school library budgets, often at the expense of traditionallibrary materials such as books and magazine subscriptions. The National Center forEducation Statistics estimates that U.S. school library expenditures on books droppedfrom a peak of $478 million in 1974 to $266 million in the school year of 1992-93. Muchof this reduction in expenditures on books is the result of costs associated with providingcomputers, Internet access, CD-ROMs, and other new technologies. Related costs includeseveral thousands of dollars each year on staff training, computer maintenance, softwareupgrades, online reference subscriptions, and computer supplies such as printer paper andtoner cartridges.For more information about funding in public libraries, see the subsection PublicLibraries: Funding in the Types of Libraries section of this article. For information aboutthe history of funding public libraries in the United States and Canada, see the subsectionUnited States and Canada: Public Libraries in the History of Libraries section of thisarticle. C. Theft of Library MaterialsWhen libraries allow users to physically handle their materials and to borrow them forperiods of time, these materials inevitably are vulnerable to theft. Some experts haveestimated that public libraries in the United States lose as much as 2 percent of circulatedmaterials when users fail to return borrowed items. Some users steal library materials toillegally resell them, while others simply take the materials home for their private use andfail to return them.Libraries of all types primarily lose items not through premeditated theft, but when usersopenly check out materials and ignore pleas to return them. Many states have laws thatallow libraries to turn users’ overdue accounts over to collection agencies. Libraries thatcatch users stealing their materials cancel the thieves’ borrowing privileges and oftenprosecute the thieves under the law.Libraries usually monitor their collections by tagging materials with magnetic strips.These strips will trigger alarms if users try to carry the materials through electronic gatesat library exits without properly checking out the items at the circulation desk. Somelibraries also limit access to valuable or popular items that they consider more likely to be
stolen. For example, libraries may require users to leave an identification card withlibrary staff members in order to read certain materials. Research libraries usually requireusers to read noncirculating materials only in designated reading rooms. Many librariesalso install security cameras or have security officers who patrol reading rooms andstacks. D. Preservation of Library MaterialsLibraries have always struggled against the physical destruction of their collections.Fires, floods, earthquakes, and wars have damaged the holdings of countless libraries,destroying forever much of the recorded history of human civilization. But librarymaterials also fall victim to slow decay caused by acid content in paper, insectinfestation, improper storage or handling, and excessive heat, mildew, humidity, and airpollution. The slow decomposition of library materials is a universal problem, occurringon a massive scale in developing and industrialized countries alike. In 1990 theAssociation of Research Libraries estimated that in the United States as much as 25percent of the materials in research libraries were at risk of serious decomposition. Thesituation is even worse in developing countries, which typically have much smallerbudgets to direct toward the maintenance and preservation of library materials. To ensurethat library materials remain available to present and future generations of library users,libraries engage in a variety of preservation efforts. These efforts include theconservation of original materials and the transfer of information from original materialsto more durable formats. 1 . Paper-Based MaterialsOne of the greatest threats to library materials stems from the acid content of paper inbooks, manuscripts, and other materials. Until the mid-19th century, nearly all the paperused for written or printed materials was made from cotton or linen rags. This type ofpaper could last several hundred years without decomposition. Since then, however, thevast majority of paper has been made from wood pulp treated with acidic chemicals. Theresidual acid slowly decomposes the paper, causing it to become extremely brittle. Therate of decomposition depends on the original quality of the paper and on theenvironmental conditions under which the materials have been stored. Acid-based paperis especially susceptible to light, heat, humidity, and pollution, all of which accelerate thedecomposition of library materials. After a period of 50 to 100 years, books made withacid-based paper decompose to the point where they can crumble with any handling atall.Libraries and archives can stop the harmful effects of acid in paper by using adeacidification process, which retards the embrittlement of paper, greatly prolonging the
life span of paper-based library materials. In early deacidification efforts, libraryconservationists dipped highly valuable pages, one sheet at a time, into a water-basedalkaline solution that neutralized the acid in the paper. Because this was an extremelytime-consuming and expensive process, only the most valuable pages of library materialscould be preserved. However, in 1996 the Library of Congress began implementing amass deacidification process that can neutralize the acid of several thousand books at atime by using a gaseous mixture. The Library of Congress estimates that deacidificationcan prolong the life span of paper-based library materials by 250 to 300 years.Some research libraries and archives, especially at colleges and universities, preservetheir highly valuable collections by storing them in specially designed facilities thatstrictly control the levels of light, heat, and humidity. The facilities also feature air-circulation systems that filter out damaging airborne pollutants. Access to the storageareas is often limited to trained staff members. The staff members retrieve the materialsand deliver them to patrons for use in reading rooms, where proper handling procedurescan be ensured.Publishers can contribute to future preservation efforts by following the guidelines of theAmerican Library Association and other library organizations, which advise publishers touse acid-free paper when printing new books considered to have enduring value. Despitewide acceptance of the value of these guidelines, fewer than 20 percent of hardcoverbooks in the United States are printed on acid-free paper. Even fewer paperback booksare printed on acid-free paper.Aside from conserving original materials through processes such as deacidification,libraries transfer the information from some fragile materials to newer, more durableformats. For example, to preserve the information contained in newspapers, books, andother paper-based materials, libraries photographically reproduce the pages ontomicrofilm or microfiche, miniature transparencies that users can magnify for viewing orprinting with special equipment. Microfilm and microfiche significantly increase thelongevity of library content. They also enable libraries to store bulky, paper-baseddocuments in much smaller spaces. 2 . Audio and Visual MaterialsNot only paper-based materials risk deterioration on library shelves. Similar dangersconfront audio and visual library materials, such as sound recordings, photographs, films,and videotapes. For example, nitrate-based film stock was the only available format formotion-picture production until 1951, but the nitrate in this type of film causes it to decayvery quickly, even in controlled settings. Today, half of the 21,000 feature-length filmsmade in the United States before 1951 no longer exist. Many have been lost or destroyed,but a vast number have simply decomposed beyond repair. Libraries and archivespreserve nitrate-based films by transferring the images to a more resilient, acetate-basedfilm stock. They preserve other audio and visual materials in similar ways. For example,
original sound recordings are preserved by transferring them from delicate and unstablewax cylinders or magnetic tapes to newer digital formats such as CD-ROMs.In addition to preserving their materials from deterioration, libraries must guard againstthe obsolescence of machine-readable materials—materials that are read and interpretedby machines. Many valuable documents in machine-readable materials were firstrecorded in formats that have now become obsolete. Machines able to play back therecordings either no longer exist or are so rare that they are not practical for use inlibraries or even for storage in archives. For example, U.S. president Richard Nixon usedSony Model 800 machines to record the famous White House tapes that eventuallyincriminated him in the Watergate scandal of the early 1970s. Today these tape machinesare obsolete, and only a few still exist to play back the original White House tapes. Toallow historians, scholars, and interested citizens to hear these recordings, the NationalArchives and Records Administration transferred them to newer formats, such as CD-ROMs. 3 . Computer DataComputer software and hardware introduce additional problems to the preservationefforts of libraries and archives. Because common standards for computer software andhardware change so quickly, vast amounts of information stored in obsolete computerscan no longer be accessed using modern equipment. As a result, libraries and archivesrisk forever losing access to valuable computer documents such as government statisticaldata and geological surveys. To ensure that original computer data remain accessibleusing contemporary equipment, libraries and archives must continually transfer these datato new formats. For example, every ten years the National Archives and RecordsAdministration transfers all computer data and other electronic records to new formats.Because transferring electronic records can be an extremely costly and time-consumingprocess, most library conservators and archivists can transfer and preserve only thosematerials that they determine are of enduring value. As the quantity of computer-basedrecords increases each year, the task of identifying which electronic materials warrantpreservation becomes increasingly difficult. E. Intellectual FreedomLibraries attempt to acquire, create, and provide access to all types of information,including information that is potentially controversial. In the United States, librarianshave steadfastly defended this practice, which is known as intellectual freedom.Intellectual freedom encompasses a broad set of principles that support freedom ofspeech and freedom of the press. The most widely endorsed expression of intellectualfreedom is the Library Bill of Rights, first drafted by the American Library Association
(ALA) in 1939. In recent years, the availability of controversial information over theInternet has presented new challenges to the principles of intellectual freedom. 1 . The Library Bill of RightsSince the mid-20th century, the American Library Association has presented the mostpersistent and influential defense of the library’s role in protecting intellectual freedom.The ALA’s Library Bill of Rights is a basic policy statement on access to libraries andlibrary materials. It asserts that all libraries are forums of information and ideas, and thatlibraries should not exclude certain materials because of the origin, background, or viewsof the author or others involved in the creation of the materials.Americans first expressed their ideas about intellectual freedom by condemning thecensorship of specific publications. In 1939 certain libraries around the country begancensoring the novel The Grapes of Wrath, by American author John Steinbeck. Somelibrarians removed the book from their shelves because they considered it immoral, butmost who censored the novel opposed the social and political views advanced by theauthor. The ALA responded to the censorship of The Grapes of Wrath and other books byadopting in 1939 the first draft of the Library Bill of Rights. Since then, the ALA hasrevised, amended, and interpreted the document several times, often in response topressures against specific publications or library practices.Over the years, the ALA has broadened the scope of the Library Bill of Rights beyondopposition to censorship. The ALA now encourages libraries to ensure that everymember of the community has free access to library materials, regardless of anindividual’s origin, age, background, or views about society or politics. In addition, theALA asserts that libraries must strive to protect the confidentiality of patrons’ circulationrecords to ensure that every individual may freely use all library materials without fear ofreprisal. The ALA also encourages libraries to protect their librarians’ own intellectualfreedom by guaranteeing them rights to free expression without fear of professionalreprisal. Finally, the ALA suggests that libraries should carefully determine whether theymay advocate social or political causes without compromising their objectivity in theselection of materials. 2 . Intellectual Freedom and the InternetThe Internet has introduced unique challenges to libraries’ defense of intellectualfreedom. Since the Internet emerged as a mainstream communications medium in themid-1990s, libraries have provided Internet access in an effort to expand the scope ofinformation available to users. However, many people feel that some content available onthe Internet, particularly pornography, should not be available for viewing in libraries.
These people are particularly concerned that children will gain access to sexually explicitmaterials through Internet computer terminals in libraries.Citing free-speech protections, U.S. federal courts have repeatedly blocked laws designedto protect children from accessing pornography on the Internet, and libraries are payingclose attention to these rulings. In a unanimous decision in 1997, the United StatesSupreme Court struck down the Communications Decency Act, a 1996 law that made it acrime to make “indecent” or “patently offensive” material available to minors overcomputer networks. In the Court’s decision, Justice John Paul Stevens wrote that “theinterest in encouraging freedom of expression in a democratic society outweighs anytheoretical but unproven benefit of censorship.” Lawmakers responded in 1998 bypassing a narrower antipornography bill, the Child Online Protection Act (COPA). Thislaw required commercial World Wide Web sites to ensure that children could not accessmaterial deemed “harmful to minors.” In 1999 a federal judge blocked that bill as well,ruling that it too would dangerously restrict constitutionally protected free speech.Despite legislative and community efforts to limit children’s access to particular sites onthe Internet, the ALA maintains that, in accordance with the Library Bill of Rights,libraries must support access to information on all subjects that serve the needs orinterests of each user, regardless of the user’s age or the content of the material.Accordingly, the ALA opposes efforts to block library users’ access to specific types ofcontent on the Internet, including efforts to block access to pornographic content.Furthermore, it argues that providing connections to the Internet and other electronicnetworks is not the same as selecting and purchasing material for a library’s collection.The ALA therefore maintains that users themselves must assume responsibility fordetermining what material is appropriate. Likewise, the ALA argues that parents andlegal guardians who are concerned about their children’s use of electronic resourcesshould provide guidance to their own children rather than requiring libraries to do so.However, the ALA does acknowledge that some information accessed electronically maynot meet a library’s standards for the content of its own collection.Many parent advocacy groups have expressed concern that the ALA’s defense ofintellectual freedom has had the unintended effect of allowing children to viewpornographic materials on the library’s computers. Some local public libraries haveresponded to these concerns by reserving specific Internet terminals for children. Thelibraries have equipped these computers with special software designed to filter out anypornographic material while allowing access to all other materials. Critics of filteringsoftware claim that it blocks access to numerous sites that have nothing to do withpornography or sexually explicit material.In 1997 the ALA issued a strong statement against the use of filtering software bylibraries, affirming that the use of such software to block access to constitutionallyprotected speech violates the Library Bill of Rights. The ALA joined civil libertiesgroups in opposing the Children’s Internet Protection Act, a 2000 law that required allpublic schools and libraries receiving federal technology funds to install filteringsoftware. In 2002 a panel of three federal judges unanimously struck down the law,
finding that the filtering software suppressed Web sites whose content wasconstitutionally protected. However, in 2003 the Supreme Court reversed that decisionand declared the law constitutional. Just as libraries have the right to excludepornography from their print collections, the Court said, so too may they excludeinappropriate material from their Internet terminals. Concerns about infringement of freespeech are misplaced, the Court ruled, because the law allows libraries to permit access toblocked sites at the request of patrons for “bona fide research or other lawful purposes.”The burden placed on these library patrons, the Court said, was “comparatively small”when weighed against the legitimate interest of the government in shielding childrenfrom inappropriate sexual material.Until the 1960s very few libraries offered services specifically designed for people withdisabilities. Since then, however, many libraries have made significant modifications totheir buildings and to their collections in an effort to provide the disabled communitywith access to library resources and services. For instance, libraries now serve the needsof the visually impaired with reading materials printed in the Braille system (a system ofraised dots that can be read by touch), books on tape (audio recordings of books,commonly known as talking books), and large-print magazines and books for users withlimited sight.In the United States, the passage in 1990 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)led to significantly greater access to library resources for people with disabilities. TheADA provided disabled persons with protection against discrimination and guaranteedthem access to public services and accommodations. Libraries complied with the law by,among other things, adding entrance ramps and elevators to provide wheelchair usersgreater access to library buildings. They also widened aisles in the book stacks to allowthese same patrons easier access to library materials.The Library of Congress’s National Library Service for the Blind and PhysicallyHandicapped issues a catalog of recordings on compact disc and cassette. It also listsbooks available in large-print and Braille editions. A cooperative network of librariesthroughout the country circulates these materials to make them available to as many usersas possible. Libraries in the United States have also assisted with the development ofRadio Information Service, a closed-circuit radio reading service for people who arevisually impaired. Volunteers for this service read newspapers, books, novels, and shortstories for users via closed-circuit radio.Modern technology has expanded library services for people with impaired vision andhearing. For example, some libraries have introduced computers with the Versa Braillesystem, which translates what is appearing on a computer screen into Braille characters.Some libraries also feature a device called an Optacon, which converts print or computeroutput into a tactile form. To read, the user moves the Optacon camera across a line ofprint while interpreting the movements of the tactile forms with the index finger of theother hand. The Kurzweil Reading Machine is another computer device that librariesprovide for visually impaired users. It scans a book, magazine, or other printed materialand then reads it aloud using a synthesized voice. The Reading Edge Scanner can also
convert printed text into speech. Some libraries are equipped with Braille printers, whichallow blind and visually impaired patrons to make Braille copies of computer-generatedmaterial. For people with limited vision, some libraries provide computers with largekeyboards, oversized keys, and monitors that automatically enlarge the letters that appearon the screen.Some libraries provide specialized telecommunications devices for the deaf and thehearing impaired, known variously as TTs (text telephones), TDDs (telecommunicationsdevices for the deaf), and TTYs (teletypewriters). TTY is the most widely used of theseabbreviations. TTYs consist of display monitors and keyboards that allow hearingimpaired users to type messages and send them via telephone lines to people with TTYdisplays in other locations. A deaf or hearing impaired person can also place a call tosomeone who does not have a TTY by sending a message through an operator at a relayservice. The operator calls the intended party on the telephone and relays messages wordfor word during the conversation. Many libraries also have other special aids andmaterials for the deaf and the hearing impaired, including closed-captioned videos, whichprint written dialog on the television screen as it is being spoken. IX. HISTORY OF LIBRARIESLibraries are nearly as old as the written word. The earliest known body of writtenmaterials was assembled in Mesopotamia (in present-day Iraq and Syria) more than 5,000years ago. Ever since then, cultures have established libraries whenever social, political,and economic developments have enabled them to record and collect knowledge. Theformation of libraries required the support of political or religious leaders who recognizedthat historical records were necessary to document, protect, and promote their society’sachievements. Libraries also could not have developed without readers—a core group ofliterate, educated people who had enough leisure time and motivation to use the newresource.The Sumerians, an ancient Mesopotamian civilization, collected written records of legalcontracts, tax assessments, and bills of sale. They recorded these documents incuneiform, a system of writing in which scribes (writers or copiers) cut wedges ofvarying size, shape, and depth into damp clay tablets. For permanent storage, theSumerians then baked the tablets and placed them in central locations. These collectionsof cuneiform tablets functioned as libraries for use by community leaders, who generallywere the only literate members of the society. Archaeological evidence shows that scoresof cuneiform library collections existed more than 4,000 years ago in Mesopotamianurban centers.Diodorus Siculus, a Greek historian of the 1st century BC, described a library of sacredtexts at Thebes in the mortuary temple of Egyptian king Ramses II (ruler from 1290 to1224 BC). However, modern archaeologists have found no evidence of such a library inexplorations of the temple ruins.
The palace library of Assyrian king Ashurbanipal, built in the city of Nineveh on theTigris River in present-day Iraq in the 600s BC, offers the earliest detailed evidence of anancient library’s composition. Ashurbanipal’s palace scribes produced the religious,literary, historical, legal, and business documents that made up the library’s collection.They produced these documents as clay, wood, and sometimes wax tablets. Over time,the scribes developed a complex system to organize and classify the library’s collection,using tablets of different shapes for different types of records. For example, they usedfour-sided tablets to record loan transactions and round tablets to record agriculturalproduction. They then placed different types of documents into containers of differentshapes and designated separate rooms for the storage of records concerning government,history, geography, law, taxes, astronomy, and other subjects. The scribes further refinedtheir bibliographic system with organizational aids such as colored markings, colophons(explanations of a document’s production), and a subject classification scheme that usedkeywords in the text’s first line. Estimates place the contents of Ashurbanipal’s library atthe time of his death at over 25,000 tablets written in several languages.Ancient GreeceAncient Greece was the first known civilization to establish libraries for use by thepopular classes as well as for members of the ruling elite. In the 500s BC Pisistratus, whoruled Athens, and Polycrates, the ruler of Sámos, both began constructing what could beconsidered public libraries. Most people still could not read, however, so in practice theselibraries served only a small percentage of the total population. In addition to thegovernment-owned libraries, wealthy Greeks and members of the professional classestablished private libraries, as well as specialized libraries in medicine, philosophy, andother disciplines. The philosopher Aristotle had an extensive library that scholarsconsulted, although historians have found no actual listing of the titles in his collection.Greek scholars Euripides, Plato, Thucydides, and Herodotus also owned significantpersonal libraries.To organize and inventory the library’s thousands of scrolls, Alexandrian poet andscholar Callimachus developed the Pinakes, a 120-volume catalog of the library’sholdings organized into at least ten main subject categories. Within these broad subjectcategories, Callimachus listed authors alphabetically by first name. A mob destroyed thelibrary of Alexandria in the 2nd century AD, but by that time it had already demonstratedthe economic and cultural value of amassing large research collections and forging a setof practices to organize and classify them.For hundreds of years the only library to rival the library of Alexandria in the size andscope of its collection was the library in the kingdom of Pergamum, in western AsiaMinor (now Turkey). Archaeological research indicates that the Pergamum librarycontained as many as 160,000 scrolls, and like the Alexandrian library it had a catalog tosimplify access to the collections. The library was founded by Attalus I, who reignedfrom 241 to 197 BC. His son, Eumenes II, who reigned from 197 to about 160 BC,significantly expanded the library. Attalus III, who became ruler of Pergamum in 138 BC,bequeathed his kingdom and its library to the Romans in 133 BC.
According to legend, Alexandrian ruler Ptolemy II banned the export of papyrus fromEgypt because he was jealous of the competing library in Pergamum. This ban forcedscribes at the Pergamum library to use an alternative writing material, and they eventuallybegan to transcribe many of their library’s texts onto parchment, a material made fromanimal skins. Ironically, the parchment turned out to be more durable than papyrus,particularly when several sheets were sewn together to form books. Because of itsincreased durability, by 400 AD parchment had replaced papyrus throughout Europe asthe principle writing material. D. Ancient RomeAfter conquering Macedonia in 146 BC, the Roman Empire acquired large collections ofliterature from the Greek libraries scattered throughout the region. Roman officials oftencarried this literature back to their private villas as spoils of war. As the Roman Empiregrew in wealth and power, Romans considered it fashionable to surround themselves withbooks as a mark of social distinction. By 50 BC many wealthy Roman families haddeveloped extensive private libraries.Although Roman emperor Julius Caesar commissioned a public library for Rome beforehe died in 44 BC, Roman libraries open to members of the public did not exist until 28 BC,when the emperor Augustus dedicated two collections attached to the Temple of Apollo.Like Ashurbanipal’s library and the library of Alexandria, however, only a fraction of thelocal population was permitted access to Roman “public” libraries. Those who did haveaccess were permitted to use the libraries primarily for official purposes. By the end ofthe 3rd century AD, Rome boasted nearly 30 quasi-public libraries, most attached totemples. These libraries divided their scroll collections by language into Greek and Latinsections, organizing them by subject and then alphabetically by author. Although housedin impressive buildings, the collections of Roman libraries were small in size andvulnerable to fire, insect damage, and other hazards.The Ulpian library was one of the greatest quasi-public libraries in Rome. Founded byEmperor Trajan in AD 114, the Ulpian library, like many Roman libraries, was dividedinto Greek and Latin sections. Roman emperor Hadrian also built a considerable privatelibrary for his palatial residence outside of Rome at Tivoli.By the 4th century AD, Rome was in decline as the world’s political and cultural center,and, as attacks by invaders intensified, Rome’s strong library tradition began todisintegrate. The center of the fading Roman Empire during this period of decline movedeastward to Constantinople (present-day İstanbul), and the Byzantine Empire became ahaven for many great book collections. Emperor Constantine the Great copied the Romanpattern of dividing collections by language when he established his own palace library in330 AD. In subsequent centuries Constantinople’s churches accumulated small libraries ofliturgical manuscripts, while some of its monasteries built impressive collectionsnumbering nearly 10,000 items.
Christians dispersed (and in many cases destroyed) Roman library collections when theydefeated Roman paganism during the 4th century AD. However, early Christians believedin using books and libraries to disseminate and preserve their religious writings.Christians carried on the Roman concept of the library in collections established byseveral Christian leaders, such as Saint Damascus I in the 4th century and Saint Gregory Iin the 6th century.In the 6th century Catholic bishops in Europe began taking control of all church property,including manuscript collections in libraries. Thereafter, library collections becamecommunal church possessions that could be copied and distributed relatively freely. Forabout the next 1,000 years during the Middle Ages (which lasted from the 5th century tothe 15th century), medieval libraries in Europe acquired, copied, and disseminated textsby relying on correspondence between monasteries. Eventually, these libraries developeda system of procedures to organize and classify their collections. From this mix ofactivities emerged a highly decentralized system of libraries scattered throughout Europe.By the beginning of the Middle Ages, the papyrus scroll was no longer the common textformat. It had been replaced by the parchment codex, an early form of book consisting ofbundles of folded parchment sheets inscribed on both sides. These sheets were stitchedtogether and placed between protective covers. In codex form these manuscripts carriedmore text in less space, and they were easier to transport and read than were papyrusscrolls. In addition, their bindings were easier to decorate, and their compactness allowedchurch officials to move them in and out of closed storage spaces within walls, wheremanuscripts were kept with other treasures. The church clergy stored less-valued texts inarmaria, or book cupboards, which were generally situated in more-accessible churchlocations.To enhance quality and quantity of manuscript production, a church official oftenestablished a separate room, called a scriptorium, in which a carefully selected group ofskilled clergy—known as monastic scribes—copied valuable religious texts. The scribesalmost invariably wrote their manuscripts in Latin, which allowed speakers of differentvernacular (local) languages to understand and communicate in a single, universal modeof expression. They used quill pens to copy the Bible, liturgical books, Latin grammars(books containing rules and principles of the Latin language), and small numbers ofsecular books onto parchment. Because medieval libraries did not follow the directives ofany centralized authority, they frequently developed special techniques in the productionof manuscripts. For example, certain scribes became experts at creating elaborate textsknown as illuminated manuscripts, which were embellished with beautiful colorillustrations and were often bound with fine leather set with jewels.By the middle of the 6th century, leaders of the Christian monastic order known as theBenedictines were requiring their monks to read daily. Thus, as missionary monkstraveled throughout rural Europe to establish relatively isolated monasteries, they madesure to include space for libraries. For example, the monasteries of Saint Gall inSwitzerland, Holy Island in England, Fulda in Germany, and Bobbio in Italy allmaintained outstanding libraries. Many of these rural monasteries provided secure
quarters for collections of sacred manuscripts that urban church libraries could no longerprovide. In the mid-7th century, for example, Benedict Biscop, an English abbot, traveledfive times to Rome, returning with pack animals loaded with valuable books. In the late8th century the English scholar Alcuin established two libraries in Aachen in what is nowGermany—one for the court of Charlemagne, king of the Franks, the other for the palaceschool. In addition, Alcuin built a library at Tours in France after he became bishop there.By contemporary standards, monastery libraries were small. Before 1200 mostmonasteries housed fewer than 100 books and manuscripts. Very few monasterycollections exceeded 300, in large part because, on average, the approximately 40 scribesat work in each monastery scriptorium could reproduce no more than two manuscriptsper year. Nonetheless, the copying and distribution of books and manuscripts spreadLatin culture to monasteries located throughout rural Europe. By perpetuating copyingpractices, over time monastic scribes also helped standardize orthography (the art orstudy of correct spelling), calligraphy (the art or study of handwriting), and punctuation.Europe and its libraries changed substantially during the High Middle Ages, which lastedfrom the mid-11th century through the 13th century. Europeans had increased contactwith distant civilizations through the efforts of explorers such as Marco Polo and throughthe wars fought by soldiers in the Crusades. Europe also experienced increasedproduction and consumption within an emerging money-based economy. This began togenerate surplus wealth that could be used for patronage and investment. In addition,throughout Europe religious reforms began to take hold and monarchies began todevelop. All of these factors combined to shift the locus of learning from ruralmonasteries to schools within urban cathedrals. Some of these schools eventuallydeveloped large and influential libraries.Cathedrals served as the headquarters for the church’s bishops and archbishops; they alsoserved as schools where religious training—and some secular training—for priests tookplace. Unlike monastic libraries, the libraries in cathedrals and cathedral schools weredesigned for educational rather than inspirational reading. For this reason they containedmore secular books than did monastic collections. Universities grew out of thesecathedral schools and nurtured the rise of professions such as law and medicine. Theyalso answered the needs of a growing and increasingly literate middle class thatdemanded greater access to books and information. Members of the new middle classalso advocated a wider acceptance of local, vernacular literatures in addition to theuniversal, Latin-based literature.Libraries responded to these public demands by increasing the size and scope of theircollections. The library at the Sorbonne reflected many of these changes. The Sorbonnewas established by French theologian Robert de Sorbon in about 1257 as a college oftheology for students at the University of Paris. By 1289 its library had issued a catalogcontaining listings for 1,000 volumes, and many of these volumes contained separatelytitled works. All but four titles in the catalog were in Latin. The library at the Sorbonnealso instituted a set of rules and regulations for library use. To ensure protection for itsvaluable books, it chained about 20 percent of its collection to shelves that were tilted
toward readers at an angle. There, several standing patrons could consult one manuscriptat a time, or one patron could consult several manuscripts at a time. By the end of the15th century the Sorbonne’s collection had grown to 2,500 volumes, increasing numbersof which were in vernacular languages. Elsewhere in Europe, library managers alsoimplemented new measures to secure, house, and arrange collections that in many caseshad grown to several thousand volumes. F. The Renaissance and Reformation Gutenberg Bible
Gutenberg BibleThe Gutenberg Bible is the first book known to have been created with movablemetal type. It was printed by Johannes Gutenberg in Mainz, Germany, between1450 and 1455. The advent of movable type increased the efficiency of printing andthe number of books that could be produced. More books and a more literatepopulation, in turn, enhanced the spread of libraries throughout Europe.Encarta EncyclopediaCulver Pictures Full Size
European libraries changed significantly after 1450, when German printer JohannesGutenberg first began printing with movable type in the city of Mainz. Printing spread sorapidly throughout western Europe that by 1600 new presses had issued approximately30,000 separate titles totaling about 20 million books. For a time, libraries—like theirpatrons—continued to favor hand-copied Latin manuscripts. However, between 1450 and1600 Europe experienced a series of power shifts that greatly influenced thedissemination of printed books to libraries throughout the continent. In addition, many ofthese books were written in vernacular languages rather than in Latin.During the Renaissance, from about the mid-14th century to the latter part of the 16thcentury, scholars produced a flood of literature expressing new beliefs about society,religion, government, art, culture, and other subjects. Books and libraries played a centralrole in the revival of interest in the intellectual heritage of ancient Greece and Rome.Scholars and poets in Italy such as Petrarch and Giovanni Boccaccio sparked thesedevelopments in the 14th century by actively seeking out long-forgotten manuscripts ofclassical authors and by building small private libraries. However, libraries establishedduring the Renaissance usually contained works from all periods, classical, medieval, andcontemporary. Sistine Hall of Vatican Library
Sistine Hall of Vatican LibraryThe Vatican Library was designed by Italian architect Domenico Fontana between1587 and 1590. An impressive example of Renaissance architecture, the library hasone of the finest collections of books and manuscripts in the world.Encarta EncyclopediaScala/Art Resource, NY Full Size
Pope Nicholas V established the Vatican Library in the mid-14th century. He appointedas librarian the scholar Giovanni Andrea de’ Bussi, who helped make the library one ofthe world’s greatest scholarly collections. Eventually, monasteries declined in importanceas the centers of culture, and noble families such as those of Lorenzo de’ Medici in Italyand the duke of Orleans in France built extensive private libraries. Italian artistMichelangelo designed and built the Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana in Florence, Italy,to house the Medici collection. French bibliophile Jean Grolier also achieved renown asowner of one of the finest private libraries of the time. In the Hungarian city of Buda(now part of Budapest), King Matthias Corvinus established an exceptional privatecollection of about 3,000 volumes.Meanwhile, donations from kings, nobles, bishops, and book collectors helped spur thegrowth of libraries at the universities in Oxford, Paris, and other European centers oflearning. More than 75 universities were founded before 1500 and all had some form oflibrary. See Colleges and Universities: History.During the 16th century the Protestant Reformation also had a major impact on Europeanlibrary development, especially in England. Protestants in England created libraries asrepositories of their faith against the influence of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1536,when King Henry VIII dissolved the Roman Catholic monasteries in the territory underhis control, most monasteries lost their library collections. In addition, because thisupheaval took place when new presses were already challenging the manuscript-basedlibrarianship of monasteries, printed texts of Protestant and secular information quicklybecame more prevalent than the manuscripts from Catholic monasteries. Responses tothese new developments generally took two forms. Some locales developed impressivelibraries attached to academic institutions. For example, Sir Thomas Bodley, an Englishscholar and diplomat, established the Bodleian Library in 1598 at Oxford University, andthe library formally opened to users in 1602. The original library at Oxford wasestablished in the 1300s, but Bodley took it over to provide proper shelves and to add tothe collection. Bodley also arranged for copies of all books printed in England to bedeposited at the Bodleian Library. Other sites, especially those with significantcommercial activity, used private endowments to establish libraries that served Protestantclergy, schools, and laypeople. For example, Norwich, England, established an endowedlibrary in 1586, and Guildford, England, established one in that same year.Fundamental shifts in economies and political structures throughout Europe during the16th century forced libraries to assume new practices and responsibilities. Members ofthe growing middle class benefited from the emergence of capitalist economies duringthis period. They soon began to demand access to information that could help themsolidify and advance their socioeconomic position. Libraries eventually became a centralsource of information for most Europeans.Europe: The 17th Through the 19th Century
By the 17th century the number of libraries had begun to increase significantly, and theEuropean library was beginning to take on its modern form. The monarchies of emergingnation-states in Europe were eager to publish national bodies of literature that would behoused in large libraries. Several court libraries were founded during this period, andmany of these later developed into national libraries. In Germany, for example, ElectorFrederich Wilhelm established a library in Berlin that later became the Prussian StateLibrary. In France, the Bibliothèque Nationale (now known as the Bibliothèque Nationalede France) also began as a royal library.Zealous book collecting during this period led to the establishment of many great privatecollections. In England, the activities of book collectors laid the foundation for theestablishment of the British Museum Library, which eventually became the BritishLibrary. Circulating libraries became popular in France, Germany, and England in the18th and early 19th centuries, and they helped make books available to the generalpublic. Housed in businesses such as bookstores and grocery stores, circulating librariesrented out books, usually the popular fiction of the day, for a small fee.French physician and librarian Gabriel Naudé laid the foundations for the principles andpractices of modern librarianship with the publication in 1627 of his book Advice on theFunction of a Library. Naudé wrote that libraries should be well organized and shouldcontain books from all branches of knowledge. He greatly influenced Gottfried vonLeibniz, a 17th- and early-18th-century philosopher and mathematician who became alibrarian in Hanover, Germany. Leibniz advocated adequately staffed and well-organizedlibraries that fulfill a social role much like that of a school or church.In the 18th century the establishment of thousands of social libraries in Europecontributed to the rise of public libraries. Groups of investors purchased stock in a sociallibrary. These stock purchases provided the money to maintain the library for use bysubscribers. Although they were generally somewhat profitable, social libraries werevulnerable to financial downturns in the economy. People eventually concluded that someform of government support was necessary to provide the public with free access tobooks.By the early 19th century, libraries had spread in large numbers throughout Europe, butcommunities had made little effort to act on the principles of Naudé and Leibniz. Fundsto maintain libraries were still generally inadequate, libraries had not taken steps tosystematically acquire and catalog books, and the position of librarian was still not a full-time occupation in many countries. However, the Industrial Revolution was rapidlychanging European society in ways that boosted the development of libraries and refinedtheir services. With education and literacy widespread by the 19th century, the publicwanted to be able to read recreationally. To meet this demand, public libraries becamecommon features in most European countries between 1850 and 1900.The Industrial Revolution, with its emphasis on science and technology, led to the rise ofthe special library. Businesses, industries, research foundations, and government agenciesall saw the need to establish their own libraries that would enable them to undertake the
research and development they needed to survive in an increasingly competitive world.By the late 19th century, libraries of all types were better financed, stocked, and staffed.A new professionalism also emerged during this period as librarians formedorganizations to promote support for libraries and to advance the profession oflibrarianship. In Britain, librarians formed the Library Association in 1877, one year afterthe founding of the American Library Association.In the 16th century the Reformation had forced the various principalities of Germany intoseparate Catholic and Protestant territories. When converts to Protestantism assumedcontrol of formerly Catholic territories, they often plundered and sometimes destroyedmonastic libraries full of books that supported the Catholic faith. However, many textsfound their way into the libraries of controlling princes. These court libraries becamemodels for most German libraries for the next 200 years. In the 17th century, forexample, Duke August of Brunswick built a library in Wolfenbyüttel to house hisimpressive collections. Frederick II, who was king of Prussia during the 18th century,amassed a library of 150,000 volumes, which he organized and stored in a separatebuilding. By the end of the 18th century, the court library in Dresden consisted of170,000 volumes that had been organized using a unique geographical-historicalclassification scheme.At the beginning of the 19th century Germany sought to compensate its princes for lossessuffered in the Napoleonic Wars (1799-1815). Part of this compensation included thecontents of entire monastic and cathedral libraries within the ecclesiastical territories thatNapoleon had made secular in 1802. As a result, many court libraries grew tremendously.For example, the Munich Court Library became owner of the largest collection ofincunabula (materials produced before 1501) in the world when it obtained more than200,000 items that Bavarian monasteries and convents had been collecting and preservingfor centuries. Libraries experienced more growth when many German states beganimposing legal deposit requirements, which mandated that any author seeking to obtain acopyright had to deposit at least one copy of the book in an archive of copyrighted works—usually a government library. As the 19th century progressed, and as the separateGerman states moved toward a unified nation, court libraries gradually transformed intoregional institutions supported by public funds.By the time the German states unified in 1871, members of a growing middle class,which had been given only limited access to regional libraries, had developed their ownindependent reading societies and commercial lending libraries to satisfy theirinformation needs. These libraries provided a foundation for an early-20th-centurymovement to establish public libraries.Before the 17th century, libraries in France were private collections maintained byreligious institutions, by members of French royalty, and by a growing number of Frenchprofessionals. Eventually the general public benefited from the growth of these privatelibraries. For example, in 1661 Cardinal Jules Mazarin opened his eclectic collection of25,000 volumes “to everybody without exception.” In doing so, he created a model for
French libraries against which others were measured. Within a century France had 50towns with public libraries.Although some libraries suffered significant losses in the French Revolution (1789-1799), most eventually emerged as stronger institutions. After King Louis XVI wasdeposed in 1792, the new French Republic established several national libraries in Paris.Among these was the Bibliothèque Nationale (now known as the Bibliothèque Nationalede France), which was founded in 1795 with the collections of the royal library, theBibliothèque du Roi (dating from 1368). By the mid-19th century, newly establishedpublic libraries began providing entertainment literature to the general population. Aboutthe same time, France also witnessed the creation of school libraries; however, public andschool libraries did not develop into a widespread system until the mid-20th century.Increased literacy in 18th-century England led to the rise of a new reading public willingand able to pay for multiple types of reading materials. Circulating libraries, includingthe popular Mudie’s Select Library in London, were commercial enterprises that rentedbooks to customers. Also known as commercial lending libraries, circulating librariesoffered collections of popular materials such as biographies, travel narratives, and novels.Most issued a catalog that customers used to make their selections. Circulating librariesradically transformed library services by welcoming women as reading patrons for thefirst time in library history. The patronage of women significantly contributed to thepopularity of the circulating library. These libraries were popular well into the 19thcentury.The subscription library addressed another type of reading interest. In these librariesseveral people pooled their capital to purchase a collection of books to which allshareholders had access. The collections of subscription libraries tended to includemostly secular works of nonfiction, and they focused especially on works identified withthe 18th-century philosophical movement known as the Enlightenment.The first public library in England opened in Manchester in 1852, and others rapidlyspread throughout the country. In 1883 American steel magnate and philanthropistAndrew Carnegie began providing funds for the establishment of public libraries inEngland. With this infusion of money, an average of 16 public libraries were built inEngland each year. By 1918 half of all library authorities in England had receivedCarnegie money for the construction of buildings.Various private organizations and learned societies established special libraries inEngland, such as the library of the Society of Apothecaries (established in 1633) or thelibrary of The Royal Society (1660). Other British libraries benefited from governmentsupport. For example, by the mid-19th century legal deposit laws entitled the library ofthe British Museum to receive copies of every work registered for copyright in England.These laws, coupled with new public funds, allowed the library to accelerate its growthinto the British Library, which today has one of the greatest collections in the world.
In Austria, more than 100 monastery libraries established during the Middle Ages hadbeen transformed into court libraries and eventually into state-supported public librariesby the 18th century. Libraries fared much worse in Poland. Many libraries there weredestroyed by Catholic zealots during the Counter Reformation, an anti-Protestantmovement of the 16th and 17th centuries. In addition, Swedish armies destroyed librariesin the Polish cities of Kraków, Warsaw, and others during the 17th century. Finally,between 1795 and 1918 invading Russian and German armies stole freely from Polishcollections as they advanced and retreated in wars fought over Polish territory. Polandwas unable to establish a national library until 1928, long after most other Europeancountries had founded national libraries.The earliest Russian libraries were established by cathedrals and monasteries as early asthe 11th century. By the 18th century a few wealthy Russians had also amassed largebook collections. Russian tsar Peter the Great founded the country’s first research library,at the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1724. During the late 18th century EmpressCatherine the Great expanded Russia’s library holdings by increasing the size of manyexisting collections and by establishing several new state-supported libraries. By the endof the 19th century several Russian libraries housed multimillion-volume collections,including the Imperial Public Library (now the National Library of Russia) in SaintPetersburg. After the Russian Revolution in 1917, numerous academic, research, andpublic libraries developed throughout the various republics of the Union of SovietSocialist Republics.Europe in the Early 20th CenturyBy the early 20th century librarianship in Europe had emerged as a distinct profession,and a wide range of library services were in place. National libraries regularly receivedcopies of all books printed in their country as a condition of copyright protection forauthors. Well-stocked and efficient university libraries served the academic needs ofstudents and scholars. Public libraries provided recreational and instructional material forpatrons in most urban communities. Newly founded special libraries also made up-to-dateinformation available on science and business. However, European library developmentremained uneven, especially in eastern and southern Europe. Libraries there continued toreceive inadequate support and the public had difficulty getting access to books andlibrary services.Many European countries escaped the damage of World War I (1914-1918), but WorldWar II (1939-1945) had a profound effect on hundreds of libraries. Public libraries inlarge English cities such as Bristol, Liverpool, Birmingham, and Manchester sufferedgreat losses, and libraries in smaller cities lost some or all of their collections. The BritishMuseum Library lost many irreplaceable items when German planes shelled a buildingwing that housed some 110,000 books and 30,000 volumes of bound newspapers. At thesame time, Allied aerial bombing raids destroyed library buildings and collections inGermany, especially those at Kassel, Dresden, and Stuttgart. Some countries, such asFrance, Belgium, and Denmark, fell to Germany relatively early in the war, and so their
libraries escaped serious war damage. For further information about European libraries inthe 20th century, see the Libraries of the World section of this article. I . AsiaLibrary development in Asia followed patterns similar to those in Europe. In much ofAsia the earliest documented libraries were connected with temples and centers ofreligious learning. Those libraries developed primarily in the period that roughlycorresponds to the European Middle Ages. In most countries, religious libraries coexistedwith royal and court libraries, but all libraries were restricted to just a few users. 1 . ChinaDuring the Shang dynasty (1570?-1045? BC) in what is now China, many archivalcollections consisted of official records inscribed on sacred bones, tortoiseshell, andpieces of bronze. In the 3rd century BC, Qin Shihuangdi founded the Qin dynasty andbecame the first emperor of a unified China. To solidify his power, he ordered hissubjects to destroy all historical works that disagreed with Qin history and philosophy,including classics by Chinese philosopher Confucius.Censorship of Chinese literature was lifted during the Han dynasty (206 BC-AD 220),when Chinese officials created three imperial libraries and directed each to restore andreproduce texts that previous rulers had ordered destroyed. Fortunately, many of the textshad survived the Qin dynasty because their owners had hidden them from censoringgovernment officials. Reproduction of books became much easier after AD 105, whenpaper was introduced in China. By that time China had already produced its first catalogsof library collections and had developed a standardized classification scheme. Oversubsequent centuries, Chinese artisans also became expert in wood-block printing, whichfacilitated the rapid reproduction of the ancient Buddhist texts. These textscharacteristically dominated the many private libraries that flourished during the Tangdynasty (AD 618-907).After a period of decline, Chinese libraries steadily expanded during the Qing dynasty(1644-1911). However, military threats from Western nations and the Opium Wars(1839-1842, 1856-1860) periodically diverted national attention from librarydevelopment. China first began to establish public libraries in the early 20th century, butwhen Japanese troops occupied the country from 1937 to 1945, these libraries lost 2.7million volumes, almost half of China’s total book stock. 2 Japan .
Libraries in ancient Japan were concentrated in Buddhist temples. In the 7th century AD,Prince Shikoku increased collections at more than 500 temple libraries by contributingConfucian classics and sacred Buddhist texts. By the beginning of the 8th century, Japanhad established a national library to collect and copy imperial documents. Like librarieselsewhere in the world at this time, however, Japan’s national library permitted only elitemembers of society to access its collections. Access to Japanese libraries remainedlimited for hundreds of years. In the 14th century, for example, a renowned library nearTokyo called the Kanazawa Bunko allowed only priests, scholars, and samurai (membersof the warrior class) to consult its collections of more than 25,000 texts.Private libraries were the most extensive collections in Japan during the rule of theTokugawa shogunate of the Edo period, from 1603 to 1867. With the return of imperialrule in the late 19th century, however, Japan adopted several Western institutions asmodels for library development. Because the new government embraced the idea thatlibraries were essential to modernization, Japan initiated an extensive public-libraryconstruction effort. However, bombing raids and economic devastation caused by WorldWar II (1939-1945) brought significant losses to Japanese libraries, particularly thoselocated in urban areas. 3 . IndiaThe earliest libraries in ancient India were maintained by royal palaces, but historiansknow very little about them. By the 13th century, India supported libraries in royalpalaces, temples, and universities. Use of each of these types of libraries was limited toelite members of society.During the nearly two centuries that Britain controlled India (1757-1947), the British-owned East India Company made numerous financial contributions to universitylibraries. This financial assistance stimulated library development in Indian universitiesthat used British academic libraries as models. Other types of libraries in India alsolooked to Great Britain for models of library development. For example, an 1867 legaldeposit law required all Indian authors to provide copies of their books to the KolkataPublic Library in order to receive copyright protection for their work. As a result, thelibrary’s collection grew rapidly. The Calcutta Public Library amalgamated with theImperial Library in 1903 and in 1948 it became the National Library of India. In addition,subscription and circulating libraries established during the 19th century by Englishcolonists gradually evolved into an Indian public library system in the 20th century. J. Early Islamic Libraries
In the Middle East, followers of the prophet Muhammad compiled written records of histeachings and revelations, and transcribed them onto papyrus codices a few years after hisdeath in AD 632. These manuscripts became known as the Qur’an (Koran) and theHadith, and they quickly became the centerpieces of the Islamic religion (see Islam).Muslims (followers of Islam) were encouraged to read the Qur’an regularly and tomemorize substantial portions of the text. As Islam spread throughout the Middle East insubsequent centuries, Muslims established libraries (also known as maktabat, madrassas,or schools) of sacred writings in their mosques.In the late 7th century Mu’awiyah I, the governor of Syria and the first caliph (religiousand secular leader) of the Islamic Umayyad dynasty, reorganized his extensive personallibrary by modeling it on the library of Alexandria in Egypt. In the early 8th century oneof Mu’awiyah’s successors improved and enlarged the library. He also appointed acurator of books to maintain a collection of hundreds of manuscripts, including works onchemistry, medicine, astrology, and military science.Libraries grew quickly throughout the Middle East in the 8th century after Muslimsadopted methods of making paper that they learned from the Chinese. After the Abbasidstook control of large segments of the eastern Umayyad empire in 750, Abbasid caliphAbū Ja’far al-Mansūr ordered classical Greek, Latin, Persian, and Indian works translatedinto Arabic. The Umayyads, who had retained control of western portions of their empireand the Iberian Peninsula, developed large libraries and book markets in 10th-centuryBaghdād (in what is now Iraq) and in Cordoba, Spain. European Christian monksfrequented the collections of 400,000 books in the Cordoba library in search of new texts.Among the Arab collections, the Europeans discovered translations of ancient texts theyhad previously thought were lost, including works by Greek mathematician Euclid, Greekphilosopher Aristotle, Egyptian mathematician and astronomer Ptolemy, and Romanphysician Galen.Some of the most famous Islamic madrassas included Baitul ‘Ilam (House of Learning),established in about 988 in Cairo, Egypt; Baitul Hikma in Baghdād, Iraq, in the 9thcentury; and Al-Zaituna Mosque-University, founded in Tunisia in the 15th century. Al-Azhar was founded in Cairo in 970 and today is the oldest existing university in the world(Al-Azhar, University of). In Saudi Arabia, most of the libraries were founded in Mecca(Makkah) and Medina (Medinat-en-Nabi). These libraries became noted for theircollections of manuscripts and rare books dating from the early Islamic period. K. South AmericaIn 1551 Spanish colonists established the University of San Marcos in Lima, Peru, andtoday its library is the oldest in the western hemisphere. For the next three centuries, the
most extensive libraries on the continent were maintained by monasteries and convents ofthe Roman Catholic Church. In Bolivia, for example, the Catholic Church used itsmonastery libraries to help teach the principles of Christianity to the Native Americanpopulation and to help educate Spanish-born leaders and their children. Many wealthyindividuals in South America also held significant private libraries.Most South American countries established national libraries following theirindependence from Spain (or Portugal, in the case of Brazil) in the 19th century. Thesenational libraries developed many of their collections from the works brought to SouthAmerica by Spanish and Portuguese colonists or by Catholic missionaries. In Chile, forexample, collections at the national library, established in 1813, benefited significantlyfrom libraries confiscated from Jesuit monasteries. The Brazilian national library,founded in 1910, was established with book and document collections brought byPortuguese royalty who had fled Napoleon in the early 19th century. L. United States and CanadaMost immigrants to colonial North America came from England and France.Accordingly, libraries in the United States and Canada are rooted in the traditions ofEnglish and French libraries. Because many Europeans immigrated to the colonies ofNorth America in search of religious freedom, most books brought by early settlers werereligious works intended to nourish their spiritual needs. Settlers also brought medicaltexts that described treatments for physical ailments.A lack of leisure time prevented the first colonists from establishing libraries where theycould read secular texts. Additionally, unlike the cities of Europe, the earliest NorthAmerican settlements had few wealthy aristocrats willing to patronize the arts. For thesereasons, the colonists did not establish publicly accessible libraries for severalgenerations.The earliest library north of the Rio Grande River, the Jesuit Mission Library, wasestablished in Québec (then called New France) in 1632. The collections included booksof medicine, botany, and religion. It became the library of the Collège des Jésuites whenthe school was founded in 1635. The second library in North America was established in1638, when Massachusetts clergyman John Harvard donated several hundred bookstoward the founding of a college in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The college adopted thename of its benefactor to become Harvard College (later Harvard University) and usedHarvard’s bequest of books to form the core of its library collection.Libraries in 17th-century North America were typically private collections that belongedto clergy or physicians, and they usually did not exceed 50 to 100 volumes. There wereseveral notable exceptions, among them the more than 1,000 books that Connecticutgovernor John Winthrop had amassed by 1639 and the more than 4,000 volumes that
Puritan theologian Cotton Mather of Massachusetts and political leader William Byrd ofVirginia had each collected by the early 1700s.Several people tried to provide greater access to the private collections in colonial NorthAmerica. In 1653 Massachusetts merchant Captain Robert Keayne bequeathed part of hisprivate library to the city of Boston with the stipulation that the city construct anappropriate facility for it. The city built the Boston Town House in 1657 to houseKeayne’s collection, but the library was open only to paying subscribers. In 1698 the cityof Charleston, South Carolina, claimed the honor of establishing the first library in thecolonial United States supported mainly by public funds.To convert Native Americans to Christianity and to combat what he perceived as heresyamong Quakers, Anglican minister Thomas Bray established more than 70 libraries ofcarefully selected materials in the colonies between 1695 and 1704. Five of these werelocated in large cities to serve entire regions; the rest were established in churches wherethey were made available for parishioners. Although several colonial legislatures passedlaws to maintain the Bray libraries, they did not allow for the replacement of volumes asthe original collections wore out. As a result, the libraries fell into disuse not long afterBray’s death in 1730.Different types of libraries developed in North America to serve the various needs of adiverse population. The following sections profile the development of the most prominenttypes of North American libraries. 1 . Society LibrariesAs early as 1728, Pennsylvania printer, scientist, and author Benjamin Franklin and 11others in the Junto, an intellectual discussion group, pooled their private libraries togetherinto one commonly used collection. The enterprise failed, but the experience inspiredFranklin to establish in 1731 the Library Company of Philadelphia, the country’s firstsociety library (also known as a social library). People wishing to join the LibraryCompany’s society of readers could buy shares of the company’s stock. The library thenused these funds to buy books that all society members could access. This structure,similar to the structure of subscription libraries in Britain, became a prototype forhundreds of society libraries later established in the United States and Canada. Societylibraries still in operation include the Redwood Library and Athenaeum in Newport,Rhode Island; the Charleston Society Library in Charleston, South Carolina; and theoriginal Library Company in Philadelphia.Society libraries thrived in North America from about 1750 to 1850. They filled theneeds of an increasingly urbanized, sophisticated public by providing collectionscontaining mostly biographies, philosophy, and travel narratives. Some society librarieseventually began inviting nonshareholders to pay an annual fee for the privilege ofaccessing the library’s collection. These came to be known as subscription libraries in
North America, although their willingness to admit nonshareholders distinguished themfrom the subscription libraries in Britain. Other North American society libraries, whichbecame known as athenaeums, issued expensive stocks to fund not only the purchase ofbooks, but also the purchase of periodicals and the presentation of cultural events.Canada’s first subscription library was a bilingual collection in French and English. Itwas established in 1779 in Québec City by the British governor of Québec, Sir FrederickHaldimand. However, the library’s rates were too high to attract any but the wealthiestcitizens. The present-day Montréal Public Library in Québec was first established as asubscription library in 1796. Ontario’s first subscription collection opened in 1800 inNiagara-on-the-Lake, and it too eventually became a public library.Some society and subscription libraries attracted controversy. In Québec, volunteersestablished a society library known as the Library and Reading Room of the CanadianInstitute in 1844. The library came under attack by the Catholic Church in the late 1860sfor making available books condemned by the Church’s Index of Forbidden Books. Thelibrary was disbanded in 1880 under pressure from the Catholic Church.Industries and trade groups sponsored the formation of mercantile libraries, which wereessentially society libraries that offered collections designed to improve the skills offactory workers, clerks, and apprentices. Also called mechanics’ institutes, they played aparticularly significant role in the history of public library service in Canada. The firstCanadian mechanics’ institute appeared in St. John’s, Newfoundland, in 1827, followedthe next year by one in Montréal. Mercantile libraries also served workers in the UnitedStates in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia. They offered courses of instruction andbooks of practical value as well as works of intellectual and aesthetic interest. 2 . Public LibrariesDuring the 19th century increased industrialization and urbanization contributed to agrowing middle class. Members of the middle class were determined to protect andextend their newfound economic status by gaining better access to information. Facedwith a wave of unskilled immigrants to the cities from rural areas as well as fromoverseas, the middle class began championing universal literacy and mandatoryattendance at public schools. These sentiments echoed the popular political belief that ademocratic government could function effectively only when the citizenry was capable ofmaking informed choices. Increasingly, Americans and Canadians came to believe thatlibraries could be an effective means of informing the public.Despite widespread popular support for public libraries, communities still struggled toestablish funding mechanisms for them. Indiana passed legislation authorizing theformation of county library systems in 1816, but it was the small community ofPeterborough, New Hampshire, that established the first tax-supported local publiclibrary in the United States, in 1833. Two years later New York became the first state to
give its school districts the power to tax citizens for public library service. By 1850public libraries in New York school districts held some 1.5 million books. The successesof this funding mechanism led several other states to pass similar laws. In 1851 theCanadian government passed the Common School Act of United Canada, which followedthe New York model of using taxes in local school districts to fund public libraries.Although vestiges of this system continue in isolated pockets throughout North America,the school-district approach to funding libraries ultimately failed because mostlawmakers did not appropriate adequate funds for staff, suitable buildings, andacquisition of library materials. a.Boston Public LibraryThe Boston Public Library, established in 1848, became the preeminent model formodern public library service in North America. American scholar and educator GeorgeTicknor served on the first board of the library. Ticknor had studied overseas and wasfamiliar with the closed stacks of the great European libraries, which prohibited usersfrom removing library materials from the building. Ticknor proposed that the new Bostoninstitution allow patrons to borrow popular titles for use outside the facility at no charge,in addition to housing a noncirculating scholarly collection for reference. The popularityof Boston’s circulation policy eventually set the standard for circulation at public librariesin the United States and Canada. b. New York Public Library Main Reading Room of New York Public Library
Main Reading Room of New York Public LibraryThe Main Reading Room is the central workspace for patrons of the New YorkPublic Library’s Center for the Humanities. First opened to the public in 1911, theroom received a $15 million renovation in 1998 that restored many architecturaldetails to their original splendor.Encarta EncyclopediaStephanie Maze/Woodfin Camp and Associates, Inc. Full Size
Before New York City established its extensive public library system, the city had anumber of circulating libraries and mercantile libraries that served the public. New Yorkwas also home to two notable private research collections: the Astor Library and theLenox Library. They were both open to the public, but not at hours convenient forworking people.The New York Public Library was established in 1895 with funds from a trust providedby American political leader Samuel J. Tilden. The trust was sufficient to combine theresources of the Astor and Lenox libraries to form the foundation of the new publiclibrary’s noncirculating reference department. The circulation department was establishedwhen the library consolidated with The New York Free Circulating Library in 1901.Later that same year, the library received a major grant from steel magnate AndrewCarnegie enabling it to contract with the City of New York to establish 39 so-calledCarnegie branches in the Bronx, Manhattan, and Staten Island. The New York PublicLibrary eventually grew to include an administrative center, 4 research libraries, and 82branch libraries, forming the largest public library system in North America. It is also thelargest research library in the world to have a circulating system. For more informationon the New York Public Library’s research centers, see the subsection ResearchLibraries in the Types of Libraries section of this article. c.Midwestern Public LibrariesIn the Midwestern United States, public libraries grew with the expansion of commerceand land values in the region. The Chicago Public Library in Illinois was just gettingunder way when a great fire in 1871 destroyed its collection. The library was quicklyrebuilt, however, with assistance from people across the United States and also inEngland. In 1907 the children’s room of Chicago Public Library’s Central Library wasrenamed The Thomas Hughes Room in recognition of the efforts of English authorThomas Hughes in collecting books for the restored library.The Cleveland Public Library in Ohio was established in 1869. Under the leadership ofWilliam Howard Brett (director from 1884 to 1918) and his successor Linda AnnEastman (director from 1918 to 1938), the Cleveland Public Library developed severalinnovations to bring service to the entire community. For example, it achieved notablesuccess in extending specialized services to immigrants, hospital patients, children, andbusiness people.The flowering of public libraries across the United States during the late 19th century wasgreatly stimulated by the generosity of American steel magnate Andrew Carnegie.Between 1881 and his death in 1919, Carnegie donated millions of dollars to English-speaking countries worldwide for the construction of library buildings. Carnegie’s
philanthropy also inspired other wealthy benefactors to contribute to the establishment ofpublic library services.Carnegie attached certain conditions to his donations, and these conditions helpedpopularize the idea that public library service is rightfully a government function. Beforegiving to a community, Carnegie stipulated that local authorities agree to maintain thelibrary building in perpetuity. He also required them to tax community residents annuallyto fund the library’s operation. Many civic organizations, most notably women’s groups,lobbied local authorities in communities throughout the United States to acceptCarnegie’s challenge, and soon cities and towns established funding mechanisms tomaintain public libraries. As a result, the number of public libraries surged in the late19th and early 20th centuries, growing from 188 libraries in 1876 to 3,873 libraries by1923. e.Canadian Public LibrariesCanadian public libraries also multiplied in the late 19th century, especially afterprovinces passed legislation to support them with public funds. In 1882 Ontario becamethe first province to authorize tax-supported libraries, and two years later the city ofToronto established the Toronto Public Library. Over the years, other provinces alsopassed legislation to support public libraries. In 1959 Québec become the last province toapprove tax support for free public libraries. f New Funding Mechanisms .Gradually, public libraries sought new ways to obtain funding for their operations. Manyof these efforts were led by the American Library Association, established in 1876 toadvocate for libraries and to advance the profession of librarianship. In the early 20thcentury library advocates and public officials strove to develop more effective fundingmechanisms for library services in sparsely populated areas. These efforts led to thedevelopment of county library systems and later to multicounty and regional librarysystems throughout the United States. Officials in Canada also concluded that regionallibrary systems could best serve the widely scattered populations throughout the uppertwo-thirds of that country.Public library use rose dramatically during the first half of the 20th century asunprecedented numbers of immigrants and displaced workers sought to acquire newskills with the help of library collections and services. To meet this growing demand,library officials at the state level teamed with members of the American LibraryAssociation to secure federal funding for U.S. libraries. The United States governmentresponded to these efforts by passing the 1956 Library Services Act (LSA), whichprovided federal support for rural libraries throughout the country. The Library ServicesAct provided assistance for public library service to communities with a population ofless than 10,000 and covered all services other than building construction. The federalgovernment later extended this support to urban libraries with the 1964 successor to the
LSA, the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA). LSCA-funded provisions haveincluded a range of services for U.S. libraries, including construction projects, literacytraining, and staff development.In the mid- and late 1960s the administration of U.S. president Lyndon Johnson furtherextended federal support to libraries through a group of legislative programs collectivelyknown as the Great Society. The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, theMedical Library Assistance Act of 1965, and the Higher Education Acts of 1965 and1966 all directed federal aid to libraries.However, economic downturns in the 1970s increased public reluctance to pay forgovernment programs through taxes. As a result, library development stalled at a timewhen most libraries’ budgets were being strained by the addition of new technologiessuch as audiovisual and digital materials. In some communities, public libraries closeddue to a lack of adequate funds. Libraries suffered perhaps the greatest budgetaryconstraints in California, where voters approved a property-tax cap in 1978. Challengesto library funding continued throughout the 1980s and 1990s, even as demand for publiclibrary service continued to rise. According to a 1995 Gallup poll, 67 percent ofAmericans reported that they had used a public library within the previous 12 months, upfrom just 51 percent in 1978.Despite ongoing struggles to secure adequate funding, public libraries are confronted bydemands for increased services, particularly high-speed Internet access. Providing thelatest technological advances is beyond the means of many public library systems,however. As a result, public libraries throughout North America increasingly turn toprivate sources for additional funding. For more information, see the Trends andChallenges section of this article. 3 . Government Libraries Thomas Jefferson
Thomas JeffersonThomas Jefferson, the third president of the United States, was the principalfounder of the Library of Congress. His personal library provided the core of thelibrary’s early collection. Jefferson’s vast range of interests also determined theuniversal and diverse scope of the library’s collections and activities.Encarta EncyclopediaHulton Deutsch Full Size
The United States Congress established the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., in1800. Despite strong initial support from the federal government, particularly from U.S.president Thomas Jefferson, the library’s collections were relatively modest during itsfirst several decades of existence. However, the collections experienced significantlyaccelerated growth after 1870, when Librarian of Congress Ainsworth Rand Spoffordpersuaded Congress to revise and centralize the nation’s legal deposit law. The new lawstipulated that two copies of every work registered for copyright in the United Statesmust be deposited in the library. Collections expanded so rapidly thereafter that Congresshad to build a separate structure across the street from the Capitol building. The Libraryof Congress moved into its new quarters in 1897.The scope of the library’s services greatly expanded under the leadership of HerbertPutnam, librarian of Congress from 1899 to 1939. Putnam initiated programs to produce,sell, and distribute catalog cards in the newly developed Library of CongressClassification system; to develop national union catalogs that compile the catalogs ofselected libraries throughout the country; and to standardize interlibrary loan proceduresamong the nation’s libraries. Since the 1930s the Library of Congress has continued toexpand its national activities while also developing an increased international presence.During the 1950s the library greatly increased its collections of research materials fromforeign countries, and by 1980 the library expanded into a third building. Today, thelibrary’s National Digital Library program provides remote access through the Internet tomore than 400,000 digital files in the library’s collections.The federal government also established the National Library of Medicine in 1836 andthe National Library of Agriculture in 1862. The government established the NationalLibrary of Education in 1994 as part of a school reform law entitled Goals 2000: EducateAmerica Act. 4 . School LibrariesThe first school libraries in the United States and Canada opened in the 18th century inelite private schools. Most schools lacked their own libraries until the 19th century, whenlocal governments first established publicly funded school systems. In 1835 the NewYork State legislature passed the nation’s first school-district library legislation. Thislegislation provided tax-supported library service for the entire population within thejurisdiction of each school district. This funding mechanism soon spread throughout theUnited States and Canada, and school districts established their own libraries for theircommunities. Most of these libraries were located in rooms within the school that werenot used for the instruction of students. Although their primary mission was to serve thegeneral public, these libraries also offered limited services to students.
By the late 19th and early 20th centuries, educational leaders increasingly advocated thecreation of school libraries that would support the general curriculum of the schools thelibraries served and would be available only to students and teachers. Seeking greaterautonomy for school library services, the National Education Association of the UnitedStates (NEA) pressed for the separate funding, staffing, and administration of schoollibraries as early as 1912. Along with the National Council of Teachers of English andthe American Library Association, the NEA established quality standards for high schoollibraries that stipulated appropriate collections, services, and facilities. School boardsbegan to endorse these standards in 1920, and most high schools eventually establishedquality library collections, hired librarians, and created recommended reading lists forstudents. Elementary schools during this period generally lacked formal libraries for theirstudents.The growth of school libraries temporarily slowed during the economic collapse of the1930s and the outbreak of World War II in 1939. After the end of the war in 1945,however, high school libraries in many communities of the United States and Canadagained more public funds, and elementary schools finally began to establish libraries oftheir own. Nevertheless, in the 1950s many school libraries were in poor condition, andas late as 1962 one-half of all public schools were without libraries.Libraries became much more prevalent in schools beginning in the mid-1960s. Theintroduction to the classroom of audio and visual media such as filmstrips was especiallyinfluential in stimulating this spread of school libraries. By the late 1960s school librariescontinued to provide traditional printed materials, but they had also evolved into mediacenters that collected, maintained, and circulated films, filmstrips, and audio recordings.In the United States, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 earmarkedfederal funds for schools and school libraries. By providing substantial aid for newlibrary quarters, equipment, and the hiring of trained librarians, the act further spurred thedevelopment of libraries in schools throughout the country. Elementary and secondaryschools also benefited from the Higher Education Acts of 1965 and 1966, which providedfunds for the education of school librarians.By 1978, 85 percent of the 83,044 public schools in the United States had a library ormedia center. Nearly 50 percent of these school libraries reported holdings of between5,000 and 9,000 volumes. Still, in 1978 almost 3 million students attended schoolswithout a library or media center.Since the 1970s, school libraries have struggled to provide state-of-the-art informationresources. Despite widespread recognition of the benefits of school libraries, public fundsoften prove inadequate for schools to hire professional staff, develop new collections, ormodernize facilities. As a result, many elementary and secondary school libraries haveclosed, and the materials of many other school libraries are seriously out of date. Thosethat have remained open have often survived by hiring library workers who lackprofessional credentials. These workers usually report to trained media specialists whosupervise entire districts. In some areas, such as Scottsdale, Arizona, and New Orleans,
Louisiana, public officials reestablished libraries that served both the schools and thegeneral public in the hope of saving money by eliminating any duplication of services.In the 1990s educational leaders and library advocates attempted to counter these trendsby mounting new development efforts to provide school libraries with current materialsand connections to the Internet. Some of these efforts have been successful. For example,in 1997 students at 78 percent of U.S. public schools had access to the Internet, up from35 percent in 1994. In 1999 the National Center for Educational Statistics estimated that95 percent of U.S. public schools would have Internet access by 2000. 5 . College and University LibrariesLibrary collections in institutions of higher education north of Mexico date from 1635,when the library for the Collège des Jésuites was established in Québec. The Jesuitcollege no longer exists, but some books from the library’s collection now belong to thelibrary of Université Laval in Sainte-Foy, Québec. In 1638 English clergyman JohnHarvard donated some 300 hundred books to a fledgling college in Cambridge,Massachusetts. Administrators of the college later decided to name the school HarvardCollege (now Harvard University) in honor of its benefactor. a.Early CollectionsThe small collections of library materials in the colleges of colonial North Americaprovided limited services to their users. In the 17th and 18th centuries North Americancolleges relied heavily on monetary donations and gifts of books from private collectors.These collectors often favored theological works, so academic libraries found themselveswith collections that focused on limited subjects. Most libraries also kept irregular hoursbecause they were usually managed by a single faculty member who supervised thecollection in addition to teaching in the classroom. Academic libraries provided verylimited access to their collections. They extended borrowing privileges only to thosewhom the librarian deemed worthy—usually faculty members and occasionally advancedstudents, but almost never first- or second-year students. To gain access to writtenmaterials, students on many campuses formed their own literary-society libraries, someof which were eventually incorporated by the academic libraries of the 19th century.In the second half of the 19th century administrators at many colleges and universitiesenhanced academic library budgets to better meet the growing needs of faculty andstudents. Until this period, colleges and universities usually had required all of theirstudents to follow a fixed course of study. Because the typical college curriculum focusedon reading an established set of classical texts, the limited collections of academiclibraries were often adequate to meet these needs. This pattern changed when Harvardpresident Charles William Eliot began his tenure at the university in 1869 and allowedstudents to take elective courses. Other American colleges soon followed Harvard’s
elective-course model, making subject departments more responsive to individual studentinterests. To support this broader curriculum, the college library collections needed toinclude more diverse materials. Also, universities in the United States were beginning toemploy professors, like Eliot, who had studied in research-oriented German universities.These professors came to American institutions and demanded libraries with betterresearch facilities for themselves and their students. b Expansion .By the late 19th century library hours began to increase, and collections grew both indepth of coverage and in diversity of topics. Academic libraries stored their generalcollections in centralized locations for access by undergraduates majoring in differentspecialties. The libraries generally clustered more specific collections into departmentallibraries for graduate study. In the 20th century academic librarians devised a closedreserve system, which removed from circulation certain heavily used materials so thatusers could be certain of gaining access to the materials on the shelves.College enrollments swelled in the United States after World War II (1939-1945).Unprecedented numbers of veterans gained access to higher education through theprovisions of the GI Bill, which paid their college tuition (see Department of VeteransAffairs: The GI Bill). As academic libraries struggled to serve an expanded clientele,their budgets became increasingly strained. The federal government provided assistancewith the 1965 Higher Education Act, which provided grants for acquisitions and newfacilities.A postwar economic boom in Canada affected the size and diversity of academic librariesthere as well. College and university students demonstrated a renewed interest inprofessional training, and this interest fostered the development of postgraduateeducation programs and the libraries to sustain this new scholarship. The vast majority ofCanadian colleges and universities were publicly funded, and provincial and federalgovernments provided libraries with extensive financial support during the economicallyprosperous 1960s. These funds stimulated a building boom and a surge in the size ofacademic library collections and staffs throughout the country.Like the United States, however, Canada experienced a series of economic recessionsbeginning in the 1970s and lasting into the 1980s. This period of recession resulted inshrinking financial support for college and university libraries. The libraries coped withthese budgetary constraints by strengthening cooperation between institutions, sharingcataloging responsibilities, establishing reciprocal borrowing agreements, and creatinginterlibrary loan networks. In the meantime, library operation costs continued to escalatein both the United States and Canada. The price of subscriptions to scholarly journals hadbecome especially high, causing difficulties for academic libraries as they struggled tostay within their limited budgets. Academic libraries tried to withstand these difficultiesin the 1980s and 1990s by pooling their buying strengths into local networks. Memberlibraries collectively purchased scholarly articles through a supplier and then distributed
these articles among themselves. By the mid-1990s nearly all campus libraries in theUnited States and Canada provided Internet access, which provided still greater access toscholarly materials through interlibrary networks. 6 . Private and Research LibrariesAs do libraries elsewhere in the world, libraries in the United States and Canada owe agreat debt to private book collectors who donated their personal libraries to institutionsfor wider use. A few of these collections formed the core of respected independentresearch libraries. However, most ended up in public or academic libraries. For example,the private library of American financier John Pierpont Morgan was made into thePierpont Morgan Library, a public research library in New York. More recently, in 1983the Lilly Library of Indiana University acquired the 10,000-volume children’s bookcollection of Elisabeth Ball, daughter of a successful glass manufacturer in Muncie,Indiana.Large numbers of book collectors and benefactors in the United States and Canadaestablished private research libraries in reaction to the public library movement of the late19th and early 20th centuries. Many started the private libraries because they wereconcerned that public collections would lack the resources needed by serious scholarswho did not have access to a university library. The private research libraries generallycontained extensive scholarly materials on specific subjects. Many of the most notableresearch libraries in the United States are privately funded institutions. These include theNewberry Library, founded in Chicago, Illinois, and named after business leader andbook collector Walter L. Newberry in 1887; the Huntington Library, Art Collections, andBotanical Gardens, started in 1919 by American railway magnate Henry Huntington inSan Marino, California; and the Folger Shakespeare Library, which was formed in 1932in Washington, D.C., from the collection of American industrialist Henry Clay Folger.Private libraries established later in the century include the George C. Marshall ResearchLibrary, founded in Lexington, Virginia, in 1964, and the Historic New OrleansCollection, started in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1966 from local documents and artifactscollected by General L. Kemper Williams and Leila Moore Williams. X. LIBRARIES OF THE WORLDVirtually every region of the world maintains libraries. Countries with well-developedeconomies, strong educational institutions, and advanced technological infrastructurestend to have the most libraries. The libraries in these countries generally havecomprehensive, up-to-date collections and collectively serve relatively large numbers ofpeople. Developing countries also maintain libraries, although the libraries in thesecountries frequently feature small, out-of-date collections and lack professionally trained
staff members. Despite these disadvantages, the governments of many developingcountries place the construction of new libraries and the maintenance of existing librariesamong their top national priorities.This section contains information on modern libraries in countries other than the UnitedStates and Canada. For information on modern U.S. and Canadian libraries, see thefollowing subsections in the Types of Libraries section of this article: Public Libraries;School Libraries; College and University Libraries; Research Libraries; SpecialLibraries; and Government Libraries. A. Western EuropeThe countries of western Europe have a wide range of public, private, academic, andother libraries, each with their own unique features and history. Britain and theScandinavian countries have extensive networks of public libraries, because free accessto libraries is required by law in these countries. Most western European countries, withthe exception of Switzerland and The Netherlands, require authors to deposit publicationsin the national libraries in order to receive copyright protection. School libraries havebeen integrated into elementary and secondary education in Scandinavia since the 19thcentury. Elsewhere in western Europe, Germany, France, and the United Kingdom havethe most fully developed school libraries. School libraries remain almost nonexistent insouthern Europe. 1 . German yAfter World War II ended in 1945, Germany was divided into separate eastern andwestern zones. The nations of East Germany and West Germany were formed in 1949,and each operated libraries independently of one another. Nevertheless, both countriesdeveloped strong national library systems. In 1990 the two zones of Germany reunitedand the library model of West Germany became the standard throughout the country.Today, the German national library consists of the combined collections and services ofthree separate libraries: the Deutsche Bibliothek in Leipzig and in Frankfurt am Main, theGerman State Library in Berlin, and the Bavarian State Library in Munich. Scientificliterature is divided among libraries in Hanover (for technology and applied science),Cologne (medicine), Kiel (economics), and Bonn (agriculture). Approximately 80academic libraries are affiliated with universities in Berlin, Frankfurt, Göttingen, andelsewhere. The 16 German states are served by regional library systems. Public librariesin the urban centers maintain extensive collections with large professional staffs; those inremote rural communities provide minimal service and are rarely directed by professionalstaff members.
2. France Bibliothèque Nationale de FranceFrance rapidly developed its public library system in the early 20th century. By 1940France had a network of 300 public libraries with collections that served popular andscholarly interests. Although spared from destruction by the occupying German armyduring World War II, public libraries in the postwar era developed slowly. By the late20th century, however, France had increased its investment in public libraries. It nowmaintains an extensive system of public libraries and is home to some of the finestacademic and special libraries in the world.French libraries, which date from the 7th century, have always been marked by strongcentralized administrative control. The national library—the Bibliothèque Nationale deFrance, in Paris—is the largest and most important library collection in France. It is alsothe oldest national library in Europe. The core of the library’s original collection camefrom the Bibliothèque du Roi (Royal Library), which was established in 1368. Today, thelibrary’s collections are located in two locations: at the original site on the Rue deRichelieu, in the center of Paris, and at a new site in the Tolbiac region of southeast Paris.The Richelieu site houses manuscripts, engravings, photographs, maps, coins and medals,and other materials. The Tolbiac site, which opened to the public in 1997, contains thelibrary’s printed materials, periodicals, and audiovisual materials. In addition to theBibliothèque Nationale de France, the libraries of the Universities of Paris, which datefrom the late 14th century, contain some of the most extensive scholarly collections in theworld. 3. United Kingdom
British Library at Saint PancrasThe British library system has had a major impact on libraries worldwide, particularlythose of its former colonies. The emergence of a strong British economy in the 17thcentury fostered a reading public with an interest in books, and by the next centurylibraries had become an integral part of the nation’s cultural life. Library buildings thatwere destroyed or badly damaged by bombing raids during World War II have beenreplaced by much improved facilities.Today, citizens have access to any library book inthe British Isles, thanks to a national unified library system established with the foundingof the national British Library in London in 1973. The British Library was formed fromfour major national institutions: the British Museum Library (founded in 1757), theNational Central Library (1916), the British National Bibliography (1950), and theNational Lending Library for Science and Technology (1961). The British Library’scollection of rare books and manuscripts—originally part of the British Museum’scollection—is one of the most valuable in the world. In 1997 the British Library movedto a new facility in the Saint Pancras area of London. Britain’s two other national librarysystems are the National Library of Scotland and the National Library of Wales. Theacademic libraries at the University of Oxford, the University of Cambridge, theUniversity of London, and Edinburgh University are among the finest in world. 4 . Greece
As early as the 500s BC, leaders in ancient Greece founded the first libraries in theWestern world that were open to the general public. However, modern Greece has beenslow to develop an effective modern library system. Greece provides relatively littlefunding for libraries, so collections in the country’s public libraries tend to be small andout-of-date. Greek libraries also generally lack the resources necessary to provide userswith access to the Internet and other new technologies. Greece’s National Library, inAthens, was constructed in the late 1800s. The building was based on a neoclassicaldesign by Danish architect Theophile Hansen. The National Library maintains collectionsof more than 2.5 million volumes. 5 . ItalyLibraries in Italy are among the oldest in the Western world, and historically they haveplayed an important role in library development, particularly during the Middle Ages andthe Renaissance. The Vatican Library, conceived by Pope Nicholas V in 1451 “for thecommon convenience of the learned,” is located in Vatican City. It contains nearly 2million books and periodicals, including more than 8,000 incunabula (materials producedbefore 1501) and 75,000 Latin, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Persian, and other manuscriptsdating from as early as the 2nd century AD. It also contains one of the three oldest-knownBible manuscripts in the world. The Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana in Florence also hasa magnificent collection of manuscripts. The library building was designed and builtduring the Renaissance by Italian artist Michelangelo to house the collection begun bythe powerful Medici family.Libraries in Italy declined for centuries, but in 1980 the Italian government began aneffort to improve library services by creating a national bibliographic system designed toconserve and expand on national library collections. Italy maintains two major nationallibraries—one in Florence (founded 1747) and the other in Rome (1875)—as well assmaller national libraries in Milan, Naples, Palermo, Turin, and Venice. The BibliotecaNazionale Centrale—the national library in Florence—is notable for its collection ofhistorical materials. 6. Spain
Castle of Simancas, SpainUntil the early 20th century, Spanish libraries catered to the reading needs of scholarsrather than those of the public. That changed when public libraries opened in Madrid inthe 1910s and in several towns of Catalonia, in the northeast of the country, soonafterward. The Library of Catalonia, located in Barcelona, was the first Spanish library toopen its stacks to the public and to offer borrowing privileges. In the late 20th centurysome of the largest and most important libraries were located in Madrid, including theEscorial Library (founded in 1567), the National Library (founded in 1712 as the RoyalLibrary), and the Library of the Royal Palace (1760). The impressive collections of rarebooks, manuscripts, and engravings in these libraries attest to the country’s rich librarytradition. The Complutense University of Madrid Library, founded in 1341, maintainsone of Spain’s largest academic collections. 7 . BelgiumBelgium began to develop public libraries as early as 1608. The country has alsomaintained specialized libraries for several hundred years. However, the complex andindependent system of libraries that evolved in Belgium in the 18th and 19th centurieshindered modernization and interlibrary cooperation. By the end of the 20th century,Belgium had overcome these difficulties and had developed an excellent national library,the Bibliothèque Royal Albert I, in Brussels. Belgium also has several importantuniversity libraries, including the libraries at the Catholic University of Leuven and at theFree University of Brussels. 8 Switzerland
.Switzerland has no national library, although an effort was made to establish one in thelate 18th century. Under the decentralized structure of the Swiss federal government,public libraries are supported by the country’s 26 autonomous cantons (municipalities).Most of the country’s academic libraries were established in the 19th century, with theexception of the library at the University of Basel, which was established in the 15thcentury. 9 . NorwayAt the beginning of the 20th century the Norwegian library system was considered one ofthe most modern in the world. Since then it has not adopted new informationtechnologies as rapidly as have libraries in other countries of western Europe. The libraryof the University of Oslo began carrying out the functions of a national library in 1815. In1989 a new national library—the Nasjonalbibliotektjenester—was established in Rana.The University of Oslo library now functions as a separate branch of the national library. 10 . SwedenSweden has a strong public library tradition that has been heavily influenced by the beliefthat libraries should serve democracy. The country maintains high standards of libraryservice largely funded through local taxes. Some of the largest and most importantSwedish libraries are the Royal Library and the extensive library maintained by the RoyalSwedish Academy of Sciences, both in Stockholm. In the second half of the 20th centuryseveral new Swedish universities also opened extensive libraries. In addition, libraries inestablished universities expanded and significantly improved. Some of the largestuniversity libraries in Sweden are those of the University of Stockholm, the University ofUppsala, and the University of Lund. 11 . Denmar kDanish library history during the 20th century has been marked by dramatic growth inpublic library service and a move toward decentralization. Legislation in 1964 increasedstate subsidies to libraries and required all communities to provide public library service.In 1983 a new law placed libraries largely under municipal control. The result has beenexpanded services and greater access to information in most communities. In 1990 theDanish government established a Danish National Library Authority to coordinate the
work of the Danish Repository Library for Public Libraries, the Danish Central Libraryfor Immigrant Literature, the Danish Library Binding Center, and the Danish LibraryBureau. 12 . FinlandFinland’s first libraries were established in the 15th century, but it was not until 1921(four years after Finland gained independence from Russia) that public libraries began toreceive state support. The country’s first Library Act, passed in 1928, provided strongsupport for rural library development. The second Library Act, in 1962, increased federalfinancial support to libraries and spurred their development nationwide. B. Eastern Europe and RussiaDuring the 20th century, wars and weak economies throughout eastern Europe causedlibrary development to suffer greatly in countries such as Russia, Belarus, Ukraine,Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, and Poland. The wars of Yugoslav succession (1991-1995)had a devastating effect on libraries in Bosnia, Croatia, and Yugoslavia. For example, in1992 Bosnian Serbs shelled the National and University Library of Bosnia andHerzegovina in Sarajevo, destroying 1.2 million books, 600,000 serial publications, andall the catalogs that identified and organized them.Russian libraries have their origins in the 11th century in the cathedrals and monasteriesof medieval Kievan Rus (Kyiv). In the 20th century these institutions were stronglyinfluenced by governmental and political forces. Library staff and collectionsexperienced the devastating effects of World War I, World War II, and the purges in the1930s instigated by Joseph Stalin, the totalitarian ruler of the Union of Soviet SocialistRepublics (USSR). On the other hand, the library system in Russia and other Soviet statesgreatly expanded under Communist rule. The Soviet government founded the impressiveLenin State Library (now the Russian State Library) in Moscow in 1925. The library’score collection came from Moscow’s Rumyantsev Museum and the Rumyantsev PublicLibrary, both of which were founded in the early 19th century from the library of Russiancount Nikolay Petrovich Rumyantsev. The Soviet Union eventually established manynew library collections throughout the country as well. By 1940 the USSR had built upwhat many considered the best library system in the world at that time. Although WorldWar II devastated libraries in Moscow, Leningrad, Minsk, and other major cities, postwarreconstruction efforts gave a high priority to library development. By 1980 there were areported 350,000 libraries throughout the USSR.During the era of the Soviet Union, the Communist Party controlled the collections andservices offered by Soviet libraries. As a result, libraries in the USSR did not offer access
to any materials that the government might have considered politically disruptive. In1989 and 1990, however, the journal Sovetskaia Bibliografiia published several landmarkarticles disapproving of Communist Party control of libraries and calling for increasedaccess to literatures previously considered politically sensitive. After the collapse of theSoviet Union in 1991, libraries offered a much wider range of materials in theircollections. However, the deteriorating economy crippled library operations anddevelopment. In addition, most links between the formerly integrated librariesdisappeared.Today, the Russian State Library, with holdings of more than 40 million items, is one ofthe largest libraries in the world. Another important library in the Russian Federation isthe National Library of Russia in Saint Petersburg (formerly the Imperial Public Libraryand later the M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin State Public Library), which maintains largecollections of manuscripts, incunabula (materials produced before 1501), music scores,maps, and microforms. In addition, Russia has more than 3,000 libraries in the secondaryand higher education systems.Since the early 1990s the Czech Republic, Bulgaria, and Hungary have utilized moderninformation technology to upgrade their governmental and special information resourcecenters. Romania’s two national libraries—the Library of the Academy of Romania andthe National Library—contain some 18 million items. Romania has an extensive systemof other libraries as well, including about 3,000 public libraries and 64 academic libraries. C. The Middle EastThe origin and history of libraries and library studies can be traced to the area ofsouthwest Asia and northeast Africa known as the Middle East. Ancient civilizationsflourished in this region and collected their knowledge in impressive libraries such asthose in Alexandria and Pergamum. The Islamic civilization was equally intent onpreserving and advancing human knowledge in mosque libraries, also known asmadrassas (schools).In the late 20th century many Middle Eastern nations established new libraries anddirected increased funds to existing institutions. Most of this development was stimulatedby soaring oil profits in some countries, the spread of printed materials, the secularizationof many nations, and the introduction of new technology. Library development was alsoinfluenced by programs established by the United Nations Educational, Scientific andCultural Organization (UNESCO). Tunisia and Saudi Arabia incorporated libraries intotheir national development plans after UNESCO set up a 1974 meeting in Cairo, Egypt,for Middle Eastern nations to discuss the potential of libraries in aiding national planning.In the 1980s and 1990s other countries in the Middle East developed similar investmentplans, pouring money into new information technologies to significantly improve existinglibrary services.
Today, countries in the Middle East maintain a wide variety of national, academic,public, school, and special libraries. By the 1990s many of these libraries had begun touse computers and telecommunications technologies in their library services andoperations. However, most libraries in the region were slow to link themselves and theirusers to the Internet due to prohibitive costs, government regulations, and a general lackof technical abilities among librarians and users. Nevertheless, many libraries in theregion feature information on CD-ROM, including databases, indexes, and texts ofjournals and periodicals. 1 . National LibrariesThe oldest national libraries in the Middle East include the Algerian National Library(established in 1835), which contains notable collections of early Islamic manuscripts,and the Egyptian National Library (1870), which has one of the world’s best collectionsof papyrus manuscripts. During the 20th century, other Middle Eastern countriesestablished national libraries: the National Library of Iraq was founded in 1920, theNational Library of Jordan in 1990, and the National Library of Kuwait in 1995. In Israel,the library at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem operates as a national library.Afghanistan maintains its national library at Kābul University.National libraries in the Middle East commonly fall under the jurisdiction of eachcountry’s ministry of culture. As in other regions of the world, Middle Eastern nationallibraries serve as national copyright depositories and as centers for the preservation ofnational heritage. They also publish national bibliographies and lists of nationalperiodicals, and they preserve valuable and rare manuscripts in Arabic, Hebrew, Persian,Turkish, Coptic, Armenian, and other languages. Most are open to the public and someadminister public library branches.The size of the holdings in Middle Eastern national libraries varies considerably. In thelate 1990s it ranged from as few as 14,000 volumes in the National Library of Mauritaniato 950,000 volumes in the Algerian National Library, 1.5 million volumes in the TunisianNational Library, and 9.8 million volumes in the Egyptian National Library. The facilitiesof the region’s national libraries also differ from one another. While Syria’s AssadNational Library is housed in a spacious six-story building completed in 1984, theTunisian National Library, with its nearly 1.5 million volumes, remains in its original,cramped 1910 building in Souk el-Attarine, Tunis. The National Library of Turkey, inAnkara, houses its 1.5 million volumes in a modern building that features several readingrooms, an exhibition hall, two concert halls, a computer center, and other facilities. 2 . Academic Libraries
Cairo University, founded in 1908 in Cairo, Egypt, is the oldest secular university in theMiddle East, and it has one of the region’s largest academic libraries. At the end of the20th century, Egypt had 12 public universities spread all over the country, each of whichcontained significant library holdings. Some of Egypt’s most notable academic librarycollections are those at the private universities of the American University in Cairo; Al-Azhar University, also in Cairo; and the Egyptian National University, which wasfounded in Giza in 1995.In Iraq, nearly 90 academic libraries serve the country’s universities and institutes oftechnical higher education. The University of Baghdād, founded 1957, is the oldest andlargest university in the country, maintaining a library collection of more than 800,000volumes.Jordan maintains more than 60 academic libraries at its universities and other institutes ofhigher learning. The oldest university in the country is the University of Jordan atAmman, founded in 1962. Its central library contains more than 500,000 volumes. Thecountry’s other notable academic libraries are located at Mu’tah University (founded in1984) in Al Karak and at the Jordan University of Science and Technology (1986) inIrbid.The American University of Beirut in Lebanon maintains one of the largest academiclibrary collections in the Middle East. It is especially renowned for its holdings in themedical sciences. Other notable libraries at Middle Eastern universities include thelibraries of the University of Tehrān in Iran and the University of Ankara in Turkey.In Israel, the Jewish National and University Library is located at the Hebrew Universityof Jerusalem. The library contains more than 4 million volumes, including 200 earlymanuscripts and books in more than 80 languages. It also has special collections inmedicine, chemistry, music, cartography, and other subjects. Other large academiclibraries in Israel include those at the University of Haifa and at Tel Aviv University. 3 . Public LibrariesThe countries of the Middle East maintain a large number of public libraries, butrelatively few of these feature good collections and attractive facilities. Most libraries thatserve the general public suffer from shortages of books, space, and funds. For example,public libraries in Saudi Arabia typically have between 5,000 and 30,000 volumes; only afew have collections of more than 50,000 books. However, a few countries maintainrelatively broad networks of public libraries to serve their populations. For example,Turkey maintains more than 1,000 public libraries throughout the country, many withrelatively large collections and modern facilities.In several countries of the Middle East, the general public has access to librariesoriginally established by the British Council and the American Cultural Center,
institutions that promote the exchange of cultural information. Several Arab countries,including Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Iran, provide separate public library services formen, women, and children. In Israel, a unit of the Ministry of Education and Culturesupervises, administers, and guides the modern public library system. 4 . School LibrariesIn the countries of the Middle East that produce oil, relatively well-funded schoollibraries occupy modern facilities and maintain collections managed by professionallibrarians. In Kuwait, for example, libraries in secondary schools are generally equippedto serve as many as 50 students at a time with collections that adequately support theschool curriculum. However, poorer countries cannot always provide strong libraryservices in their schools. Among Jordan’s more than 3,600 high schools, some maintainwell-stocked libraries, while others provide no library services at all. In Iran, the fewschool libraries that exist are generally run by a school staff member rather than by aprofessional librarian. 5 . Special LibrariesDuring the second half of the 20th century, various corporations, organizations, andgovernment agencies throughout the Middle East began emphasizing the establishmentand expansion of special libraries and information centers. These institutions provideusers in specialized fields with access to information and collections not available inpublic and university libraries.In Saudi Arabia, special libraries provide highly valued services to the government andbusinesses. For example, the Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO) firstdeveloped a special library of energy-related materials during the 1950s. By the 1990s ithad grown to include a law library, a medical library, an Arabian affairs library, andnumerous technical libraries. Many of the government ministries throughout SaudiArabia also have their own specialized libraries. Egypt maintains special libraries to servemost of its government ministries and agencies. Examples of special libraries andinformation centers in Egypt include the Institute of Public Administration Library, theScience Documentation Center of the Atomic Energy Commission, and the NationalInformation and Documentation Center. In Israel, businesses and organizations receivesupport from the central government to develop special libraries in the sciences andtechnology. In Kuwait, the National Scientific and Technical Information Center providesextensive information and library services to Kuwaiti scientists. 6 Library Associations .
Libraries in the Middle East have developed relatively few collective associations. Thescarcity of library associations is due in part to the lack of interlibrary cooperation amongthe various countries and also to political instability in the region.The oldest library association was founded in Egypt in 1945 as the Cairo LibraryAssociation. A few years later it was renamed the Egyptian Library, Information, andArchives Association and became a member of the International Federation of LibraryAssociations and Institutions (IFLA). The Jordanian Library Association has published anumber of reference tools for professionals, including an Arabic translation of the DeweyDecimal Classification system. In Iran, the Tehrān Book Processing Center operates as atype of library association by promoting librarianship and improvements to librariesacross the country. The two professional library associations in Israel, the Israeli LibraryAssociation and the Israel Society of Special Libraries and Information Centers, are bothmembers of IFLA. An international Arab Federation of Library Associations wasestablished in 1996. D. Latin AmericaThe region known as Latin America includes the entire western hemisphere south of theUnited States. The nations of Latin America range from the many Spanish-speakingcountries of the region to French-speaking Haiti, Portuguese-speaking Brazil, and theEnglish-speaking nations of the Caribbean and adjacent mainland. Libraries share certaincharacteristics among the various countries of Latin America, but they also revealsignificant differences from one country to the next.Before most Latin American countries gained independence from European countries inthe 19th century, Roman Catholic monasteries and convents generally kept the mostimportant library collections on the continent. Many individuals in Latin America alsomaintained extensive private libraries, some of which later served as the foundation forresearch or academic collections. Most countries established national libraries not longafter gaining independence, although two national libraries—those in Colombia andEcuador—trace their history to the 18th century. In the late 19th and early 20th centuriesLatin American libraries began to adopt library organization practices such as the DeweyDecimal Classification system and European indexing techniques. In the 1980s some ofthe largest libraries in Latin America and the Caribbean began introducing automatedlibrary systems and many now provide access to the Internet. 1. Mexico
Library at National Autonomous University of Mexico
Library at National Autonomous University of MexicoThe Central Library of the National Autonomous University of Mexico in MexicoCity is one of the best-known libraries in Latin America. Mexican architect andartist Juan O’Gorman designed the building. Its colorful mosaic tiles depictprecolonial Mexico.Encarta EncyclopediaLiba Taylor/Hutchison Library Full Size
Mexico’s National Library is affiliated with the country’s national university, theNational Autonomous University of Mexico (Universidad Nacional Autónoma deMéxico, or UNAM) in Mexico City. The UNAM’s Institute of Bibliographical Researchadministers the National Library’s extensive collection of rare documents from Mexicanhistory. The institute also administers the national periodical collection, the HemerotecaNacional de México.Aside from hosting the National Library, the UNAM is home to the country’s largestlibrary, the Central Library, which is one of the most important academic libraries inLatin America. Built in the early 1950s, the Central Library was designed by Mexicanarchitect and artist Juan O’Gorman, who decorated its exterior with colorful mosaic tilesdepicting precolonial Mexico. Before the UNAM’s library was founded, mostuniversities in Latin America divided their collections among separate faculty andresearch institute libraries. The UNAM formed a single coordinated library system for itsentire institution, and this allowed the university to minimize costs by avoidingunnecessary duplication of expensive publications. Other Mexican universities in theregion maintained small, inadequate libraries, so they closed these facilities, consolidatedtheir resources in the UNAM’s Central Library, and allowed their students and faculty toaccess the collections there.By the mid-1990s there were more than 5,000 public libraries in Mexico, a dramaticincrease from less than 400 public libraries in 1980. This achievement resulted from anambitious program of public library expansion that was begun in the early 1980s by thefederal government in collaboration with states, cities, and towns. As part of thisexpansion plan, a federal agency known as the General Directorate of Libraries acquiresand catalogs materials, sets standards, and provides orientation for library staff. State andlocal authorities provide staff members with adequate library facilities and salaries. Theprimary mission of the libraries is to serve the general public. Because school libraries inMexico are generally inadequate, all public libraries also make provisions for children’sacademic and recreational needs.The largest of the country’s public libraries is the Library of Mexico in Mexico City. Inaddition to providing standard library materials, it has a rare-book collection, issues itsown journal, and features a special reading room devoted to Mexican history and culture.The Benjamin Franklin Library (Biblioteca Benjamin Franklin, or BBF) also servesreaders in Mexico. The BBF is known as the forerunner of information resource centersmaintained around the globe by the U.S. Department of State. These centers are designedto promote American culture abroad. With initial support from the State Departmentthrough a grant to the American Library Association, the BBF first opened in 1942 andserved all types of readers, from children to scholars, with circulating collections on openshelves. At one time the total collections exceeded 50,000 volumes, including manyAmerican scholarly journals.
Most of Mexico’s many special libraries serve government agencies and businesses in thecapital city. For example, the National Council for Science and Technology providesgovernment and industry workers with information and training in the scientific andtechnological fields. 2 . Central AmericaDuring the last decades of the 20th century, Central America was marked by civil strife:the Sandinista revolution in Nicaragua (1978-1990), a civil war in El Salvador (1979-1992), and a U.S. invasion of Panama (1989), among other upheavals. The CentralAmerican country of Costa Rica remained relatively peaceful during this period, and itdevoted much of its national budget to education and improving social conditions. As aresult, Costa Rica offers the region’s best public library services and access to foreigninformation databases. It also has the best national information networks in medicine andseveral other scientific fields. Public library service is not as good in other CentralAmerican countries. However, several governments and international aid agencies haveopened cultural centers in rural areas, and some of these centers have modest collectionsavailable to the general public. a.School LibrariesCentral America maintains very few school libraries, although the United NationsEducational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) sponsored a pilot project inthe 1960s to establish school libraries in Honduras. The project had laid somefoundations for school library service by the late 1970s when it was suspended due topolitical instability in the region. UNESCO revived the program in the late 1980s aftermost political unrest had subsided. b National Libraries .The relatively poor governments of Central American countries have had difficultymaintaining national libraries amidst political unrest and various environmental disasters.For example, an earthquake in 1972 severely damaged the Rubén Darío National Librarybuilding in Managua, Nicaragua. However, with help from the Swedish InternationalDevelopment Agency, the library was able to relocate, increase its holdings, installmodern library automation, compile a national bibliography, and expand public libraryservice in the interior of Nicaragua. El Salvador’s national library suffered damage froman earthquake in 1986, and reconstruction has been hampered by a lack of resources. Inaddition to maintaining a national library, El Salvador is home to an independent privateinstitution, the Gallardo Library, whose collections include some manuscripts from thecolonial era.
c.University LibrariesUniversity libraries in Central America generally offer better and more comprehensiveservices than do national libraries in the region. In Guatemala, the country’s fiveuniversities work together to improve library access, issue a directory, and compile aunion list of periodicals. The Francisco Marroquín University in Guatemala City providesmodern services such as an online catalog and access to the MEDLINE database ofmedical journal information, published by the U.S. National Library of Medicine.Most university libraries in El Salvador have inadequate quarters, very small collections,and little service beyond circulation of reserve books. The government closed thenational University of El Salvador during much of the civil war, so most universitylibrary development occurred in the country’s private institutions. El Salvador’s oldestprivate university, the Central American University of José Simeón Cañas (founded in1965), features the country’s largest collection of materials. After the end of the civil war,the national university began a strategic plan for library development, partially funded bythe government of Spain.The National Autonomous University of Honduras in Tegucigalpa has a central librarywith adequate quarters, including a state-of-the-art audiovisual center. The university alsomaintains branch libraries at its medical school and at its campus in San Pedro Sula. 3 . Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and VenezuelaThe countries in the Andes mountain region of South America are Bolivia, Colombia,Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Each of these countries maintains a national library. Thelargest collections are those of the national libraries of Peru and Venezuela, each ofwhich has more than 1 million volumes. In 1943 a fire destroyed most of Peru’s nationallibrary, including its irreplaceable historical manuscripts. With international assistance,however, Peru not only rebuilt the library building but also modernized the library’sequipment and operating procedures. The national library of Colombia, in Bogotá, datesfrom 1777. The building’s facilities are largely out of date. Ecuador maintains a modernnational library in the capital city of Quito. Bolivia also offers modern library services inSucre. Venezuela’s national library became an independent agency in the 1970s, and laterit increased its collections, created an automated bibliography and catalog system, andbegan a conservation program. The library also administers a national system of publiclibraries.One of Latin America’s most important libraries is the Luis Ángel Arango Library inBogotá, Colombia. Now a public library, the Arango Library began as an outgrowth ofthe modest special library of economics materials collected by Colombia’s central bank.It became a general independent library in 1958 and moved into a new building with 11reading rooms in 1990. Another important library is the Pilot Public Library for Latin
America, established in 1954 by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and CulturalOrganization (UNESCO) in Medellín, Colombia. This library has achieved enormoussuccess in providing public access to information for the people of Medellín. Publiclibrary service in other parts of Colombia is not as strong, although both the ColombianInstitute of Culture (COLCULTURA) and the Arango Library provide subsidies ofvarious types to libraries in smaller cities.Ministries of education in Andean countries lack budgets adequate to devote muchattention to library development in elementary schools. However, secondary schools—especially private secondary schools—often have modest libraries that support theacademic curriculum. In Bolivia, the Book Bank, established in 1970, provides libraryservice to students and the general public throughout the country. Operating fromheadquarters in La Paz, it maintains more than 100 branches, each having about 1,000volumes.Despite having poor collections early in the 20th century, university libraries in theAndean countries began to improve markedly in the 1970s. For example, Colombiaconstructed central libraries on new university campuses. In many cases, funds for theselibraries were provided by the Inter-American Development Bank, an independentintergovernmental body. Colombian universities also received technical assistance tomodernize their libraries from a federal agency known as the Colombian Institute for thePromotion of Higher Education. In addition, university libraries hired new staff membersfrom among recent graduates of the country’s Inter-American Library School. Academiclibraries followed similar patterns of development elsewhere in the Andean region.Most special libraries in Andean countries serve government ministries and privateresearch institutes. Although the region’s national scientific research councils are activeand well funded, they generally devote their resources to gaining access to internationaldatabases rather than to developing their own collections of specialized journals and othermaterials. 4 . Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and UruguayThe southernmost Latin American countries are Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, andUruguay. Except for Paraguayans, the people in those countries have a stronger traditionof buying books and forming private libraries than do citizens in the rest of LatinAmerica. Over the years many of these private collections have been incorporated intonational, public, and academic libraries in the region.The responsibilities of the national libraries in Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay differ frommany of those in the rest of the world because they do not directly serve each country’sparliament. Instead, each of these countries maintains a separate parliamentary librarywith collections designed to serve government legislators. The Chilean national library inSantiago contains approximately 3.5 million volumes. It also administers the country’s
fledgling public library system. In addition, the national library maintains a special roomhousing the 40,000-volume collection of Latin America’s most influential bibliographer,Chilean librarian José Toribio Medina, who lived in the late 19th and early 20thcenturies. Argentina’s national library, established in Buenos Aires in 1810, is in theprocess of reorganizing its large collection. Paraguay also maintains a small nationallibrary.The University of Buenos Aires maintains one of the largest collections of librarymaterials in southern Latin America. The university’s collection is distributed throughoutthe city in a number of separate faculty and research institute libraries. In 1941 a grantfrom the Rockefeller Foundation helped establish a coordinating office for the variousunits of the university library system. Argentina also maintains a strong collection at itsoldest university, the National University of Córdoba (founded in 1613). As late as 1956Argentina had only 7 institutions of higher education, all funded by the centralgovernment. Since then, however, new universities have multiplied rapidly, bringing thetotal to more than 50. Most of the new universities have small library holdings, but somehave initiated aggressive acquisitions programs.Chile’s national university, the University of Chile (founded in 1738), maintains thatcountry’s largest and most comprehensive library collection. Like the University ofBuenos Aires, it has several campuses and administers a decentralized library system.Other notable university libraries in Chile include those at the Catholic University ofValparaíso and at the Federico Santa María Technical University, also in Valparaíso. 5 . BrazilMost of Brazil’s libraries are concentrated in urban areas, leaving poor and ruralpopulations largely underserved. The most advanced and numerous library services existin the southern Brazilian states, especially São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais, andRio Grande do Sul. The northern states maintain relatively few libraries, and these aregenerally ill-equipped.Brazil’s National Library, established in 1910, is housed in an impressive but crowdedbuilding in downtown Rio de Janeiro. The National Library is one of the largest librariesin Latin America, with a collection that exceeds 3 million volumes. It also containsmanuscripts, musical scores, maps, and other materials. The National Library’s rare-bookcollection includes early printed documents from colonial Brazil as well as from theprivate library of 19th-century Brazilian emperor Pedro II. The National Library receivesall Brazilian publications submitted for copyright protection and also publishes thenational bibliography. The Brazilian Institute for Scientific and Technical Informationwas established in 1954 to improve access to information in the sciences and technology.It also trains personnel for positions in scientific and technical fields, and it developspioneering uses of technology.
Until the second half of the 20th century, many Brazilian students of higher educationattended small, university-level schools that were unaffiliated with any larger, centralizedinstitution. Instead of having access to libraries at large, well-funded universities, theseuniversity students used whatever library services their small school could provide. Manystudents also used the libraries of museums, research institutes, and other culturalinstitutions. Brazilian higher education experienced radical changes after the militarytook control of the government in 1964. Local universities came under federal control,enrollments soared, and many institutions moved to newly constructed campuses withcentral library buildings. By the time the government returned to civilian control in 1979,most institutions had developed centrally administered university library systems. Todaythere are more library staff members, and they receive professional training and maintainlarge, comprehensive collections. The National Program for University Libraries,established in 1986, encourages cooperation among both public and private universitylibraries. Brazilian universities also maintain a centralized online catalog system.Public library service does not reach the entire Brazilian population, but a considerablenumber of public libraries do exist throughout the country. State libraries offer mostpublic library services in the capitals of individual states. A few state libraries alsomaintain branches outside the capital cities, but service is quite limited in most ruralareas. For many years the government has administered the National Book Institute,which provides limited quantities of books to all types of Brazilian libraries.The Mário Andrade Municipal Library in São Paulo is the largest and best-known of thecountry’s public libraries. It is supported by the city, and the main building is a publiclandmark housing a large noncirculating collection. The Mário Andrade MunicipalLibrary also maintains branches throughout the city that provide circulating materials toadult members of the general public. Children in São Paulo receive library servicesthrough a separately administered Children’s Library that maintains its own main libraryas well as branches throughout the metropolitan area. Some facilities jointly housebranches of the city and the children’s libraries.Brazil does not maintain a widespread network of school libraries. However, manyschools have benefited from the National Textbook Program, a project jointlyadministered by the United States Agency for International Development and the federalgovernment of Brazil. Begun in the late 1960s, the program has provided millions ofbooks for elementary and secondary schools as well as for institutes of higher education.Although it was not principally a library project, it laid a foundation for the laterdevelopment of at least minimal library service in the schools.The many special libraries in Brazil primarily serve various industrial sectors andgovernment agencies. Among the country’s largest special libraries is the Latin Americanand Caribbean Health Science Information Centre in São Paulo. This library was createdin part with assistance of the Pan American Health Organization, an international publichealth agency. Many of the special libraries with science and technology collections arelinked by national information networks in fields such as agriculture, petroleum, nuclearenergy, and health sciences.
6 . The CaribbeanThe Caribbean is the most diverse region in Latin America, and its diversity significantlycomplicates the development of regional library associations and networks in the region.One example of this diversity is language: Not all Caribbean populations speak the samelanguage, so fewer Caribbean libraries are able to participate in interlibrary loans than arelibraries in other regions of the world.Cuba’s José Martí National Library is the oldest and largest national library in theCaribbean, but since the 1960s it has operated with a very limited budget. Despite thesefinancial constraints, its collection has grown to more than 2 million volumes. Thenational library also administers all of Cuba’s public libraries. Haiti has maintained asmall national library in Port-au-Prince since 1940. In the Dominican Republic, theNational Autonomous University of Santo Domingo performed all of the functions of anational library until 1971, when the country established an official national library inSanto Domingo. In Jamaica, the West India Reference Library of the Institute of Jamaicaformed the basis for the National Library of Jamaica, which was established in 1979.Academic libraries are among the most numerous and best-supported libraries in theCaribbean. In the Dominican Republic, for example, two private institutions—the PedroHenríquez Ureña University and the Catholic University, Mother and Teacher—havedeveloped strong collections and provide reference and circulation services to theirstudents and faculty. In addition, the publicly supported Technological Institute is avaluable source for scientific information. The most extensive academic libraries in theCaribbean are maintained by the University of the West Indies, which operates campusesin three separate nations—Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, and Barbados—and is fundedby 14 governments in the English-speaking Caribbean. The library on each campusserves faculty and students in different subject areas unique to each unit, but the threecollections form one system and operate under one director.Although there are public libraries on many of the Caribbean islands, most are small andinadequate. In Jamaica, however, the government-funded Jamaica Library Service (JLS)maintains a system of 13 regional libraries, consisting of more than 150 branches andmore than 500 bookmobile stops. Annual circulation exceeds 2 million volumes checkedout to about 700,000 registered borrowers. JLS also administers a thriving library servicefor primary and secondary schools. E. AsiaAlthough Asia has a rich cultural heritage, with written records extending back some4,000 years, libraries were slow to emerge in the region. Temples and centers of religious
learning established most of the earliest Asian libraries that had sizable collections. Theseinstitutions developed in the period that roughly corresponds to the European MiddleAges, from about the 5th century to the 15th century. At the same time, court librariesgrew to coexist with religious libraries in most Asian countries. Use of these libraries wasrestricted to court officials or to religious leaders. It was not until the early 20th centurythat Asian libraries became accessible to a wide public, and for the most part publiclibrary systems did not emerge until after World War II ended in 1945.In general, Asian libraries have been slow to automate their operations, although manylibraries in China, India, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan do havecomputerized systems. In the late 1990s most computer use in Asia was limited tomicrocomputer management of circulation. However, the public has access to onlinecatalogs in increasing numbers of Asian libraries, particularly in documentation centersand national libraries. The high cost of international telephone lines and the slow deliveryof documents from overseas have inhibited more rapid growth of online searching. 1 . National LibrariesMost Asian countries maintain national libraries. The National Library of China, foundedin Beijing in 1909, contains more than 18 million volumes, making it Asia’s largestcollection. In 1987 it moved into a new facility in Beijing that is one of the world’slargest library buildings. The Japanese National Diet Library was established in 1948. Ithas about 7 million volumes and ranks as one of Asia’s most important book collections.The Japanese government also produces the National Center for Science InformationSystem, an online database of information at Japanese national university libraries.India’s National Library, established in Calcutta (now Kolkata) in 1948, traces its roots tothe Kolkata Public Library, which was established in 1836. The National Library of Indiamaintains collections of materials written in the country’s many languages. India alsomaintains its National Archives in New Delhi.Other national libraries have been established in Bangladesh (1971), Indonesia (1980),Laos (1969), Malaysia (1971), Myanmar (1952; then known as Burma), Pakistan (1951),the Philippines (1928), Singapore (1958), South Korea (1923), Sri Lanka (1990),Thailand (1905), and Vietnam (1959). All of these libraries maintain large collections andoffer services for librarians, government agencies, scholars, and members of the generalpublic. Many of these national libraries also serve as national depositories and as nationalarchives, which maintain historical government documents. Many Asian countriespublish national bibliographies through their national libraries. These bibliographiesserve as complete lists of books issued in each country. Some national bibliographies alsolist publications in other formats, such as periodicals and video or audio materials. 2 University Libraries .
Libraries in Asian universities vary considerably in both quality and size. The earliestacademic libraries in Asia were established in India. Scholars believe that an excellentlibrary served Taxila University in northwest India (founded in AD 414), but theuniversity and its library were destroyed during an invasion later in the 5th century. Theoldest existing university library in Asia was founded at the University of Calcutta in1873. Libraries at the University of Bombay and the University of Madras, both in India,opened soon afterward. Indian academic libraries have benefited considerably from theefforts of American librarian Asa Don Dickinson, who served at the University of thePunjab in 1915 and 1916. Dickinson promoted the concept of the university librarian asan individual with specialized training, in contrast to the traditional librarian in Asiancountries whose qualifications were generally limited to academic scholarship. Dickinsonalso wrote the first specifically Asian textbook on librarianship, The Punjab LibraryPrimer (1916), and in 1916 he established one of the first library associations in Asia.Asia’s largest academic libraries are at the University of Tokyo in Japan and at BeijingUniversity in China. Other notable university libraries include those at the BangladeshUniversity of Engineering and Technology, Qinghua University in China, EwhaWomen’s University in South Korea, the University of Malaya in Malaysia, theUniversity of the Punjab in Pakistan, the University of the Philippines, and the NationalTaiwan University. Despite these examples of modern, well-equipped academic libraries,most libraries in Asian universities function as small, decentralized departmental unitswith poorly trained staff and inadequate collections. Most also lack important servicessuch as reference, interlibrary loan, and circulation of materials. 3 . School LibrariesMost countries in Asia did not begin to establish libraries in elementary and secondaryschools until the late 20th century. In countries that do have school libraries, staffing andcollections are frequently inadequate, and most libraries are staffed by teachers ratherthan by professionals with specialized training. Some Asian governments haverequirements for staffing and collection standards in school libraries, but authoritiesrarely enforce these standards. Nevertheless, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia,and Taiwan have all established relatively successful school library systems. 4 . Public LibrariesDespite national efforts to establish public libraries in many countries of Asia, mostAsians—particularly those in rural areas—remain without access to libraries of any type.Nevertheless, villages in several countries have small reading centers, and a number of
cities maintain large municipal libraries. According to some estimates, China maintainsmore than 2,500 public libraries throughout the country. These libraries mainly offerchildren’s and educational services, although their overall quality is poor. Japan’s 2,600public libraries emphasize services for children, people with disabilities, and seniorcitizens. India maintains more than 40,000 public libraries—the greatest number in Asia—but most of them have minimal collections and no professional staff. In addition, morethan 80 percent of the literate population in rural India still lack library service. Thelargest municipal library in Asia is the Shanghai Library in China; this library maintains acurrent, broad, international collection that exceeds 10 million items. 5 . Special LibrariesApart from national libraries, the most advanced libraries in Asia are special libraries.These libraries serve various government agencies as well as researchers andpractitioners in specific fields such as agriculture, law, and the health sciences. Amongthe leading health sciences libraries are those maintained by the International Center forDiarrhoeal Disease Research in Dhaka, Bangladesh; China Medical University inT’aichung, Taiwan; and Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok, Thailand. The ChineseAcademy of Sciences also maintains a general collection of more than 5 million volumeson various scientific subjects.Many Asian countries have linked together the resources and services of various speciallibraries using computerized networks. The libraries establish these links in so-calleddocumentation centers, which offer researchers translations, photocopies, referenceassistance, and location information for library materials. In India, for example, theIndian National Scientific Documentation Center (INSDOC) produces Indian ScienceAbstracts and other bibliographies of scientific material, maintains a catalog of Indianscientific periodicals, and provides online database searching. Staff members locatedocuments not available locally and arrange to photocopy them and even to translatethem. Individual scientists may register to receive notification of new publications intheir fields of interest. The Indian National Information System for Science andTechnology (NISSAT) coordinates the work of various Indian documentation centers,bringing wide exposure to the country’s extensive network of special libraries. 6 . Library Education and Professional AssociationsLibrarianship was slow to develop as a professional course of study in Asian universities,but in the second half of the 20th century programs of library education proliferatedthroughout the region. These programs also became more specialized, focusing on Asianlibraries in particular, and the quality of the programs steadily improved. By the 1990suniversities in India maintained 75 library schools, more than any other country in the
world. About 50 of these offered master’s degrees, and 25 offered doctorates as well.About 50 universities in China award library science bachelor’s degrees, and those inBeijing and Wuhan also offer master’s degrees. Other Asian nations with university-levelprograms in library science include Bangladesh, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Pakistan, thePhilippines, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Thailand.Many library education programs in Asian countries are based on American or Britishmodels. The Japan Library School in Keio University, for example, is based on Americanuniversity departments of library and information science. Likewise, many of theprograms of library education in India are based on those at British universities. Asignificant number of Asian students of library and information science attend programsin the United States or Europe. Asian graduates of Western schools are working inlibraries throughout Asia.Most Asian countries have professional associations of librarians. These associationswere established primarily after World War II, although Japan’s dates from 1892 andIndia’s from 1916. Some professional library associations represent larger regions, suchas the Congress of South East Asian Librarians, established in 1970. The CommonwealthLibrary Association was established in 1972 and represents professional librariansthroughout the Commonwealth of Nations, an association of independent nations—manyof them in Asia—that were generally once colonies of the British Empire. In somecountries, such as Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore, library associations have contributedto the establishment of official standards for various types of libraries. F. Australia, New Zealand, and the South PacificLibraries did not exist in Australia, New Zealand, or the South Pacific until the early 19thcentury, but they have developed rapidly since then. Today, many libraries throughoutthe region feature state-of-the-art services and resources. 1 . AustraliaAustralia’s first public library, the Wesleyan Library, was established in 1825 in Hobart,Tasmania. The library was housed in a chapel, and most of its collection consisted ofreligious materials. Australia introduced a more secular library in 1827 when itestablished its first school for the education of workers, known as a mechanics’ institute,also in Hobart. Other mechanics’ institutes were soon established in different parts of thecountry. Most maintained small libraries and reading rooms with collections designed toimprove the skills of laborers. They generally relied on voluntary subscriptions andcharity for support.
Australian colonial governments first established tax-supported public libraries in theAustralian capital cities of Melbourne, Victoria (1853); Sydney, New South Wales(1869); Hobart, Tasmania (1870); Adelaide, South Australia (1884); Perth, WesternAustralia (1886); and Brisbane, Queensland (1896). All of these public libraries in capitalcities eventually evolved into state libraries featuring strong collections in their state’shistory.Today almost all Australians have access to public library services. Most metropolitanpublic libraries provide fiction and nonfiction books, reference collections with researchlinks to the state library, online catalogs, children’s services, and newspapers andmagazines. Some offer large-print and foreign-language books, audio and videomaterials, local history collections, deliveries to homebound users, Internet access, adultliteracy programs, bookmobiles, and outreach services to Aboriginal people and TorresStrait Islanders.When the Australian colonies became a nation in 1901, the federal government took thefirst steps in creating a national library by establishing the Parliamentary Library inMelbourne in 1901. The library moved to Canberra with the parliament in 1927, and itbecame the National Library of Australia in 1960. The National Library’s strengthsinclude a wealth of materials on Australian history, Asia, and the Pacific. Among thesematerials are the extensive Petherick collection of Australiana and the journal of 18th-century British explorer Captain James Cook describing Cook’s circumnavigation of theworld in the ship Endeavour. The National Library’s publications include the AustralianNational Bibliography, Australian Government Publications, and the Australian PublicAffairs Information Service periodical index. Its Kinetica service promotes resourcesharing through the National Bibliographic Database, which contains bibliographicrecords of the collections of more than 700 member libraries. The library also managedthe Australian Joint Copying Project, a cooperative venture from 1948 to 1993 thatreproduced on microfilm British historical records relating to Australia and the Pacific.The Pacific Manuscripts Bureau of the library preserved on microfilm significantunpublished material in the Pacific Islands.Members of the Philosophical Society of Australia established the country’s first speciallibrary in Sydney in 1821. Over the years, Australia has developed a wide range ofspecial library and information services, including those run by federal and stateparliaments, various government departments, private corporations, professionalassociations, and community groups. Today the Commonwealth Scientific and IndustrialResearch Organization operates a network library service with branch libraries thatsupport research divisions around the country. The Department of Defense also operatesan extensive network of libraries that serves the army, navy, air force, and related defenseprograms. The Department of the Attorney General provides online databases coveringAustralian legal journals and federal statute and case law.Although the first Australian universities were founded in the early 1850s, it was severaldecades before they developed significant library collections. University enrollmentexpanded after World War II ended in 1945, and federal government funding for
Australian universities greatly increased during the 1950s and 1960s. Several newuniversities were founded during this period, and by 1975 Australia had 19 universitieswith combined library holdings of about 9 million volumes. Universities with notablelibrary collections include the University of Sydney, the University of New South Wales,the University of Melbourne, the Australian National University, the University ofQueensland, Monash University, La Trobe University, and Deakin University. Many ofthe university libraries cooperate through regional networks that provide sharedcataloging, reciprocal borrowing, joint storage, and other services.Libraries existed in many public and private schools in Australia in the early 20thcentury, but they were poor by modern standards. Between 1969 and 1985 the Australianfederal and state governments greatly improved this situation by providing specialfunding for school library buildings, books, equipment, and librarian training programs.All state education authorities developed some centralized support for school libraries.This support took various forms, such as cataloging, book processing, or publication ofjournals. Schools in rural and isolated areas often formed libraries to serve both theschool and the community. Today, Australian schools maintain more than 10,000libraries for students of all ages.The first Australian program in professional library education was established at theUniversity of New South Wales in Sydney in 1959. By the end of the 20th century therewere 12 schools of librarianship. Most offered both undergraduate and postgraduatedegrees and programs. Today, several technical colleges also offer programs for thetraining of library technicians. The Australian Library and Information Associationpublishes journals, holds conferences, and provides professional support services forlibrarians and library technicians. 2. New Zealand University of Auckland
University of AucklandFounded in 1882 as part of the University of New Zealand, the University ofAuckland became an independent institution in 1962. The Clock Tower Library,visible behind trees, is part of the university’s main campus, located in the center ofAuckland.Encarta EncyclopediaGeoff Mason/Key-Light Image Library Full Size
New Zealand’s first public library was a mechanics’ institute for the education ofworkers, established in Wellington in 1841. Until the 1950s most public libraries in NewZealand charged fees for lending services. Today, most New Zealand public librariesoffer a full range of services free of charge. Many offer specialized collections andservices for Maori and other Polynesian groups.The National Library of New Zealand was established in 1966 by combining theAlexander Turnbull Library, the General Assembly Library, and the National LibraryService. Since 1987 it has been housed in a large, modern building in Wellington. Thelibrary publishes the New Zealand National Bibliography and operates the New ZealandBibliographic Network.New Zealand’s first university, the University of Otago, was founded in 1869 and quicklydeveloped a sizable library. New Zealand later established other institutions of highereducation, particularly after the end of World War II. By 1996 the country maintainedseven state-supported universities as well as several technical institutes and teacherscolleges, each with its own library. The University of Auckland is the largest universityin New Zealand—it has more than 1.5 million volumes in its library. 3 . South Pacific IslandsAmong the island nations of the South Pacific, Fiji has the longest tradition of publiclibrary services. The Suva City Library was established in 1908 by the CarnegieCorporation of New York as part of an effort to establish free public libraries throughoutthe world. Eventually, the Library Service of Fiji assumed responsibility for regionalpublic libraries, as well as for government and school libraries. Collections are primarilyin English.Regional organizations such as the South Pacific Commission provide valuable libraryand archival resources for governments, industry, and scientific research in the region.They also maintain information networks related to agriculture, marine resources, and theenvironment. The Fiji Library Association was formed in 1972 and publishes the FijiLibrary Journal, a professional journal for Fijian librarians. The Pacific IslandsAssociation of Libraries and Archives was founded in 1991 and publishes the Directoryof Libraries, Archives, and Museums in Micronesia. G. Afric a
Throughout the early 20th century, foreign organizations drove the effort to createlibraries in Africa, often through the contributions of international agencies such as theBritish Council, the Carnegie Corporation of New York, and the now abolished UnitedStates Information Agency, whose functions were transferred to the State Department.Before former colonies in Africa gained independence in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s,most libraries were modeled on those in France, Britain, and Portugal; these countrieswere the major colonial powers in Africa. With independence, however, most countrieshave tried to shake off colonial influences and develop libraries based on local culturesand traditions.In an effort to develop a stronger local foundation for African libraries, many Africancountries have formed international library networks. In the late 1970s, for example,Marxist governments in Portuguese-speaking nations of Africa used central planning oflibrary services to implement new technologies and to improve literacy. Within a decadeseveral of these countries had joined the International Center of Bantu Civilizations, anetwork created to meet Central African documentation needs. French-speaking countriesin Africa have also formed library networks. In 1989 the French Ministry of Cooperationand Development signed agreements with 14 French-speaking African nations to developgeneral reading programs for local populations. The ministry also supported efforts inCameroon, Niger, Madagascar, and Burkina Faso to establish automated nationaldatabases of information.Unstable economies, poor telecommunications infrastructure, and weak distributionchannels have all slowed the application of modern technology to library services inAfrica. Nevertheless, by the 1990s many university and research libraries featured state-of-the-art equipment, often purchased through grants from a variety of internationalagencies and foundations. Most funding came from various agencies of the UnitedNations, with aid also provided by the World Bank, the British Council, the CarnegieCorporation of New York, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Ford Foundation.Computers enable many African academic and special libraries to share resourcesthrough local area networks. These libraries also use computers to provide users withonline public access catalogs, information in CD-ROM format, and lists of periodicalsand other bibliographic databases. CD-ROMs have found a wide acceptance in Africanacademic libraries and research institutes, mainly because the discs are capable of storinglarge volumes of information and do not require online telephone communication foraccess.With the exception of the few public libraries established by international groups, almostno African public libraries used modern technology as recently as the late 1990s.Computers and related equipment were similarly scarce in school libraries, except forlibraries of privately funded high schools. South Africa, the most technologicallydeveloped country in Africa, established online information retrieval services foracademic libraries in the mid-1970s and an online national bibliographic and informationnetwork in 1983. By the late 1990s most academic libraries in South Africa providedaccess to the Internet.
1 . National LibrariesLike their counterparts in other parts of the world, national libraries in Africa aremaintained by the federal government. They serve various branches of the governmentand function as a link between their countries and others in the interchange ofinformation. They also function as legal depositories for publications in their countries,receiving copies of all publications submitted for copyright protection. Some Africannational libraries are responsible for public library development in their countries.The need for universities, and therefore university libraries, was for many years a higherpriority than the establishment of national libraries in most African countries. As a result,many university libraries performed the functions of national libraries. For example, thelibrary of the University of Ibadan, in Nigeria, acted as a legal depository for all Nigerianpublications and also published the National Bibliography of Nigeria until the NationalLibrary of Nigeria was established in 1962. The same is true of the libraries at theUniversity of Addis Ababa, in Ethiopia; the University of Khartoum, in Sudan;University College of Swaziland; and Makerere University, in Uganda.By the 1990s nearly every African country had a national library located in the capitalcity of the country. Among the English-speaking countries of Africa, some of the mostnotable national libraries are the National Library of Nigeria in Lagos, the NationalLibrary of Kenya in Nairobi, the National Library of Swaziland in Mbabane, the NationalLibrary of Lesotho in Maseru, and the National Library of Gambia in Banjul. French-speaking countries maintain national libraries in Lomé, Togo; Tunis, Tunisia; Algiers,Algeria; Abidjan, Ivory Coast; Antananarivo, Madagascar; and Yaoundé, Cameroon. Thenational libraries of the Portuguese-speaking countries of Mozambique and Angola arelocated in Maputo and Luanda, respectively. South Africa maintains two nationallibraries: the South African Library in Cape Town and the State Library in Pretoria. 2 . Public LibrariesPublic libraries in Africa trace their origins to the desire of European colonists to haveaccess to the information resources of their home countries. As a result, the publiclibraries they established typically provided access only to specialized groups ofEuropean descendants and to elite Africans, not to the general public. For example, thefirst Lagos Public Library in Nigeria was established in 1932 with a grant from theCarnegie Corporation of New York. Despite being nominally public, it was inaccessibleto most Nigerians because it was located on the grounds of the government houses.In former British colonies of Africa, donations of English-language books significantlyaided the development of public libraries. The British Council, which was instrumental in
the establishment of libraries in many countries of Africa, continues to maintain librariesin Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Ghana, Kenya, Egypt, and Tanzania. Most publiclibraries are located in urban areas, but some countries, including Ghana, Sierra Leone,and Tanzania, have extended services to rural areas as well.Public library development in Africa is often impeded because libraries must compete forscarce government funds with more urgent concerns, such as health care. Despite severefinancial constraints, public officials have tried to make traditional public library servicessuch as acquisition, lending, and reference available to all users regardless of age, sex,religion, or social status. 3 . Special LibrariesColonial governments established the earliest special libraries in Africa to promotestudies of practical value to colonial administrators. In British colonies, for example,special libraries reflected the colonial governments’ interest in agriculture, medicine, andgeology. In Nigeria, British colonists established the Agricultural Research Departmentin Ibadan in 1910, the Medical Research Institute in Lagos in 1910, and the NigeriaGeological Survey Institute in Kaduna in 1919. All of these institutes had libraries toserve the research officers. Other European colonies in Africa established similar librariesfor specialized research.In South Africa, commercial and technological special libraries grew withindustrialization, particularly after the end of World War II in 1945. By the 1990s morethan 600 special libraries in South Africa served researchers in the fields of law, banking,agriculture, medicine, politics, and social sciences. In Malawi, Tanzania, and Kenya, theministries of agriculture maintain central and branch libraries at research stations, trainingcenters, and divisional offices. The central libraries perform acquisitions and then sendthe materials to branch libraries.Some special libraries in Africa serve government officials in political capacities. Forexample, the Chama Cha Mapinduzi library in Tanzania was established by leaders of thegovernment’s ruling political party as a means of obtaining information to support theirpolitical activities. 4 . University LibrariesThe prime function of university libraries in Africa is the same as their function in otherparts of the world: to provide library services to students and faculty members. Becausemost African universities were not founded until after World War II ended in 1945, theirlibraries have not had time to develop extensive collections. Important libraries founded
before African countries gained independence in the mid- to late 20th century include thelibrary of Fourah Bay College, which was founded in 1827 in Freetown, Sierra Leone,and the library of the University of Liberia, which was established in Monrovia in 1862.African university libraries vary in size but consist mainly of textbooks and—in largeruniversities—research materials. Many university libraries strive to give prominence topublications that are African in origin or are about Africa in general. Universities such asthe University of Ibadan in Nigeria and the University of Khartoum in Sudan have largecollections of African materials because they formerly acted as the national legaldepositories for local authors. Today, African university libraries often acquire librarymaterials through gifts and through exchanges with organizations and institutions in otherparts of the world. Some international organizations also designate selected universitylibraries as their depositories. For example, the University of Ibadan receives certaindocuments from United Nations agencies. 5 . School LibrariesSchool libraries are distributed unevenly throughout Africa, and many areas remainpoorly served. In some countries, such as Uganda, school libraries are the responsibilityof the national library. In other countries, such as Ghana, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania,they are overseen by a national library board. In Nigeria, each state government isresponsible for school library services within the state. Most school libraries in Tanzania,Nigeria, Zambia, and Ghana have been beneficiaries of donations from the RanfurlyLibrary Service, a British organization dedicated to eliminating world hunger througheducation.Despite efforts to improve educational resources throughout the continent, most schoollibraries in Africa still suffer from lack of funds and lack of attention. However, privateschools often maintain well-stocked libraries managed by professional librarians. Someof the more privileged school libraries provide lending, reference, and supplementaryreading services. 6 . Library EducationLibrary education in most parts of Africa continues to reflect the influence of theEuropean colonists, who built library schools, paid staff salaries, and providedscholarships for staff development and fellowships for students. The first regional libraryschool in Africa was founded in Ghana in 1944 through the efforts of the CarnegieCorporation in collaboration with the British government. However, it closed its doorsafter only one year. In 1960 the Carnegie Corporation established the Library School atIbadan, Nigeria. Now known as the School of Library, Archival, and Information Studies,
it offers paraprofessional training and bachelor’s, master’s, and doctoral degrees toenable students to become professional librarians.The East African School of Librarianship at Makerere University, in Uganda, wasestablished in 1963 in cooperation with three former East African British colonies:Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. The Council for Library Training in East Africa wasfounded at the same time as a governing body for the school. The United NationsEducational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) provided a director and theBritish Council offered the services of a lecturer in library and information science.Also in 1963 UNESCO opened the Regional Center for the Training of Librarians, alibrary school at Dakar, Senegal, that served as a regional training center for French-speaking countries of Africa. Before this, French-speaking Africans received most oftheir library training in France. In 1967 the center was attached to the University of Dakaras the School for Librarians, Archivists, and Documentalists.In Zambia, the Department of Library Studies was established with UNESCO aid in 1966as part of the school of education at the University of Zambia. The department of libraryscience of the University of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, runs a library science programthrough postgraduate levels.At the University of Botswana, in Gaborone, the department of library studies wascreated in 1979 to provide paraprofessional training for librarians in Botswana, Lesotho,and Swaziland. By 1995 the department had become a professional school, offeringtraining at the bachelor’s, master’s, and doctorate levels and attracting students fromnearly 20 countries.As far back as 1933, the South African Library Association offered introductory coursesin librarianship based on models established by the British Library Association. In 1948the University of Pretoria introduced undergraduate courses in library science, and mostother universities in South Africa followed suit during the 1950s and 1960s. Today,several South African universities offer postgraduate training in library and informationscience.