AntiquitiesPrepared to: Dr. Augusta Rosario A. VillamaterPrepared by: Angelique L. Guce BLIS-II
•The first libraries consisted ofarchives of the earliest form of writing-the clay tablets in cuneiform scriptdiscovered in temple rooms in Sumer,some dating back to 2600 BC.•These archives, which mainly consistedof the records of commercialtransactions or inventories, mark theend of prehistory and start of history.
•Thingswere much the same in thegovernment and temple records onpapyrus of Ancient Egypt.•The earliest discoveries of privatearchives were kept at Ugarit.•There is also evidence of libraries atNippur about 1900 BC and those atNineveh about 700 BC showing alibrary classification system.
30,000 clay tablets•The number of claytablets from the library ofAshurbanipal that hasbeen discovered in theNineveh.
Enuma ElishIt is also known as the Epic ofCreation, which depicts a traditionalBabylonian view of creation.Epic of GilgameshA large selection of “omen texts” includingEnuma Anu Enlil, which contains omen sdealing with the moon,its visibility, eclipses, andconjunction with planets and fixed stars, the sun,its corona, spots, and eclipses the weather,namely lightning, thunder, and clouds, and theplanets.
Tablet from the Library of Ashurbanipal containing the part of the Epic of Gilgamesh
Philosopher LaoziHe was the keeper of booksin the earliest library in China,which belonged to theImperial Zhou dynasty.
Alexandria LibraryItwas the largest and mostsignificant great library of theancient world.The library was conceived andopened either during the reign ofPtolemy I Soter (323- 283BC) orduring the reign of his Ptolemy II(283-246 BC).
•Private or personal librariesmade up of written books (asopposed to the state orinstitutional records kept inarchives) appeared inclassical Greece in the 5 thcentury BC.
•The celebrated book collectorsof Hellenistic Antiquity were listedin the late 2 century in ndDeipnosopistae.•All these libraries were Greek;the cultivated Hellenized dinersin Deipnosopistae pass over thelibraries of Rome in silence.
Private libraries appeared during the laterepublic: Seneca inveighed against librariesfitted out for show by illiterate owners whoscarcely read their titles in the course of alifetime.Libraries were filled with parchment scrollsas the Library of Pergamum and on papyrusscrolls as Alexandria; the export of preparedwriting materials was a staple of commerce.
There were a fewinstitutional or royal librarieswhich were open to aneducated public (such as theSerapeum collection of theLibrary of Alexandria), thelargest library in the ancient.
Liu XiangA Han Chinese scholarwho established the firstlibrary classificationsystem during the HanDynasty, and the first booknotation system.