Pengenalan konsep tingkahlaku dan modifikasi tingkahlaku

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tingkahlaku dan modifikasi tingkahlaku
kuliah Dr Ishak

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  • 1. KULIAH 1PENGENALAN KONSEP TINGKAH LAKU DAN MODIFIKASI TINGKAH LAKU
  • 2. Definisi Tingkah laku Manusia Pengertian tingkah laku: Tingkah laku ialah apa yang seseorang itu lakukan dan katakanCiri-ciri tingkah laku:- apa yang orang kata dan lakukan (Actions)- mempunyai satu atau lebih dimensi (Dimensios) yang boleh diukur (Kekerapan, tempoh masa, intensiti, latensi)- boleh diperhati, dihurai dan direkod (Observable and Measurable)- Mempunyai impact kepada persekitaran- Menurut hukum (lawful) – (hubungan antara tingkah laku dengan peristiwa dipersekitaran)- dalam bentuk overt or covert.
  • 3. Examples of behaviorMartha sits at her computer and types a letter to hermother- Action : pressing the keys on the keyboard- Dimension : frequency of pressing keys, duration of typing- Is observable and measurable- Has an impact on environment (produces latter on screen)- Lawful ( learning process – latter will produces when pressingthe keys)- Overt behavior
  • 4. Samantha is a 6 year old with an intellectual disability who attends specialeducation classes. When the teacher id helping other students and not payingattention to her, she cries and bangs her head on the table or floor. Whenevershe bangs her head, the teacher stops what she is doing and picks her up andcomforts her. She tells her to calm down, assures her that everything is allright, gives her a hug, and often lets her sit on her laps.Kenalpasti kesemua ciri-ciri tingkah lakuSamantha. Action : Dimension: Is it observable? Is it covert behavior? impact on environment Lawful (hukum)
  • 5. Adakah ini tingkah laku? - Kecerdasan - Sikap - Motivasi - Kreativiti - Marah
  • 6. Definisi Modifikasi tingkah laku Behavior modification is the field of psychology concerned withanalyzing and modifying human behavior Analyzing: identifying the functional relationship between the environment and a particular behavior to understand the reason for behavior or to determine why a person behaved as he or she did. Modifying: developing and implementing procedures to help people change their behavior. It involves altering environmental events so as to influence behavior. { Behavior Modification Procedures : instruments that are used to help a person change socially significant behaviors, with the goal of improving some aspect of the person’s life} * An alternative term for behavior medification is applied behavior analysis
  • 7. Ciri-ciri Modifikasi Tingkah laku -Fokus kepada tingkah laku T/Laku yang boleh diubah bukannya ke atas trait atau label tingkahlaku Tingkah laku boleh diubah dikenali sebagai T.laku sasaran sama ada T/Laku excess atau t/laku deficit (**) -Berasaskan prinsisp-prinsip tingkah laku Berdasarkan kajian eksperimen dalam makmal – eksperimen analisis tingkah laku ( analisis tingkah laku) ATAU Analisis tingkah laku gunaan -Menekankan kepada peristiwa dalam persekitaran masa kini T/laku dikawal oleh peristiwa (p/ubah kawalan) di persekitaran– MTL digunakan mengawal peristiwa tersebut -Huraian tepat mengenai prosedur modifikasi tingkah laku Prosedur MTL perlu digunakan dgn betul kerana melibatkan perubahan tertentu pada persekitaran yang ada kaitan dengan sesuatu tingkah laku. Prosedur yant tepat boleh mengubah persekitaran tingkah laku sasaran.
  • 8. Ciri-ciri Modifikasi Tingkah laku- Rawatan yang diamalkan oleh manusia dalam kehidupan seharian.MTL diamalkan oleh guru-guru,penyelia, pensyarah yang bertujuan utkmengubah t/laku. Biasanya orang ini telah terlatih-Mengukur kepada perubahan tingkah laku- Tujuan utama prosedur MTL mengukur tingkah laku sebelum dan selepas Intervensi utk melihat perubahannya.- Suatu penilaian berterusan bagi pastikan perubahan kekal.- Tidak menekankan peristiwa-peristiwa lepas yang menyebabkan sesuatu tingkah laku berlaku - Penekanan kpd peristiwa persekitaran sekarang yang menyebabkan berlaku sesuatu tingkah laku kerana peristiwa lepas mungkin telah berubah.-Menolak ramalan yang berkaitan dengan penyebab sesuatu tingkah laku. Bukan andaian kerana ramalan bukan saintifik
  • 9. Tingkah laku bermasalahTingkah laku yang boleh dimotivasikan1. Tingkah laku berkurangan (deficit) Kurang dimensi bagi sesuatu tingkah laku tertentu Cth- Pekerja yang suka ponteng kerja, - Individu yang tidak beri perhati kepada peraturan - Pelajar yang tidak siapkan esei/ malas belajar - malas2. Tingkah laku berlebihan (Excesses) Terlalu banyak dimensi bagi sesuatu tingkah laku tertentu Cth: - Individu yang suka menyampuk perbualan orang lain. -Merokok secara berlebihan
  • 10. Contoh-contoh tingkah laku bermasalah yang memerlukan prosedurmodifikasi tingkah laku,3.Tingkah laku menyendiri diri: Seseorang yang suka bersendirian sama adadalam kerja atau pergaulan, sedangkan rakan-rakan lain berseronok danberinteraksi antara satu sama lain.4.Membuang sampah: Individu yang tidak ada inisiatif membersihkan semulatempat perkelahannya selepas digunakan atau individu yang suka membuangsampah bukannya di tempat pembuangan sampah.5.Belajar secara tidak berkesan: Belajar disaat akhir, belajar sambil berbual.
  • 11. Contoh-contoh tingkah laku yang memerlukan prosedur modifikasi tingkahlaku, Samb1. Memandu dengan laju: Memandu tanpa mengambil kira tahap kelajuan yang dibenarkan ketika di lebuh raya.3. Fobia: Takut (gayat) menaiki kapal terbang, tempat tinggi atau geli dengan lipas, tikus.5. Pengurusan pekerja: tingkah laku ponteng kerja. kurang bermotivasi.7 Merokok secara berlebihan: menghisap rokok sebanyak 1 kotak dalam masa 1 jam.
  • 12. Common Misconceptions About Behavior Modification• Relies on punishment• Uses bribes• Simplistic or easy• Ignores the real causes of behavior, just treats the symptoms• Leads to people controlling each other• Ruins intrinsic motivation• Makes people dependent on external incentives• Dehumanizes people• Behavior modification only works with kids and retarded people
  • 13. Bagaimana tingkah laku berkembangPembelajaran: Tingkah laku dipelajari Perkaitan antara rangsangan dgn rangsangan Ganjaran dan hukuman Pemerhatian / permodelan Proses kognitif Secara tidak sengajaAdakah t/laku terhasil dari baka??
  • 14. Bagaimana tingkah laku berkembangKaedah pembelajaran: Pembelajaran Klasik (Pembelajaran berlaku secara perkaitan antara rangsangan tak terlazim dengan rangsangan terlazim) Pembelajaran operan (Pembelajaran berlaku secara perkaitan antara rangsangan dan tindak balas) Pembelajaran Kognitif (pembelajaran berlaku dari aktiviti proses mental)
  • 15. Bidang-bidang yang mengamalkan MTLDevelopmental DisablitiesMental IllnessEducation and Special educationRehabilitationCommunity PsychologyClinical PsychologyBusiness, Industry, and Human Services (Modifikasi t/laku organisasi/mengurus t/laku organisasi)Self ManagementChild managementPreventionSports PsychologyHealth Related BehaviorGerontology
  • 16. Kuliah 2:Analisis tingkah laku: Memerhati dan Merekod Tingkah laku * How do you define a target behavior in a behavior modification programme * What different methods can you use to record a target behavior? * How does continuous recording differ from interval and time sample recording * What is reactivity of behavior recording and how can you minimize it? * What is interobserver reliability and why it is important?
  • 17. Defining the target behaviorThe first step to modification behavior procedure. To define the target behavior , we need to identifyexactly what the person says and does that constitutes the behavioral excess or deficit targeted tochange.What is target behavior?behavior that you want to modify. It also called as behavior assessment.Why behavior assessment is important?There are two types of behavioral assessment: direct or indirect. Indirect assessment using interviews,questionnaire, or rating , while direct assessment using direct observation. Why the assessment isimportant? - Can help to determine weather treatment is necessary - Can provide information that helps you choose the best treatment. - Allows you determine weather the behavior changed after the treatment was implement. How do you know that you will fails this subjects?----Peringatan!!!!@ Apabila mendifinisikan tingkah laku sasaran, pengkaji perlu tentukan secara tepat sama ada apayang dikatakan atau dilakukan itu tingkah laku sasaran yang hendak diubah itu jenis berkurangan atauberlebihan.@ Definisi tingkah laku sasaran itu mesti objektif dan tidak kabur.
  • 18. How to define of target behavior:1. Look at the characteristics of target behavior to be record Topography: Form of a particular response Amount: Frequency – The number of instances of the behavior that occur in a given period time Duration – The length of time that occurs within some period Intensity: Force of response (utilized instrumentation) . Eg: Voice meter to measure the loudness of voice. Stimulus control: The conditions under which behavior might be observed to occur Latency: The time between the occurrence of a stimulus and the beginning of a response. Quality:
  • 19. 2. Look at the types of target behavior - Is it an operant behavior - Is it a respondent behavior - Determine the alternative behavior
  • 20. Mendefinisi tingkah laku sasaranPanas baran (Tantrum).When Ahmad cries an sobs / lies on the floor and kicks then floor or walls /pounds toys or other objects on the floorMengigit jari (Nail- biting).Any time Ah Seng finger is in his mouth and his teeth are closed together onthe fingernail, cuticle, or skin around the nail’.Asertif (Assertiveness)When Ali says no to someone who ask him to do something that is not a partof her job / When he asks co-worker not to smoke in her office.Belajar ? ……….
  • 21. Jenis penilaian tingkah laku -Penilaian langsung ( Pemerhatian semulajadi) -Penilaian tidak secara langsung - ( Menggunakan instrument – soalselidik, temuduga, skala pengkadaran). Penilaian yang mana lebih tepat?
  • 22. Merekod tingkah lakuPerkara-perkara diperlukan ketika merekod* Pemerhati a professional / routinely assosiated with the client / must have proximity to the client / must have time to observe and record / willing to function as observer* Bila dan di mana kerja-kerja merekod hendak dijalankan When - in a specific observation period ( at the time that target behavior Where- In naturals setting / contrived setting whre the target behavior typically occurs
  • 23. MEMILIH KAEDAH MEREKODLain aspek tingkah laku sasaran yang hendak diukur, kaedah laindigunakan untuk merekod.Merekod secara berterusan (Identify onset and offset (beginning and end) of instance of the behavior) Method : frequency(amount) / duration / intensity / latencyMerekod hasil: atau merekod hasil tetap Record the tangible outcome or permanent product of the occurrence of the behavior indirect assessment method ( using instrument like units product / record number)
  • 24. MEMILIH KAEDAH MEREKODMerekod secara interval Record the occurrence or nonoccurrent of behavior inconsecutive intervals of time during an observationsperiod. (Type of interval recording – partial interval recording / whole interval recording)Merekod contoh masa Record the occurrence or nonoccurrent of behavior indiscontinuous interval time (time samples) during anobservation period.
  • 25. Memilih Instrumen merekod: - Data sheet – most effectively - Stop-watch - Others instrumentRekabentuk kajian - A – B design ( A = baseline) / (B = treatment) - A-B-A-B design - Multiple design
  • 26. Kad Data kekerapan Kad Data kekerapan Nama: Pemerhati: Definisi tingkah laku sasaran: Tarikh Kekerapan Jumlah 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
  • 27. Kad Data Duration Kad Data Duration Nama: Pemerhati: Definisi tingkah laku sasaran: Tarikh Duration Jumlah 1 2 3 3 jam Date Onset Offset Onset Offset Onset Offset 1 /1/07 8.00 8.10 9.30 9.45 10.40 10.60 35 minit
  • 28. Kad Data Interval Kad Data Interval Nama: Pemerhati: Definisi tingkah laku sasaran: 10 saat interval 10 20 30 40 50 Jumlah
  • 29. Perancangan program modifikasiCth:Tingkah laku : Menghisap rokokTingkah laku sasaran: Melenyapkan tingkah laku menghisaprokok semasa waktu bekerja ( 8 pagi – 5 ptg).Baseline data: Hari Bil rokok 1 8 2 7 3 7 4 5 5 6 Jumlah 33 (min : 7 batang seminggu)
  • 30. Rekabentuk A-B Sesi Baseline Sesi Treatment 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 S T S T S T S Min T/Laku T
  • 31. Perancangan rawatan (Treatment)Minggu Hari Sasaran Result I S R K J 1 33 2 30 3 26 4 20 5 16 6 12 7 8 8 4 9 2 10 0
  • 32. Graf A–B design Data Dasar Data rawatan Jumlah (A) (B) hadir cepat 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Sesi
  • 33. Graf A-B-A-B design Data Dasar Data Rawatan Data Dasar Data Rawatan Jumlah (A) (B) (A) (B) hadir cepat 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Sesi
  • 34. Kuliah 3 PeneguhanTajuk yang akan dibincang meliputi:Prinsip peneguhanPeneguhan positif dan negatifPeneguhan tidak terlazim dan terlazimFaktor yang mempengaruhi keberkesanan peneguhanJadual peneguhan.
  • 35. PRINSIP PENEGUHANPeneguhan perlu dalam pelaziman tingkah laku. Dua Kaedahpelaziman tingkah laku dalam proses pembelajaranPelaziman klasik (Classical Conditioning) Pavlov’s discovery of conditioning : Conditioning through associationModel asas :Stimulus RespondSemasa Pelaziman: Bell (CS) Food (US) salivation (UR)Selepas pelaziman: Bell (CS) Salivation(CR)
  • 36. Pelaziman operan/ instrumental (Instrumental conditioning)Major Theorists – Edward Thorndike, John Watwon, B.F SkinnerModel asas : Law of effect R (RESPOND) S (STIMULUS)Model operan discriminative Respond Reinforcing stimulus Stimulus Sd Sr Sr Sd
  • 37. Proses PeneguhanProses memperkuatkan sesuatu tingkah laku menerusipemberian kesan segera selepas tingkah laku yang dikehendakiitu berlaku. Apabila tingkah laku itu telah diperkuatkan, iasemakin kerap berlaku pada masa hadapan. * Tingkah laku yang diperkuatkan itu dinamakan sebagai tingkah laku operan * Kesan segera yang digunakan untuk memperkuatkan tingkah laku itu dinamakan sebagai peneguh.
  • 38. Contoh penggunaan peneguhan dan kesan kepada tingkahlaku sasaran•A child cries at night after being put to bed and her parents cometo her room to comfort her and calm her down. As a result, thechild now cries more often at bedtimes.•A college student is answering study guide questions for herbehavior modification class. When she can’t figure out an answerto a question, she ask her friend who already took the class. Herfriend tells her the correct answers. As a results, she is morelikely to ask her friend for answer to questions she does,/t know.3. A woman waiting for a bus opens up her umbrella when itsrains………………………………..4. A teacher smiles at Johnny and praise him when he stays in hisseat and pays attention in the classroom………………………
  • 39. Kesan Peneguhan 10 Baseline Treatment 8Frequency Behavior 6 4 5 0 Days 5 10 20
  • 40. Peneguhan Positif dan Peneguhan NegatifKeperluan – To increase the probability that the behavior will occur in the futurePeneguhan Positif: - The occurance of a behavior - is followed by the addition of stimulus or an increase in the intensity of a stimulus. The stimulus is called Reinforcer Stimulus - which result in the strengthening of the behavior - Eg: Response Consequence Child tentrums in the store And immediately Mum gives him candy
  • 41. Prinsip PREMACKSejenis peneguhan positif.Kaedah:Menghubungkan tingkah laku yang tinggi kemungkinan (tingkahlaku sasaran), yang menjadi pergantungan tingkah laku laku yangrendah kemungkinan (tingkah laku yang bukan sasaran) bagimeningkatkan tingkah laku yang rendah kemungkinan tersebut.Cth:Ibubapa mahu anak lelaki(remaja) menyiapkan kerja sekolah(kurang sasaran) sebelum dia boleh pergi bermain bola (tingkah lakusasaran)
  • 42. Peneguhan Negatif: - The occurance of a behavior - is followed by the removal of stimulus or the decrease in the intensity of a stimulus. The stimulus is calledaversive stimulus) - which result in the strengthening of the behavior eg: Consequence Respond Mun buys he child candy when And immediately The child stops the tantrum he tantrums in the store
  • 43. Tingkah laku mengelak (Escape) dan menafikan(Avoidance))Tingkah yang berlaku kerana hendak mengelak dan menafikanpeneguhan negatifT/laku mengelak (Escape Behavior ) = The behavior results in thetermination of an aversive stimulus that was already present when thebehavior occurredTingkah laku menafikan (Aviodence Behavior) = The occurrence ofthe behavior prevent the presentation of an aversive stimulus.Cth Escape behavior:A person steps barefoot on the hot asphalt and immediately steps on the grass.Steeping onto the grass result in escape from the heat of the hot asphalt.Cth Avoidance Behavior:A persons put on the shoes the next time she walks on the hot asphalt. Wearingshoes results in avoidance of the heat from the hot asphalt
  • 44. PeneguhBenda/peristiwa/perkara yang digunakan dalam proses peneguhanPeneguh tak terlazim = unconditioned reinforcersThe natural reinforcement. They have biological importance. (or called asprimary reinforcers / unlearned reinforcers)Eg: food for a hungry persons / water for a thirsty personPeneguh terlazim = conditioned reinforcers( a stimulus that was once neutral but became established as a reinforcer by beingpaired with an unconditioned reinforcer OR an already established conditionedreinforcers ( Its called as secondary reinforcer / learned reinforcers)Eg: praise, television programsPeneguh sokongan = backup reinforcers(A stimulus becomes a reinforcers through associated with other reinforcers, theother reinforcers are called backup reinforcers. Backup reinforcers can be eitherunconditioned reinforcers or conditioned reinforcers
  • 45. Klasifikasi peneguhConsumable - items that can eat or drink ( cookies, candy,fruit)activity – opportunities to watch televisyen, look at the picture bookManipulative – ride a bicycle, surt the internet / play with favorite thingspossessional – private room, enjoy some other item that one can possesSocial – affectionate pats and hugs, praise, nod smiles …( A considerable amount of trial and error may be involved in finding anappropriate reinforcers for particular individual )
  • 46. Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi keberkesanan peneguhanImmediacy – It should occurred immediately after the behavior occurs.Contingency – when a behavior occur consistently followed by reinforcerEstablishing operations – The events or actions that change the value of astimulus as a reinforcer ( food is more powerful reinforcer for a person whohasn’t eaten). The establishing operations can influence by: Deprivation – a type of establishing operation that increase theeffectiveness of most unconditioned and some conditioned reinforcers Satiation - a type of establishing operation that makes a stimulus less potent as a reinforcer. Instructions / rules – function as a establishing operation.Characteristics of the consequence – the person / amount or intensity ofstimulus
  • 47. Peneguh kepada pekerjaSpecial AttentionPraise (praise in front of others) / Reserved parking park / flexible job duties /choice of work partner / …..Company timeExtra break time / choice working hours or days off / Extra meal time/ …...MonetraryPromotions / paid days off / company car / pay for sicks day not taken / giftcertificates / business cards / tickets for special events…….ParticipantVoice in policy decision / more responsibility / opportunity to learn newskills /…….
  • 48. Jadual PeneguhanPemberian peneguhan lebih berkesan jika diberi secara bersistematik/ berjadualKlasifikasi Jadual PeneguhanJadual Peneguhan Berterusan (CRF) – one in which each occurrence ofresponse is reinforcedJadual Peneguhan Intermiten (IRF) – responses are occisonally /intermittently reinforced.Jenis-jenis JadualFixed ratio (FR) = Reinforcer delivered after a certain number of responses.Produces high rate of behavior, with a pause after reinforcement. (Fixed ratio 5 (5FR) = the reinforcer follow every fifth response)Variable ratio (VR) = Reinforcer delivered after an average of X responses.Produces high and steady rate of behavior, with no pause after reinforcement(Variable ratio 10 (VR 10) = the ratio provided after an average of 10responses)
  • 49. Fixes interval (FI) = Reinforcer delivered for the first response that occursafter a fixed interval of time. Produces a low rate of behavior, with an on-0ffpattern The response rate increases near the end of the interval.Fixed interval 20 (FI20) = the first response that occurs after 20 secondshas elapsed results in the reinforcer.Variable interval (VI) = Reinforcer delivered for the first response thatoccurs after a variable interval of time. Produces a steady, low to moderaterate of behavior, with no on and off patternVariable interval 20 second (VI 20 second) = sometimes the interval ismore than 20 seconds and other times is less than 20 seconds.