The questionairre gives data on people’s learning style preferences, which can be used in a variety of ways….for instance: 1) learning using methods that compliment you preference style 2) using methods to improve or boost weaker area’s with the ultimate aim of making you an “all rounded” learner 3) Courses can be designed to appeal to different learning styles or to cater for a group of attendees with the same learning style preference 4) Learning styles can be used to formulate team members so that the team on the whole has a range of skill mix….or to help tailor individual members to roles that compliment their learning styles eg study groups, teams in the workplace, project teams
Get audience to list on a flip chart, different methods of teaching. So you can see from the list above, there are a variety of teaching methods. Different people prefer different teaching methods….much of it governed by your learning preference. However, if we used several of these methods in one tutorial session, we might actually succeed in catering for most of the learning styles within the group. This is why, on the Bradford VTS, we use several methods in one session or sitting. A lot of you hate role play….but now can you see why we do it…there are others in the audience who love it. In fact, interactive learning is a very effective method! Didactic lectures are a method which research has shown to be an ineffective method of learning when used alone in isolation. That is why if we do give a lecture in a session, it lasts for only a short period. Didactic lectures are in fact a child way of learning…we had it at infant school, at junior school, at sixth form/further education and even in medical school….and that is why some of you love it…because you were comfortable with it and sometimes, stepping out into unfamiliar grounds, as in role play, can feel daunting. But, you are all adults and so a child’s method isn’t appropriate any more. You should not be spoon fed, but you must now feed yourselves.
Often we get comments and feedback in the HDR sessions that state “could have been done in half the time if we didn’t have to role play and if someone just told us” Yes, it could have been done in half the time. BUT the important thing is that you would have acquired sweet nothing or little….and more than likely, most of you would have fallen asleep. But by doing, by being interactive, by using many senses (‘multisensing’), we constantly reinforce our brains with new information…..to the extent it is acquired with greater effect and less effort. So don’t be afraid of games, role plays and other new methods of learning. Go out and play.
Learning style a consistent pattern of behaviour within a range of individual variability (Cornet, 1983); a students consistent way of responding to and using stimuli in a learning environment (Claxton & Ralston, 1978); how individuals process information and prefer to learn (Garity, 1985); the way individuals organise information and experiences (Laschinger & Boss, 1984); a persons characteristic style of acquiring and using information (Haynsake, 1981) and; an expression of psychological differentiation within characteristic modes of information processing (Witkin & Goodenough, 1971, 1981). 2
Learning Styles ModelsMeyers-Briggs Type Indicator Kolb’s learning cycle Honey & Mumford LS Multiple intelligence theory Multiple intelligent 3
Carl Jung Carl Gustav Jung (1875 – 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist, an influential thinker and the founder of analytical psychology (also known as Jungian psychology). Two processes that are important in learning how we take in information what we do with the information once it is in our brains He called the first PERCEPTION and the second JUDGEMENT 5
Carl Jung: Perception Two types of perceivers those who can only process on sense at a time, i.e. they can look but can’t listen And those can taken in all senses simultaneously and bring all the sense data together to make a holistic overview He called the first type of person a SENSOR and the second an INTUITOR 6
Carl Jung: Judgment Two types of judgers those who can make decisions based on their heart And those make decisions based on their head He called the first type of person a FEELER and the second an THINKER 7
Carl Jung’s Model of LearningStyles Sensing Thinking Feeling Judgement Perception Intuiting 8
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI) Designed to measure psychological preferences in how people perceive the world and make decisions. These preferences were based on Carl Jung’s ideas The original developers of the personality inventory were Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers. Began creating the indicator during World War II, believing that a knowledge of personality preferences would help women who were entering the industrial workforce for the first time identify the sort of war-time jobs where they would be "most comfortable and effective. 9
Wants to talk through theirideas in order to clarifythem.LEARNS BYTEACHING OTHERSGathers information fromnumerous sources. Likes toreflect and clarify beforespeakingCONCERNED WITHTHEIR OWNUNDERSTANDING 12
Interested in the patternsand relationships betweenthe facts, discoverylearning, they try to developnew original solutionsLIKE SIMULATIONSOR EXPERIMENTSFocus on facts and details.Like structured lectures,guidelines and objectives.Tend to apply standardsolutionsCONCERNED WITHWHAT MUST BEKNOWN 13
Subjective in their decisionmaking and consider howtheir decisions affect others,like small group exercisesOPEN-ENDEDCONSTRUCTIVISTICFORMATSReply on analysis, logic andexisting principles. Liketests to measure progress.ANALYSE CASESTUDIES 14
Prefer flexibility andadaptability, often postponedoing work until the very lastminuteSEEK INFORMATIONUNTIL THE DEADLINE(AND OFTEN BEYOND)Prefer structure andorganisation, appreciate anyresources that can helpthem plan their workDEADLINES ARESACRED 15
Other Learning Styles Models Kolb’s learning cycle Honey & Mumford LS Multiple intelligence theory Multiple intelligent 16
Application : Honey and MumfordLearning styles Theorists: Like case studies, theory readings, and thinking alone. Their strengths lie in their ability to create theoretical models. Pragmatists: peer feedback; activities that apply skills; self-directed autonomous learner. The pragmatists greatest strength is in the practical application of idea. Activists: like practising the skill, problem solving, small group discussions, peer feedback; trainer should be a model of a professional, leaving the learner to determine her own criteria for relevance of materials. Reflectors: like lectures with plenty of reflection time; trainer should provide expert interpretation - taskmaster/guide; judge performance by external criteria. Their strengths lie in an imaginative ability. 21
Multiple intelligence and learningTYPE LIKES TO IS GOOD AT LEARNS BESTLinguistic Learner Read, write, tell stories Memorizing names, places, dates, problem solving Saying, hearing, and seeing words(“word player”)Logical/Mathematical Do experiments, figure things out, work with numbers, ask Math, reasoning, logic and problem solving Categorizing, classifying, working with abstractLearner (“questioner”) questions patternsSpatial Learner Draw, build, design & create things, look at pictures, Imagining things, sensing changes, mazes/puzzles, Visualizing, dreaming, working with colours and(“visualizer”) daydream, watch movies, play reading maps, charts pictures with machinesMusical Learner Sing, hum, listen to music, play an instrument, respond to music Picking up sounds, remembering melodies, Rhythm, melody, music(“music lover”) noticing pitches/rhythms, keeping timeBodily/Kinesthetic Move around, touch and talk, use body language Physical activities (sport, dancing, acting) Touching, moving, interacting with space,Learner body sensationsInterpersonal Learner Have lots of friends, talk to people, join groups Understanding people, leading others, organizing, Sharing, comparing, relating, cooperating,(“socializer”) communicating, mediating interviewingIntrapersonal Learner Work alone, pursue own interests Understanding self, focusing inward on feelings/dreams, Working alone, individual projects, self-paced following instincts, pursuing instructions, having own interests/goals, being original space
Putting it all togetherWhen learning, use learning styles to: Complement your preference style Use methods to boost weaker areasWe use them to: Design courses to appeal to a set of different learning styles Learning styles can be used to achieve a balance of skill mix within a team/group
What should trainers do withdifferent learning styles: Accept that people learn in different ways. Use different methods to facilitate learning for different preferences. When designing and delivering training, strive to create a variety of approaches that make use of techniques and activities from all learning preferences. 33
PERCEPTUALMODALITIES The ways people take in & process information 34
Methods of Instruction the lecture the modified lecturethe demonstration Practical sessions Readings group discussion conferencesSeminars workshops clinics role-play simulation games videos/films Brainstorming question and answer programmed instruction field trips
Multi-modality learning We remember: 10% of what we read 20% of what we hear 30% of what we see 50% of what we see and hear 80% of what we say 90% of what we say, hear and do
Rates of Adults LearningThe factors that may influence the speed at which adultslearn include psychological environmental emotional Individual Learning Styles sociological physical intellectual and experiential age.