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Influences on employee behavior


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kuliah HRD En Sharil-UTM

kuliah HRD En Sharil-UTM

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  • 1. INFLUENCES ON EMPLOYEE BEHAVIOR Chapter 2CH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 1
  • 2. Learning Objectives• Identify that influence employee behavior• Describe outcomes resulting from behavior and tell how they influence future behavior• State how a supervisor’s leadership and expectations for employees can affect their behavior• Recognize the impact that coworkers and the organization itself have on employee behavior• Define motivation and describe the main approaches to understanding motivation at work• Discuss how knowledge, skill, ability, and attitudes influence employee behaviorCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 2
  • 3. Goals of HRD• Goal of Human Resources Development interventions is to assist employees and organizations in attaining their goals• Ultimate objective of most, if not all, HRD programs is to improve organizational performance• Major focus of most HRD interventions is an effort to change employee behaviorCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 3
  • 4. Model of Employee BehaviorFig. 2-1 Factors in the External Environment Economic Technological Labor Market Laws and Labor Conditions Changes Conditions Regulations Unions Supervision Leadership Performance Expectations Organization Employee Behavior Reward Motivation Task Outcomes Structures Attitudes Performance Personal Culture Knowledge, Organizational Organizational Job Design Skill, Ability Citizenship Behaviors Coworkers Norms Group Dynamics Teamwork Control Over OutcomesCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 4
  • 5. Major Categories Affecting Behavior• External forces – Outside the organization – Inside the work environment • Leadership • Coworkers • Outcomes of performance• Internal Forces – Within employee • Motivation • KSAsCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 5
  • 6. Major Categories of Employee Behavior• Individual performance is multidimensional• Most HRD focuses on “Task Performance” – Behaviors central to doing one’s job• Organizational citizenship behaviors – Critical to organizational effectiveness • Not specific to any one taskCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 6
  • 7. External Influences• General state of economy• Government intrusion• Global and technology issues – In spite of excellent work and production, external influences can result in down-sizing to reduce costsCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 7
  • 8. Workforce Investment• Organizations invest a lot of time and money in their workforce• They must maintain their investment, even when restructuring or downsizing• Re-training “survivors” to do other work rather than laying them off – Coaching and mentoring – Individual development – Multi-rater feedbackCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 8
  • 9. Influences on Employee Behavior• Factor • Issues – Outcomes – Types – Effect on motivation – Supervision – Leadership – Performance expectations – Organization – Reward structure – Organizational structure – Job design – Coworkers – Control of outcomes – Norms – Group Dynamics (Table 2-1) – Teamwork/Trust/CohesivenessCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 9
  • 10. Employee Perceptions Drive Behavior – Expectancy Theory: • Workers will perform behaviors that they perceive will bring valued outcomes • Better the outcome, better the work – Equity Theory • Outcomes are evaluated by comparing them to the outcomes received by othersCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 10
  • 11. Supervision and Leadership• Immediate supervisor: – Delegates tasks and responsibilities – Sets expectations – Evaluates performance – Provides feedback – Rewards desirable behavior – Provides disciplineCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 11
  • 12. Supervisory Influences• Self-fulfilling prophecy – Supervisors expectations can influence workers behavior• Leadership: – Non-coercive influence to direct and coordinate the activities of a group toward accomplishing a goalCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 12
  • 13. Rewards Structure• Focuses on: – Types of rewards used – How rewards are distributed – The criteria for rewards distribution• Rewards are more than money or plaques – They can include recognition and acceptanceCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 13
  • 14. The Organizational Culture• A set of values, beliefs, norms and patterns of behavior that are shared by organization members, and that guide their behaviorCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 14
  • 15. Job Design• The development and alteration of the components of a job to improve productivity and the quality of an a employee’s life• A job design can affect behavior and attitudes• Altering the job may improve performance and attitudesCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 15
  • 16. Influence of Coworkers• They control some of the outcomes and therefore some of the behavior• They may offer or withhold friendship and recognition• Norms set the guidelines for behavior in the group• Group dynamics influence the way an employee behaves when interacting with a groupCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 16
  • 17. Group Dynamic Characteristics• Groupthink -- concerned with unanimity rather than making good decisions• Social Loafing -- tendency for individuals to reduce level of effort as group becomes larger• Teamwork: – Trust – CohesivenessCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 17
  • 18. Motivation• One of the basic elements of human behavior• Factors that cause the arousal, direction and persistence of voluntary actions that are goal directedCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 18
  • 19. Factors to Consider• Work motivation pertains to voluntary behavior• Motivation focuses on – Energizing—The generation or mobilization of effort – Direction—Applying effort to one behavior over another – Persistence—Continuing (or ceasing) to perform a behaviorCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 19
  • 20. Worker Motivation• Based on the individual because of unique – Needs – Desires – Attitudes – GoalsCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 20
  • 21. The Need-Based Approach• Underlying needs, • Theories include: such as the needs for – Mazlow’s Needs safety or power, drive Hierarchy motivation – Alderfer’s Existence, Relatedness and Growth Theory – Herzberg’s Two-Factor TheoryCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 21
  • 22. Cognitive Process Approach• Motivation is a • Theories include: process controlled by • Expectancy Theory conscious thoughts, • Goal-Setting Theory beliefs and judgments • Social Learning Theory • Equity TheoryCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 22
  • 23. Non-Cognitive Approach• Motivation is • Theories include: explained as an – Reinforcement Theory interaction between behavior and external events without appealing to internal thoughts or needsCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 23
  • 24. Needs-Based Approach• Needs: deficiency states or imbalances, whether physiological or psychological, that energize and direct behavior• Needs drive behavior through need activation and need satisfactionCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 24
  • 25. The Need Activation-Need Satisfaction Process Process Example Fig. 2-2 Need is activated Layoff announced; Need for security is activated Tension is created Tension expressed in fear and worry Search for ways Improve performance? to reduce tension Politics? Job search? Perform behaviors Performance improvement to reduce tension leads management to remove employees name from layoff list Tension eliminated Fear and worry or significantly No significantly reduced reduced? Yes Need satisfied; Need for security Need no longer satisfied drives behaviorCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 25
  • 26. Mazlow’s Need Hierarchy• In Reverse Order of Importance – Self-actualization – Status and Esteem – Love – Safety and security – Physiological• The item(s) below must be satisfied before those above can be satisfiedCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 26
  • 27. Alderfer’s ERG Theory• Existence• Relatedness• Growth• Basically reduces Mazlow’s five to three itemsCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 27
  • 28. Deficiencies of Need-Based• Difficult to test and apply• Insufficient for explanation of motivation• Some programs based on theories have been successful – Job enrichment – Achievement motivationCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 28
  • 29. Cognitive Process Theories• Expectancy theory – Assumes that motivation is a conscious choice process – Employees • believe they can perform successfully (high expectancy), and • believe are connected (high instrumentality) to outcomes they desire (high valence) or • believe will prevent (negative instrumentality) outcomes they want to avoid (negative valence)CH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 29
  • 30. Expectancy Theory and HRD• Employees will not attend HRD sessions unless – They will learn something – It will increase their job performance – They will be rewarded for their effortsCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 30
  • 31. Graphical Representation of Expectancy Theory Fig. 2-3 Expectancy Instrumentality Valence Should I How likely is it that Will I receive various How desirable or exert effort? I will reach my outcomes if I reach undesirable are performance goal? my performance goal? these outcomes?CH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 31
  • 32. Goal Setting Theory• Goals can – Mobilize employee effort – Direct their attention – Increase their persistence – Affect strategies used to accomplish a taskCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 32
  • 33. Goal Setting• Goals that are specific, difficult, and accepted by employees lead to better performance• Feedback enhances effectiveness of goal setting• Goals must be achievableCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 33
  • 34. Social Learning Theory• Outcome and self-efficacy expectations affect individual performance• An Outcome Expectation – person’s belief that performing a given behavior will lead to a given outcome• Self Efficacy – “people’s judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances”CH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 34
  • 35. Self-Efficacy and PerformanceFig. 2-4 Analysis of task Performance history Modeling Behavioral Persuasion Attribution of performance history Self-efficacy Performance outcomes Physiological/ emotional state Assessment of constraints Feedback SOURCE: ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT REVIEW by Gist, M. E., Mitchell, T. R. Copyright 2005 by ACAD OF MGMT. Reproduced with permission of ACAD OF MGMT in the formal Textbook via Copyright Clearance Center.CH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 35
  • 36. Major Prediction of Social Learning Theory• A person’s self-efficacy expectations will determine • whether a behavior will be performed, • how much effort will be spent, and • how long the person will continue to perform the behaviorCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 36
  • 37. Equity Theory• Motivation is strongly influenced by – People’s desire to be treated fairly – Perceptions about whether they have been treated fairlyCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 37
  • 38. Basis of Equity Theory• People develop beliefs about what is fair for them to receive in exchange for the contributions that they make to the organization• People determine fairness by comparing their relevant returns and contributions to those of others• People who believe they have been treated unfairly (called inequity) will experience tension, and they will be motivated to find ways to reduce itCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 38
  • 39. Reducing Feelings of Inequity• Cognitively distorting views of contributions or rewards (“She must be smarter than I thought.”)• Influencing the perceived rival to change his or her contributions or rewards (e.g., convincing the person to be less productive)• Changing one’s own contributions or rewards (either working harder or contributing less)• Comparing oneself to a different person leaving the situation (requesting a transfer or quitting)CH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 39
  • 40. Equity Theory GraphicallyFig. 2-5 Outcomes/rewards Outcomes/rewards received by received by self relevant others Inputs of self Inputs of relevant others Social comparison of outcomes to inputs Perceived Perceived inequity equity Motivation Motivation to to correct or maintain present reduce inequity equity relationshipsCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 40
  • 41. Reinforcement Theory• A non-cognitive theory• Based on “Law of Effect” – Behavior that is followed by a pleasurable consequence will occur more frequently • Process known as “reinforcement” – Behavior that is followed by an adverse consequence will occur less frequentlyCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 41
  • 42. Behavior Modification• Positive reinforcement refers to increasing the frequency of a behavior by following the behavior with a pleasurable consequence• Negative reinforcement increases the frequency of a behavior by removing something aversive after the behavior is performed• Extinction seeks to decrease the frequency of a behavior by removing the consequence that is reinforcing it• Punishment seeks to decrease the frequency of a behavior by introducing an aversive consequence immediately after the behaviorCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 42
  • 43. Integrating Theories in Practice• Fig. 2-6 Expectancy Valence Ability Desire to perform Effort Performance Instrumentality Satisfaction Accuracy of role perceptions Equity of rewards SOURCE: Wagner, J. A., III, and Hollenbeck, J. R. (1995). Management of Organizational Behavior (2nd ed,). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.CH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 43
  • 44. Attitudes• Second major influence on work behavior• Attitude: a person’s general feeling of favorableness or unfavorableness toward some stimulus object• A combination of attitudes with perceived social pressure to behave in a certain manner influences an individual’s behaviorCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 44
  • 45. The Behavioral Intentions Model• Fig 2-7 Perceived situational Beliefs about Attitude or internal constraints behavior/outcome toward the relationships behavior Intentions Behavior Beliefs about Perception group/society of norms norms SOURCE: From Organizational Behavior 5th edition by Hellriegel/Slocum/Woodman. © 1989. Reprinted with permission of South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning: Fax 800 730-2215.CH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 45
  • 46. Knowledge, Skills and Abilities (KSAs)• If employees lack the KSAs to perform a task or behavior, they will likely fail• Abilities – general capacities related to the performance of a set of tasks• Skills – combine abilities with capabilities that are developed as a result of training and experience• Knowledge – an understanding of factors or principles related to a particular subjectCH-2 Copyright 2008, Werner et al 46