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Diversity training + beyond

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kuliah HRD En Sharil-UTM

kuliah HRD En Sharil-UTM

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    Diversity training + beyond Diversity training + beyond Presentation Transcript

    • HRD AND DIVERSITY: DIVERSITY TRAINING AND BEYOND Chapter 15CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 1
    • Learning Objectives• Understand how the changing demographics of the labor market are changing the cultural fabric of organizations• Describe how organizational culture is being affected by having a greater percentage of women and minorities in the workforce• Describe how diversity issues are impacting organizations, as well as HRDCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 2
    • Learning Objectives• Become familiar with different forms of discrimination, and how HRD programs and processes can help to reduce these effects• Describe the ways organizations attempt to integrate women and minorities into the organization, and the relative success of these efforts• Understand the purpose and methods of cross- cultural trainingCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 3
    • Questions• What is the current status of women and people of color in the U.S. workforce?• Is there a “glass ceiling” that limits the advancement of women and people of color in U.S. organizations?• What is the difference between equal employment opportunity, affirmative action, and managing diversity?• How effective are diversity training programs employed by organizations?• What can organizations do to better prepare their employees to deal with cross-cultural issues, especially if they are sent to work in another country?• What types of HRD programs can organizations use to develop and promote a culturally diverse workforce?CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 4
    • Culture• A set of shared values, beliefs, norms, and artifacts that are used to interpret the environment and as a guide for all kinds of behaviorCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 5
    • Common Cultural CharacteristicsTable 15-1• Common geographic origin• Migratory status• Race• Language or dialect• Religious faith• Ties that transcend kinship, neighborhood, and community boundaries• Shared traditions, values, and symbolsSOURCE: From Thernstrom, S., Orlov, A., & Handlin, O. (Eds.). (1980). Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups.Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 6
    • Common Cultural CharacteristicsTable 15-1• Literature, folklore, music• Food preferences• Settlement and employment patterns• Special interests in regard to politics• Institutions that specifically serve and maintain the group• An internal perception of distinctness• An external perception of distinctness SOURCE: From Thernstrom, S., Orlov, A., & Handlin, O. (Eds.). (1980). Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 7
    • Organizational Culture• A set of shared values, beliefs, norms, artifacts, and patterns of behavior that are used as a frame of reference for the way one looks at, attempts to understand, and works within an organizationCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 8
    • Artifacts• Material and nonmaterial objects and patterns that intentionally or unintentionally communicate information about the organization’s technology, beliefs, values, assumptions, and ways of doing thingsCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 9
    • Artifacts• Material artifacts include documents, physical layout, furnishings, patterns of dress, and so on• Nonmaterial artifacts include organizational stories, ceremonies, and leadership stylesCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 10
    • Patterns of Behavior• Help to reinforce an organization’s assumptions, beliefs, and ways of doing things through staff meetings, training programs, filing forms, and other normal organizational practicesCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 11
    • Labor Market Changes and Discrimination• Discrimination can occur in various ways – access discrimination occurs when an organization places limits on job availability through such things as restricting advertisement and recruitment, rejecting applicants, or offering a lower starting salary – treatment discrimination occurs after a person is hired and takes the form of limiting opportunitiesCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 12
    • Treatment Discrimination Against Women• Women have made considerable progress moving into formerly male-dominated occupations such as medicine, law, management, advertising, and engineeringCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 13
    • Changes in the Number of Women at theTop of Fortune 500 Companies, 1995–2006Table 15-1 1995 2000 2003 2006 Percent of board of directors who are female 9.5% 11.7% 13.6% 14.7% Percent of corporate officers who are female 8.7% 12.5% 15.7% 16.6% Percent of top officers who are female 1.2% 4.1% 7.9% 6.7% Number of companies with three female 25 50 54 64 corporate officers Number of CEOs who are female: 1 2 8 10 SOURCES: 2006 Catalyst census of women corporate officers (2006). New York: Catalyst. Accessed August 24, 2007 at http://www.catalystwomen.org/knowledge/cote.shtml; WOW! Facts 2006. Business Women’s Network. Accessed on August 25, 2007 at http:www.wowfacts.diversitybestpractices.com/wow/excerpts06.pdfCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 14
    • Sexual Harassment• Many forms of sexual harassment, – unwanted off-color jokes and comments – outright unwanted sexual propositions and touching – offers of job rewards in exchange for sexual favorsCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 15
    • Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harassment• If an employee’s subjection to or rejection of the sexual conduct is used as a basis for an employment decision• Even if the harassment is not linked directly to an employment decision, it can still be illegal harassment if the behavior is found to have created a hostile work environmentCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 16
    • Treatment Discrimination Against Minorities in Organizations• Primarily in the lack of promotional opportunities and incidents of racial harassment• Minorities have had difficulty moving into key executive and policymaking positions• Racial harassment on the job can take many formsCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 17
    • Equal Employment Opportunity• The right to obtain jobs and earn rewards in them regardless of non-job-related factors• Follow-ons make it unlawful for employers to make employment decisions on the basis of race, color, sex, religion, national origin, age, mental or physical handicap, Vietnam-era or disabled veteran status, and pregnancy, unless these factors can be shown to be job relatedCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 18
    • The Glass Ceiling• An invisible but impenetrable boundary prevented women and minorities from advancing to senior management levels• Subtle attitudes and prejudices that block women and minorities from upward mobility, particularly into management jobsCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 19
    • Glass Ceiling Commission• Goals were: – to promote a high quality, inclusive, and diverse workforce capable of meeting the challenge of global competition – to promote good corporate conduct through an emphasis on corrective and cooperative problem solving – to promote equal opportunity, not mandated results – to establish a blueprint of procedures to guide the department in conducting future reviews of all management levels of the corporate workforceCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 20
    • Commission Findings• Neither women nor minorities tended to advance as far as their white male counterparts, although women advanced further than minorities• While most organizations made a concerted effort to identify and develop key (white male) employees, few organizations had taken any ownership for equal employment opportunity and access• The few women and minorities who held executive jobs were in staff positions that were considered outside the corporate mainstream for promotions to senior-level positions• While most of these organizations held federal government contracts, most ha inadequate equal employment and affirmative action record keepingCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 21
    • Impact of Recent Immigration Patterns• One reason for the growth in the number of minority workers has been the large influx of immigrants since the 1960s• Differences based on culture, religion, and other variables must be considered as these individuals are assimilated into U.S. society and work settingsCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 22
    • Adapting to Demographic Change• Many organizations established programs to facilitate the recruitment and retention of qualified women and minorities.• The inclusion of women, minorities, and other underrepresented groups has made organizations more culturally diverseCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 23
    • Cultural Diversity• The existence of two or more persons from different cultural groups in any single group or organizationCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 24
    • Three Different Approaches• They are – Affirmative action – Valuing differences – Managing diversity• Each approach seeks to extend beyond the legal mandates required by the equal opportunity (EEO) lawsCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 25
    • Affirmative Action Programs• Purpose of affirmative action programs is – to bring members of underrepresented groups, usually groups that have suffered discrimination, into a higher degree of participation in some beneficial programCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 26
    • Steps to Meet Affirmative Action Requirements• Prepare a written policy statement on equal employment opportunity/affirmative action (EEO/AA)• Designate an affirmative action officer• Publicize an EEO/AA policy statement• Conduct an analysis of the surrounding labor market to determine if its current labor force is representativeCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 27
    • Steps to Meet Affirmative Action Requirements• If a protected group is underrepresented in any area within the organization, develop goals and timetables to achieve parity with the external labor market• Develop specific programs and activities to achieve these goals and timetables• Establish an internal auditing and reporting system of its programs and activities• Develop support for affirmative action, both inside and outside the companyCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 28
    • Affirmative Action• Sometimes requires actions such as preferential recruiting and hiring or placement of certain groups when those groups are underrepresented in an occupation within an organizationCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 29
    • Differences Between EEO and AAP• Under affirmative action, the employer is asked to explicitly consider race and gender in such decisions, if women and minorities are not adequately represented in a particular job or job category• Under EEO, employer seeks to ignore race and gender as much as possible when making employment decisionsCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 30
    • Race and Gender Discrimination• Remain troubling issues in American society• Both men and women vary widely in their perceptions of affirmative action in particular, and diversity in generalCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 31
    • Valuing Differences and Diversity Training• Valuing differences – create an environment in which each person’s cultural differences are respected• Diversity training programs vary in scope and lengthCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 32
    • Issues• Common misgiving about emphasizing differences is that it fails to recognize that people identify with each other because of shared interests, values, goals, and experiences• Costs of doing diversity trainingCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 33
    • Potential Problems with Diversity Training Table 15-3 When Trainers When the Training Program • Use their own psychological • Is not integrated into the issues (e.g., trust or group organization’s overall approach to diversity affiliation) as template for Training • Is too brief, too late, or reactive • Is presented as remedial and • Have their political agenda trainees as people with problems • Do not model the philosophy or • Does not distinguish the skills associated with valuing meanings of valuing diversity, EEO, diversity AA, and managing across culturesSOURCE: Copyright © December 1992 from Training & Development Journal by Mobley, M. & Payne, T. Reprinted with permission ofAmerican Society for Training & Development. CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 34
    • Potential Problems with Diversity Training Table 15-3 When Trainers When the Training Program • Are chosen because they • Does not make a link between represent or advocate for a minority stereotyping behavior and group personal and organizational • Are not competent at facilitation effectiveness and presenting, have poor credibility with trainees, or are known to be • Is based on a philosophy of insensitive political correctness • Is too shallow or too deepSOURCE: Copyright © December 1992 from Training & Development Journal by Mobley, M. & Payne, T. Reprinted with permission ofAmerican Society for Training & Development. CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 35
    • Potential Problems with Diversity Training Table 15-3 When Trainers When the Training Program • Force people to reveal their • Resource materials are outdated feelings about other people • Curriculum is not adapted to • Do not respect individual styles trainees’ needs or not matched with of trainees the skills and experience of the • Pressure only one group to Trainer change • Discussion of certain issues • Cover too few issues and do not (e.g., reverse discrimination) engage participants individually is not allowedSOURCE: Copyright © December 1992 from Training & Development Journal by Mobley, M. & Payne, T. Reprinted with permission ofAmerican Society for Training & Development. CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 36
    • Managing Diversity• A comprehensive managerial process for developing an environment (organizational culture) that works for all employees• Focus is on inclusionCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 37
    • Managing Diversity Approach• Requires – A long-term commitment to change – Substantive changes in organizational culture – A modified definition of leadership and management roles – Both individual an organizational adaptation – Structural changesCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 38
    • Long-Term Commitment to Change• Pillsbury’s Three Year Plan – To develop and implement strategic plans for creating more culturally diverse organizations – To increase leaders’ and managers’ knowledge and skills in managing a culturally diverse workplace – To attract, motivate, and retain women and people of colorCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 39
    • Needed Changes• Substantive change in culture• Modified definitions of leadership and management roles• Both individual and organizational adaptation• Structural changesCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 40
    • Pillsbury’s Program for Managing Diversity Table 15-4 Stage Objectives Briefing session, a. Review organization’s cultural assessment data half day – 2 days b. Learn basic concepts regarding high performing, culturally diverse organizations c. Review organization’s diversity planSOURCE: From Greenslade, M. (1991). Managing diversity: Lessons from the United States. Personnel Management (United Kingdom), 23(12), 30. CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 41
    • Pillsbury’s Program for Managing Diversity Table 15-4 Stage Objectives Team session, a. Build team skills necessary for addressing 2 days cultural diversity. b. Clarify business rationale for cultural diversity c. Understand differences in business style d. Understand differences in interpersonal styleSOURCE: From Greenslade, M. (1991). Managing diversity: Lessons from the United States. Personnel Management (United Kingdom), 23(12), 30. CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 42
    • Pillsbury’s Program for Managing Diversity Table 15-4 Stage Objectives Added value a. Enhance racial interactions and communications (race), 3 days b. Identify stereotyping (racist) behaviors c. Identify and address organizational barriers to contributions of racial minorities d. Develop strategies for greater inclusion of racial minoritiesSOURCE: From Greenslade, M. (1991). Managing diversity: Lessons from the United States. Personnel Management (United Kingdom), 23(12), 30. CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 43
    • Pillsbury’s Program for Managing Diversity Table 15-4 Stage Objectives Added value a. Enhance gender interactions and communications (gender), 3 days b. Identify stereotyping (sexist) behaviors c. Identify and address organizational barriers to women’s successful contributions d. Develop strategies for greater inclusion of womenSOURCE: From Greenslade, M. (1991). Managing diversity: Lessons from the United States. Personnel Management (United Kingdom), 23(12), 30. CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 44
    • Pillsbury’s Program for Managing Diversity Table 15-4 Stage Objectives Added value a. Identify the value that differences in style, ethnic/ (style), 3 days race, gender, and culture bring to the workplace b. Practice teamwork that enhances the contribution of each memberSOURCE: From Greenslade, M. (1991). Managing diversity: Lessons from the United States. Personnel Management (United Kingdom), 23(12), 30. CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 45
    • Pillsbury’s Program for Managing Diversity Table 15-4 Stage Objectives Strategic a. Integrate cultural diversity into the business plan. planning, b. Develop plans to 1–2 days (1) expand educational process to the total organization (2) enhance the human resource system (3) strengthen recruitment and retentionSOURCE: From Greenslade, M. (1991). Managing diversity: Lessons from the United States. Personnel Management (United Kingdom), 23(12), 30. CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 46
    • Effectiveness of Managing Diversity Programs.• Following reactions have been reported: – Deep-seated biases and prejudices that emerge as a reaction to fast-paced social change – A perceived competition for jobs and resources, creating what some people see as a threatening environment – The tendency of some people to see the political correctness movement as a direct threat to the First Amendment—which has created a legal and social minefield – Confusion about such terms as political correctness, diversity, multiculturalism, pluralism, equal opportunity, and affirmative actionCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 47
    • Some Comparisons of Affirmative Action and Diversity Management Table 15-5 Affirmative Action Diversity Management • Reactive and based on law • Proactive and moral imperative • Not linked in any formal • Emphasizes building diverse manner to team building teamsSOURCE: From Ivancevich, J. M., & Gilbert, J. A. (2000). Diversity management: Time for a new approach. Public Personnel Management, 29(1), 89. CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 48
    • Some Comparisons of Affirmative Action and Diversity Management Table 15-5 Affirmative Action Diversity Management • Focuses primarily on women • Inclusive and people of color • Race ethnicity, age, religion, sexual orientation, and physical limitations all generally consideredSOURCE: From Ivancevich, J. M., & Gilbert, J. A. (2000). Diversity management: Time for a new approach. Public Personnel Management, 29(1), 89. CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 49
    • Some Comparisons of Affirmative Action and Diversity Management Table 15-5 Affirmative Action Diversity Management • Emphasis is primarily on • Considers diversity in the employees and not external recruitment pool, in employees, and constituents in the external constituencySOURCE: From Ivancevich, J. M., & Gilbert, J. A. (2000). Diversity management: Time for a new approach. Public Personnel Management, 29(1), 89. CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 50
    • Cross-Cultural Education and Training Programs• Globalization is increasingly being linked to diversity management efforts• Globalization has also resulted in more individuals being given expatriate assignment• Many organizations are providing cross-cultural training to prepare these individuals for their assignmentsCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 51
    • Cross-Cultural Awareness TrainingDeals with at least four elements: 1. Raising the awareness of cultural differences 2. Focusing on ways attitudes are shaped 3. Providing factual information about each culture 4. Building skills in the areas of language, nonverbal communication, cultural stress management, and adjustment adaptation skillsCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 52
    • Most Important Diversity PracticesTable 15-6 Effective Diversity Practices Theme Importance Rank Marketing to diverse customers and consumers 1 Retaining diverse talent 2 Recruiting diverse talent 3 Leadership commitment and involvement 4 Inclusive culture and values 5 Diversity education and training 6 Community involvement 7 SOURCE: Diversity practices that work (2004). National Urban League (p. 20). Accessed on August 27, 2007, from http://www.nul.org/Publications/PDF/ERAC-NUL.pdf.CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 53
    • Most Important Diversity PracticesTable 15-6 Effective Diversity Practices Theme Importance Rank Advancing diverse talent 8 Career development for diverse talent 9 Diversity employee communications 10 Employee involvement 11 Supplier diversity 12 Performance accountability and measurement 13 SOURCE: Diversity practices that work (2004). National Urban League (p. 20). Accessed on August 27, 2007, from http://www.nul.org/Publications/PDF/ERAC-NUL.pdf.CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 54
    • Cultural Programs• Programs that focus on how attitudes are shaped help people to understand how cultural stereotypes are formed and the destructiveness of cultural bias• Providing factual information about each culture is necessary to reinforce new assumptions, values, beliefs, and attitudes about different culturesCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 55
    • Cultural Programs• Programs that build skills in the areas of language, nonverbal communication, cultural stress management, and adjustment adaptation address critical interpersonal relations of employees both inside and outside the organizationCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 56
    • Questions for Cultural Awareness TrainingTable 15-7 Question Potential Area of Examples Discussion What are some key 1. Physical traits 1. Sex, age, race dissimilarities 2. System of values 2. Work ethic between people 3. Language or dialect 3. Hispanic from different 4. Religion cultures? 5. Institutions 4. Judaism 5. Economic SOURCE: From Mason, H., & Spich, R. S. (1987). Management: An International Perspective. Homewood, IL: Irwin.CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 57
    • Questions for Cultural Awareness TrainingTable 15-7 Question Potential Area of Examples Discussion How do these 1. Custom 1. Clothing differences come 2. Lifestyle 2. Food about? 3. Shared norms 3. Conforming 4. Shared 4. War veteran experiences 5. Communication 5. Nonverbal symbols patterns SOURCE: From Mason, H., & Spich, R. S. (1987). Management: An International Perspective. Homewood, IL: Irwin.CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 58
    • Questions for Cultural Awareness TrainingTable 15-7 Question Potential Area of Examples Discussion What are the 1. Conflict 1. When there is a implications when misunderstanding different cultures 2. Stereotyping or 2. When a group interact? Ethnocentrism refuses to accept a person from another group 3. Sexism or racism 3. Discrimination SOURCE: From Mason, H., & Spich, R. S. (1987). Management: An International Perspective. Homewood, IL: Irwin.CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 59
    • Challenges for HRD• Seeking to remove all causes of discrimination• HRD Can – Be willing to confront the underlying assumptions, beliefs, and attitudes that foster bigotry and stereotyping that exist within their organization – Examine their organization’s practices in the areas of socialization, orientation, career development, and sexual and racial harassmentCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 60
    • Body Language in Cultures WorldwideTable 15-8• Acceptable interpersonal distance in various countries is 0 to 18 inches Middle Eastern Males, People from the eastern and southern Mediterranean, and some Hispanic cultures 18 inches to 3 feet United States and Western Europe Asia (Japanese the farthest) and many African 3 feet or more cultures SOURCE: From Thiederman, S. (1990). Bridging cultural barriers for corporate success (pp. 133–141). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 61
    • Body Language in Cultures WorldwideTable 15-8• It is inappropriate behavior to touch others on the head in most Asian countriesSOURCE: From Thiederman, S. (1990). Bridging cultural barriers for corporate success (pp. 133–141). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 62
    • Body Language in Cultures WorldwideTable 15-8Acceptable length of eye contact in various cultures is 0 to 1 second Native Americans, East Indians, and Asian cultures (Least is the Cambodian culture, which believes that direct eye contact is flirtatious.) 1 second United States (To continue direct eye contact beyond 1 second can be considered threatening, particularly between Anglo- and African-American persons.) 1 second or Middle Eastern, Hispanic, Southern European, and more French cultures generally advocate very direct eye contact SOURCE: From Thiederman, S. (1990). Bridging cultural barriers for corporate success (pp. 133–141). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 63
    • Body Language in Cultures WorldwideTable 15-8Variations of handshakes in various countries are Firm United States, Germany Moderate grasp Hispanic countries Light France (not offered to superiors) Soft Great Britain Gentle Middle Eastern Countries Gentle Asia (For some cultures, though not Koreans, shaking hands Is unfamiliar and uncomfortable.) SOURCE: From Thiederman, S. (1990). Bridging cultural barriers for corporate success (pp. 133–141). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 64
    • Body Language in Cultures WorldwideTable 15-8 Pointing Generally poor etiquette in most countries, especially in Asian countries where it is considered rude and in poor taste. If pointing is necessary, in Hong Kong you use your middle finger, in Malaysia it is the thumb, and the rest of Asia it is the entire hand Beckoning The American gesture of using upturned fingers, palm facing the body, is deeply offensive to the Mexicans, Filipinos, and Vietnamese. For example, this gesture In the Philippines is used to beckon prostitutes SOURCE: From Thiederman, S. (1990). Bridging cultural barriers for corporate success (pp. 133–141). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 65
    • Body Language in Cultures WorldwideTable 15-8 Signs of approval The American use of the okay sign, the thumbs-up signal, and the V for “victory” are among the most offensive to other cultures Signaling no This can be confusing. In Mexico and the Middle East, a no is indicated by a back-to-forth movement of the index finger SOURCE: From Thiederman, S. (1990). Bridging cultural barriers for corporate success (pp. 133–141). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 66
    • Body Language in Cultures WorldwideTable 15-8 The left hand Gesturing or handling something with the left hand among Muslims is considered offensive because they consider this the “toilet” hand SOURCE: From Thiederman, S. (1990). Bridging cultural barriers for corporate success (pp. 133–141). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 67
    • Body Language in Cultures WorldwideTable 15-8• Crossing legs is in poor taste among most Asian and Middle Eastern Cultures. The Russians find it distasteful to place the ankle on the kneeSOURCE: From Thiederman, S. (1990). Bridging cultural barriers for corporate success (pp. 133–141). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 68
    • Socialization and Orientation• Following issues should be considered: – New employees (including women and minorities) may feel isolated when their cultural differences prevent them from obtaining the interesting and challenging work assignments that are needed to learn important job-related skills and to qualify for promotions – Women and minorities may experience additional stresses if they feel they must become “bicultural” in order to be accepted by coworkers in the majority group – Women and minorities are sometimes held to higher standards than other coworkers as they enter nontraditional occupations• Failure to consider these issues can result in the loss of talented employeesCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 69
    • Career Development• Programs that promote valuing differences and managing diversity can be useful in creating a positive climate for career advancement• “If you are going to attract the best … people into your organization, you’d better have a culture; you’d better have an environment in which those people feel they can prosper and flourish” (Jim Preston, former CEO of Avon)CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 70
    • Mentoring to Promote Diversity• Minorities in homogeneous mentoring relation- ships receive more psychosocial support (e.g., personal support, friendship) than those in diverse mentoring relationships• Mentors are also better role models in homogeneous relationships• Psychosocial support existed in diverse relationship when both the mentor and protégé showed the preferred strategy for dealing with (racial) differencesCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 71
    • Composition of Relationship, Mentor Functions, and Protégé Outcomes Composition Mentor Prot égé of Relationship Functions OutcomesFig. 15-1 Diversified Mentor: Majority Protégé: Minority Promotion Career Compensation Development Diversified Job Satisfaction Socialization Mentor: Minority Protégé: Majority Organizational Commitment Psychosocial Job Stress Role Stress Homogeneous and Burnout Mentor: Majority Work Alienation Protégé: Majority Turnover Role Career Commitment Modeling Homogeneous Career Aspirations Mentor: Minority Protégé: Minority Moderators Attitudes toward Diversity Mentorship Experience Mentors Power Rank and Position Mentors Ability Demographics SOURCE: Academy of Management Review by Ragins, B. R. Copyright 1997 by Academy of Management. Reproduced with permission of ACAD OF MGMT in the format Textbook via Copyright Clearance Center.CH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 72
    • Sexual and Racial Harassment Training• Four steps 1. Preparation of a policy and complaint procedures for • defining the scope of responsibility, • prompt and measured responses to claims of harassment • authority to address the issue • multiple avenues for filing complaintsCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 73
    • Sexual and Racial Harassment Training• Four steps 2. Assessment of the organizational climate • determine if the organization is ready to accept the appropriate change, particularly if such training will be mandatory • survey the employees to see how they feel about harassment issuesCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 74
    • Sexual and Racial Harassment Training• Four Steps 3. Content of the training program • describe the current laws including interpretation of recent court decisions, • review the organizational policy and procedures, communicate a set of organizational standards of conduct • outline responsibilities of supervisors • discuss methods of counseling or referring victims • address situations where harassment is likely to take placeCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 75
    • Sexual and Racial Harassment Training• Four Steps 4. Selecting the trainer or trainers • Care must be taken in selecting a trainer who has both expert knowledge of the law and an under- standing of the organizational politicsCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 76
    • Conclusion• Human resource development, that is, some combination of training and development, career development, and organizational development, can be applied to approach the challenges and potential benefits of workforce diversity• Training is part of the solution, but certainly only one part, just as in meeting all corporate strategy and productivity goalsCH-15 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 77