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kuliah HRD En Sharil-UTM

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Designing effective hrd programs Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Designing Effective HRD Programs Chapter 5CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 1
  • 2. Learning Objectives1. Write training objectives for a specific program2. Identify several sources where HRD programs could be obtained3. Compare the relative merits of developing in- house versus an outside source4. List the activities involved in employer designed HRD programs5. Compare various types of training materials6. Point out some of the constraints to scheduling HRD programsCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 2
  • 3. Questions After Needs Assessment – 1• Is this an issue that can and should be addressed by a training or HRD intervention?• How do I translate the results of the needs assessment into a specific training intervention?• If training is necessary, how do we handle the “make” or “buy” decision?CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 3
  • 4. Questions After Needs Assessment – 2• Who will be an effective trainer (or trainers) for this particular project?• What is the best way to organize the program or intervention?• How should training methods and materials be selected or prepared?• What is the most effective use of technology• Are there particular scheduling issues that should be considered in preparing for training?CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 4
  • 5. Basic Design Decisions• After the needs assessment is completed, data is on hand to decide: – where the training or HRD program is needed – what kind of training or HRD program is needed – who needs to be trained – the conditions under which training will occur• Needs will have been prioritized as wellCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 5
  • 6. Key Activities in HRD Design1. Setting objectives2. Selecting the trainer or vendor3. Developing a lesson plan4. Selecting program methods and techniques (including the appropriate use of technology)5. Preparing materials6. Scheduling the programCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 6
  • 7. Training and HRD Process ModelFig. 5-1 Assessment Design Implementation Evaluation Assess needs Prioritize Define Select needs objectives evaluation criteria Develop lesson plan Determine evaluation design Develop/acquire materials Conduct Deliver the evaluation Select HRD program trainer/leader of program or intervention or intervention Select methods and techniques Interpret results Schedule the program/interventionCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 7
  • 8. Seven Overarching HRD Professional Responsibilities – 11. Identify the kinds and levels of KSAOs that employees need to attain high levels of performance and to achieve organizational results2. Develop and maintain organizational structures, conditions, and climates that are conducive to learningSOURCE: From Sim, R. R. (1998). Reinventing Training and Development. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Reproduced with permission of Greenwood Publishing Groups, Inc., Westport, CT.CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 8
  • 9. Seven Overarching HRD Professional Responsibilities – 23. Generate and provide the necessary resources to conduct a program design4. Identify and provide access to off-the-job as well as on-the-job learning resources5. Provide individual assistance and feedback on various dimensions of individual performanceSOURCE: From Sim, R. R. (1998). Reinventing Training and Development. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Reproduced with permission of Greenwood Publishing Groups, Inc., Westport, CT.CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 9
  • 10. Seven Overarching HRD Professional Responsibilities – 36. Serve as role models and mentors to trainees and the organization in the pursuit of mastery of “pivotal” KSAOs7. Develop efficient learning processes that take into account individual learning styles, abilities, and work and life circumstancesSOURCE: From Sim, R. R. (1998). Reinventing Training and Development. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Reproduced with permission of Greenwood Publishing Groups, Inc., Westport, CT.CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 10
  • 11. Defining the Objectives• Objective – “…description of a performance you want learners to be able to exhibit before you consider them competent.” (Robert Mager)• Training program objectives describe the intent and the desired result of the HRD program• The basis for determining which methods should be usedCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 11
  • 12. Three Critical Aspects of Objectives• They should describe: – The performance the learners (trainees) should be able to do – The conditions under which they must do it – The criteria (how well they must do it) used in judging its successCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 12
  • 13. Qualities of Useful Objectives – 1Table 5-1• Performance – An objective always says what a learner is expected to be able to do and/or produce to be considered competent; the objective sometimes describes the product or result of the doing. • Example: – “Write a product profile for a proposed new product.”SOURCE: From Mager, R. F. (1997). Preparing Instructional Objectives (3rd ed., pp. 46–47, 55). The Center forEffective Performance, Inc., 1100 Johnson Ferry Road, Suite 150, Atlanta, GA 30342. http://www.cepworldwide.com800-558-4237. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved. No portion of these materials may be reproduced inany manner without the express written consent from The Center for Effective Performance, Inc.CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 13
  • 14. Qualities of Useful Objectives – 2Table 5-1• Conditions – An objective describes the important conditions (if any) under which the performance is to occur • Example: – “Given all available engineering data regarding a proposed product, trainee will write a product profile.”SOURCE: From Mager, R. F. (1997). Preparing Instructional Objectives (3rd ed., pp. 46–47, 55). The Center forEffective Performance, Inc., 1100 Johnson Ferry Road, Suite 150, Atlanta, GA 30342. http://www.cepworldwide.com800-558-4237. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved. No portion of these materials may be reproduced inany manner without the express written consent from The Center for Effective Performance, Inc.CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 14
  • 15. Qualities of Useful Objectives – 1Table 5-1• Criteria – Wherever possible, an objective identifies the criteria of acceptable performance by describing how well the learner must perform in order to be considered acceptable. • Example: “The product profile must describe all of the commercial characteristics of the product that are appropriate for its introduction to the market, including descriptions of at least three major product uses.” SOURCE: From Mager, R. F. (1997). Preparing Instructional Objectives (3rd ed., pp. 46–47, 55). The Center for Effective Performance, Inc., 1100 Johnson Ferry Road, Suite 150, Atlanta, GA 30342. http://www.cepworldwide.com 800-558-4237. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved. No portion of these materials may be reproduced in any manner without the express written consent from The Center for Effective Performance, Inc.CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 15
  • 16. Ask Yourself• Is your main intent stated (concerning what you want the trainee to do)?• Have you described all of the conditions that will influence trainee performance?• Have you described how well the trainee must perform for his or her performance to be considered acceptable?CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 16
  • 17. Guidelines for Developing Objectives – 1Table 5-2• 1. An objective is a collection of words, symbols, pictures and/or diagrams describing what you intend for trainees to achieve• 2. An objective will communicate – your intent to the degree that you describe: what the learner will be doing when demonstrating achievement or mastery of the objective – the important conditions of the doing – and the criteria by which achievement will be judged SOURCE: From Mager, R. F. (1997). Preparing Instructional Objectives (3rd ed., pp. 46–47, 55). The Center for Effective Performance, Inc., 1100 Johnson Ferry Road, Suite 150, Atlanta, GA 30342. http://www.cepworldwide.com 800-558-4237. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved. No portion of these materials may be reproduced in any manner without the express written consent from The Center for Effective Performance, Inc. CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 17
  • 18. Guidelines for Developing Objectives – 2Table 5-2• 3. To prepare a useful objective, continue to modify a draft until these questions are answered: – What do I want trainees to be able to do? – What are the important conditions or constraints under which I want them to perform? – How well must trainees perform for me to be satisfied?• 4. Write a separate statement for each important outcome or intent; write as many as you need to communicate your intents. SOURCE: From Mager, R. F. (1997). Preparing Instructional Objectives (3rd ed., pp. 46–47, 55). The Center for Effective Performance, Inc., 1100 Johnson Ferry Road, Suite 150, Atlanta, GA 30342. http://www.cepworldwide.com 800-558-4237. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved. No portion of these materials may be reproduced in any manner without the express written consent from The Center for Effective Performance, Inc. CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 18
  • 19. Guidelines for Developing Objectives – 3Table 5-2• 5. If you give your written objectives to your trainees, you may not have to do much else. – Why? Because often employees are already able to do what you are asking them to do and will be happy to demonstrate their ability, now that they know what is expected of themSOURCE: From Mager, R. F. (1997). Preparing Instructional Objectives (3rd ed., pp. 46–47, 55). The Center forEffective Performance, Inc., 1100 Johnson Ferry Road, Suite 150, Atlanta, GA 30342. http://www.cepworldwide.com800-558-4237. Reprinted with permission. All rights reserved. No portion of these materials may be reproduced inany manner without the express written consent from The Center for Effective Performance, Inc.CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 19
  • 20. Which is Better?1. In at least two computer languages, be able to write and test a program to calculate arithmetic means2. Discuss and illustrate principles and techniques of computer programmingCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 20
  • 21. Behavioral Objectives• Focus squarely on what the trainee is expected to do at the completion of training• Insistence of lengthy and detailed behavioral objectives has been criticized• Objectives are linked to many important design and evaluation decisionsCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 21
  • 22. Issues to be Considered• Inputs• Process• Outputs• Consequences• Conditions• FeedbackCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 22
  • 23. The “Make Versus Buy” Decision• Best use of available resources• Typical Services Available – assisting with conducting needs assessment – guiding internal staff to design or implement a program – designing a program specifically for the organization – providing supplemental training materials (exercises, workbooks, computer software, videos) – presenting a previously designed program – conducting a train-the-trainer programCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 23
  • 24. Typical Sources• Consulting firms• Educational institutions• Professional societies• Trade unions• Publishing houses• Governmental agencies• Nonprofit community-based organizationsCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 24
  • 25. Major Reasons to Contract Out• The firm does not have the expertise to design the program in-house• Management would not likely have the time to design the program• Firm doesn’t have an HRD department or full-time HRD professionalCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 25
  • 26. Factors to Consider – 1Table 5-3 Expertise When an organization lacks specialized KSAOs needed to design and implement an HRD program. Timeliness When it is timelier to hire an outside agency to facilitate the process. SOURCE: From Carnevale, P., Gainer, L. J., Villet, J., & Holland, S. L. (1990). Training Partnerships: Linking Employers and Providers (p. 6). Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development .CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 26
  • 27. Factors to Consider – 2Table 5-3 Number of The larger the number of trainees Trainees the greater the likelihood to design the program itself. For just a few trainees use an outside training agency. Subject If the subject matter is sensitive or Matter proprietary the HRD conduct the program in-house SOURCE: From Carnevale, P., Gainer, L. J., Villet, J., & Holland, S. L. (1990). Training Partnerships: Linking Employers and Providers (p. 6). Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development .CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 27
  • 28. Factors to Consider – 3Table 5-3 Cost Always considers cost, but only in concert with other factors Size of HRD The size of the HRD department is important for assessing the capacity to design, conduct, and/ or implement skills training as opposed to using an outside agency SOURCE: From Carnevale, P., Gainer, L. J., Villet, J., & Holland, S. L. (1990). Training Partnerships: Linking Employers and Providers (p. 6). Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development .CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 28
  • 29. Factors to Consider – 4Table 5-3 “X” Factor Some other extraneous conditions that would make it preferable that an outside agency be used to conduct the skills training. SOURCE: From Carnevale, P., Gainer, L. J., Villet, J., & Holland, S. L. (1990). Training Partnerships: Linking Employers and Providers (p. 6). Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development .CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 29
  • 30. Other Factors• Personal contacts or past experience with an outside vendor• Geographical proximity to the vendor• Local economic conditions• Presence of government incentives to conduct trainingCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 30
  • 31. Choosing a Vendor – 1• Cost: price relative to program content and quality• Credentials: including certificates, degrees, and other documentation of the vendor’s expertise• Background: number of years in business and experience in the particular content areaCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 31
  • 32. Choosing a Vendor – 2• Experience: vendor’s prior clients, success with those clients, references• Philosophy: comparison of the vendor’s philosophy to that of the organization• Delivery Method: training methods and techniques used• Content: topics included in program or materialsCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 32
  • 33. Choosing a Vendor – 3• Actual Product: including appearance, samples, or whether a pilot program is available• Results: expected outcomes• Support: especially in terms of implementation and follow-upCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 33
  • 34. Choosing a Vendor – 4• Request for Proposal (RFP): – the match between a vendor’s offer and the requirement spelled out in the organization’s request for a proposalCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 34
  • 35. Studies of Outsourcing• Most Frequently Outsourced – Management development (27%) – Technical training (23%) – Computer training (14%)• Only 29% of firms saved money• Provides expertise and enhances all design and delivery of trainingCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 35
  • 36. Selecting the Trainer• Training Competency – knowledge and varied skills needed to design and implement a training program• Subject matter expertise – mastery of the subject matter• Training is most effective when trainers possessed an advanced level of expertise as instructors and facilitatorsCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 36
  • 37. Helping Less Qualified Trainers• Teaming skilled trainers with in-house subject matter experts to form an instructional team• Using a training technique that does not require a human trainer, such as computer-aided or online instruction programs• Train-the-trainer programs, which involve identifying in-house content experts who lack training skills and training them to become effective trainersCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 37
  • 38. Train-the-Trainer Programs• Provide subject matter experts (SMEs) with the necessary instructional knowledge and skills to design and implement training program• Available through – local professional associations – colleges – consultantsCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 38
  • 39. Train-the-Trainer Programs• Focus on – Developing trainee objectives and lesson plans – Selecting and preparing training materials – Selecting and using training aids (e.g., Microsoft® PowerPoint® slides, videos, overhead projectors) – Selecting and using different training methods and techniquesCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 39
  • 40. Importance of a Good Trainer• A bad trainer can cancel out an excellent training effort• An excellent trainer can make a bad training effort a lot betterCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 40
  • 41. Preparing a Lesson Plan• Lesson Plan – translates program objectives into an executable training session – trainer’s guide for the actual delivery of the training content. – determines in advance what is to be covered and how much time is devoted to each part of the sessionCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 41
  • 42. Lesson Plan Contents• Content to be covered• Sequencing of activities• Selection or design of training media• Selection or development of experiential exercises, or both• Timing and planning of each activity• Selection of the method of instruction to be used• Number and type of evaluation items to be usedCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 42
  • 43. General Lesson Plan TemplateFig. 5-2 Program titl e: Objectives of this lesson: Preparation requi red: 1. Physical environment 2. Equipment and materials 3. Instructor 4. Trainee(s) Major Instructor Trainee Instructi onal Strategies Time Topics Acti vity Activity Intended t o Be Achieved SOURCE From Nadler, L., & Nadle Z. (19 : r, 94). Designing training p rograms: The cri ical events model (2nd ed., p. 145). t Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing.CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 43
  • 44. Selecting Training Methods and MediaTable 5-4• Methods Percent• Instructor-led Classroom Programs 62• Self-Study, Web-based 15• Virtual Classroom 14• Other Methods 9SOURCE: From 2006 Industry Report (2006). Training, 43(12), 20–32.CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 44
  • 45. Training Content – 1Table 5-5 Type Percent IT and Systems 19 Profession or Industry Specific 19 Process, Procedures, Business Practices 13 Quality, Product Knowledge 11 Managerial and Supervisory 9 SOURCE: Rivera, R. J., & Paradise, A. (2006). 2006 State of the industry in leading enterprises. Alexandria, VA: ASTD.CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 45
  • 46. Training Content – 2Table 5-5 Type Percent Mandatory and Compliance 8 Sales 4 Customer Service 4 Interpersonal Skills 4 Basic Skills 4 Executive Development 3 New Employee Orientation 2 SOURCE: Rivera, R. J., & Paradise, A. (2006). 2006 State of the industry in leading enterprises. Alexandria, VA: ASTD.CH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 46
  • 47. Factors to Consider in Selection• Objectives of the Programs• Time and Money Available – Who pays trainees during training?• Availability of Other Resources• Trainee Characteristics and PreferencesCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 47
  • 48. Preparing Training Materials• Program Announcements• Program Outlines or Syllabi• Training Manuals• TextbooksCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 48
  • 49. Program Announcements• Inform target audience about training program – Purpose of program – When and where to be held – How to participate in program• Give sufficient lead time for trainee to scheduleCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 49
  • 50. Transmission of Program Announcements• Sent through – Supervisory channels – Union stewards – Company newsletters – Intranet – Mail – Electronic bulletin boards – E-mail – HRD BulletinsCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 50
  • 51. Program Outlines• Communicate the content, goals and expectations of the program• Include – Course objectives – Topical areas – Materials or tools needed – Requirements of each trainee – Tentative scheduleCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 51
  • 52. Training Manuals and Textbooks• Textbooks – Generally provide a broad treatment of subject• Training Manuals – Brief and hands-on• Buy or Develop? – Generally less expensive to purchase• Copyright Laws – Get permission and give attributionCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 52
  • 53. Scheduling the HRD Program• During working hours: – Avoids outside conflicts – Sends message that learning/training is supported by management• Day of the Week: – Avoid Mondays and Fridays – Avoid holiday weeksCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 53
  • 54. Time of Day Issues• Too early – Tardy or tired participants• Over lunch hour – When do they eat• Mid-afternoon – Sluggish circadian rhythms• Late in day – Distractions and need to leave earlyCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 54
  • 55. Other Working Hour Constraints• Considerations – Peak work hours – Staff meeting times – Travel requirements – Training shift workers• Consult with managers and supervisors before scheduling – Do it well in advance of schedulingCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 55
  • 56. Scheduling After Working Hours• Avoids organizational complaints• Other problems – Family obligations – Moonlighters – Tired trainees – Reluctance to give up free time• Inducements – Overtime pay, comp time, promotion, holding at resort with leisure activitiesCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 56
  • 57. Registration and Enrollment• It must be clear on – How one should register – Who is responsible for logistics • Travel arrangements • Lodging • Meals – How to cancel or reschedule• If available, use computerized system such as RegOnlineCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 57
  • 58. E-Learning• Quicker and more widespread access to training materials• Once in place, cheaper than classroom• Can be 24/7• Allows trainee to control pace and training process to fit personal needs and abilitiesCH-5 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 58