Coaching and Performance              Management                 Chapter 10CH-10           Copyright 2008 Werner et al   1
Learning Objectives – 1• Define coaching and performance management    – explain the need for such activities in organizat...
Learning Objectives – 2• Identify the skills necessary for effective• coaching• Identify the critical elements in a  perfo...
Agree or Disagree?• Most employees already know what they should do and  how to do it• Performance management is simply a ...
The Need for Coaching• “Yelling, Screaming, and Threatening”  negative approach    – can actually create or compound perfo...
Coaching: A Positive Approach• Managers must take an active and  positive role in employee performance to  ensure that goa...
Coaching and Performance              Management• Most organizations have a formal performance  appraisal system• Performa...
Performance Management• An ongoing process of performance  improvement• Emphasizes employee values and  participation• Con...
Coaching• A process that encourages employees    – to accept responsibility for their own      performance    – to enable ...
Two Coaching Activities• Coaching analysis    – analyzing performance and the conditions      under which it occurs• Coach...
Role of Supervisor and            Management• Direct supervisor bears primary  responsibility for coaching• Coaching most ...
HRD Professional’s Role• Providing training in the coaching process• Ensuring that the coaches have the  interpersonal ski...
Coaching to Improve Poor             Performance• Some amount of poor performance seems  to be a fact of life• Three issue...
Defining Poor Performance• A behavior must be evaluated with respect  to some standard or expected level of  performance  ...
Poor Performance• Poor performance takes these issues into  account:    – Specific, agreed-upon deviations from      expec...
Deviant Workplace Behavior                 (DWB)• Deviant workplace behavior    – Voluntary behavior that violates signifi...
Four Types of DWB• Production Deviance    – leaving early, intentionally working slowly• Property Deviance    – sabotaging...
Responding to Poor Performance• Once poor performance has been  identifies, the supervisor must    – diagnose the cause of...
Causal Attribution Theory• Causal attribution theory describes the  process by which people assign causes to  their own an...
Fundamental Attribution Error• The tendency to over-attribute a behavior  to a cause within a person (e.g., effort or  abi...
Conducting the Coaching Analysis• Coaching Analysis    – the process of analyzing the factors that      contribute to unsa...
Steps for a Coaching AnalysisTable 10-1        1. Identify the unsatisfactory employee        performance.        2. Is it...
Steps for a Coaching AnalysisTable 10-16. Does the subordinate know how to do  what must be done?7. Does a negative conseq...
Can the Job or Task Be Simplified?• If the job can be modified or simplified the  job may be done correctlyCH-10          ...
What If Problem Persists?• A “Coaching Discussion” is needed    – Employee and supervisor talk over the      problem    – ...
Coaching Discussion• Designed to help employee perform  effectively• Two Approaches    – Kinlaw Process    – Fournies Proc...
The Kinlaw Process• Three steps    – confronting or presenting    – using reactions to develop information    – resolving ...
Confronting or Presenting• To limit any negative emotion the  employee might feel toward the problem  situation• To specif...
Using Reactions to Develop               Information• Supervisor must help the employee examine the  causes for poor perfo...
Resolving or Resolution• Employee takes ownership of the problem and  agrees upon the steps needed to solve it• Both parti...
The Fournies Process• Step 1: Get the employee’s agreement  that a problem exists• Step 2: Mutually discuss alternative  s...
Steps for Coaching Discussion and            Follow-UpTable 10-21. Identify the employee performance issue to be   discuss...
Steps for Coaching Discussion and            Follow-UpTable 10-25. Mutually agree on goals to set, actions that willbe tak...
Maintaining Effective and Superior           Performance• Supervisors and managers    – eliminate poor performance    – en...
Motivational Approaches• Motivational approaches are ways of  increasing employees’ sense of ownership  of their performan...
Role of Manager-Coach• Manager-Coach can:    – observe the employee    – describe specifically what the employee is      d...
Value Shaping• Value shaping    – begins with the recruitment and orientation of      new employees    – is continued thro...
Necessary Coaching Skills• Coaches need to be able to:    – openly communicate with others (including      subordinates an...
Communication Skills• Ability both to    – listen to employees and to    – get them to understand what effective performan...
Clarity• Managers need to be specific and  descriptive in communicating with  employeesCH-10          Copyright 2008 Werne...
Six Skills of Micro-TrainingTable 10-31. Basic attending skills to help involve the employee in the discussion.These inclu...
Six Skills of Micro-TrainingTable 10-32. Feedback• Providing clear and concrete data• Using a nonjudgmental attitude• Usin...
Six Skills of Micro-TrainingTable 10-33. Paraphrasing: a concise restatement, in your  own words, of what the employee has...
Six Skills of Micro-TrainingTable 10-34. Reflection of feeling reinforces the employee for  expressing feelings and encour...
Six Skills of Micro-TrainingTable 10-35. Open and closed questions to support your  purpose.        – Open questions (e.g....
Six Skills of Micro-TrainingTable 10-36. Focusing helps identify potential areas of  organizational difficulty (person, pr...
Interpersonal SkillsThese interpersonal skills include:• Indicating respect• Immediacy (i.e., focusing on the present; dea...
A Significant Point• Managers must demonstrate    – commitment to and respect for the employee• An employee who believes t...
Effectiveness of Coaching• Feedback and coaching can lead to increased  employee satisfaction and commitment, and  reduced...
Coaching Points•   Two-way communication•   Supportive manner by supervisor•   Use of constructive criticism•   Setting of...
How to Promote Good CoachingTable 10-4• For coaching to be most effective, top managers  and HRD professionals must ensure...
How to Promote Good CoachingTable 10-4• Supervisors prepare in advance for the  coaching discussion• Supervisor comments a...
How to Promote Good CoachingTable 10-4• Employees are involved in the coaching  discussion• Specific goals are set during ...
How to Promote Good CoachingTable 10-4• Coaching discussions are followed up, to  ensure that the employee is following th...
Effective Performance                        Management SystemsTable 10-5• It is recommended that:   – The system must ref...
Effective Performance                        Management SystemsTable 10-5      – Employee job descriptions should be linke...
Effective Performance                        Management SystemsTable 10-5      – The performance management system needs  ...
Effective Performance                        Management SystemsTable 10-5      – The administrative burden should be      ...
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Coaching and performance management

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Coaching and performance management

  1. 1. Coaching and Performance Management Chapter 10CH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 1
  2. 2. Learning Objectives – 1• Define coaching and performance management – explain the need for such activities in organizations• Explain how to analyze employee performance to set the stage for a coaching discussion• Describe the steps involved in coaching to improve poor performance• Explain how coaching can be used to maintain effective performance and encourage superior performanceCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 2
  3. 3. Learning Objectives – 2• Identify the skills necessary for effective• coaching• Identify the critical elements in a performance management system• Describe the evidence supporting the effectiveness of coaching and performance managementCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 3
  4. 4. Agree or Disagree?• Most employees already know what they should do and how to do it• Performance management is simply a matter of expecting tasks to be done correctly and on time• If a problem occurs, the appropriate action is to give the employee a stern lecture or to threaten punishment The problem will then go away—after all, the employee already knows what should be done and how to do it• If the problem does not go away, the employee must be stupid, lazy, or have a “bad attitude.” Therefore, punishment is called for• If punishment fails, the only reasonable course of action is to terminate or transfer the employeeCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 4
  5. 5. The Need for Coaching• “Yelling, Screaming, and Threatening” negative approach – can actually create or compound performance problems, rather than solve them• The reality – sometimes employees know what to do and how to do it – sometimes they do notCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 5
  6. 6. Coaching: A Positive Approach• Managers must take an active and positive role in employee performance to ensure that goals are met – Their Role: Empowering employeesCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 6
  7. 7. Coaching and Performance Management• Most organizations have a formal performance appraisal system• Performance Management – Includes annual appraisal ratings and interviews – Incorporates • employee goal setting • feedback • coaching • rewards • individual developmentCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 7
  8. 8. Performance Management• An ongoing process of performance improvement• Emphasizes employee values and participation• Connected to corporate goals and strategies• Managers and supervisors are rewarded for effective coaching• User-friendly, automated, and web-basedCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 8
  9. 9. Coaching• A process that encourages employees – to accept responsibility for their own performance – to enable them to achieve and sustain superior performance – to treat them as partners in working toward organizational goals and effectivenessCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 9
  10. 10. Two Coaching Activities• Coaching analysis – analyzing performance and the conditions under which it occurs• Coaching discussions – face-to-face communication between employee and supervisor both to • solve problems • enable the employee to maintain and improve effective performanceCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 10
  11. 11. Role of Supervisor and Management• Direct supervisor bears primary responsibility for coaching• Coaching most often occurs within the context of an ongoing relationship between employee and supervisor• One of the primary roles of managers and supervisors in team-based organizations is that of coachCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 11
  12. 12. HRD Professional’s Role• Providing training in the coaching process• Ensuring that the coaches have the interpersonal skills needed to be effective• Encouraging coaching through use of organizational development (OD) techniques• Coaching is an HRD interventionCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 12
  13. 13. Coaching to Improve Poor Performance• Some amount of poor performance seems to be a fact of life• Three issues: – The definition of poor performance – How coaching analysis can be conducted to determine the cause of performance problems or issues – How the coaching discussion can be used to improve performanceCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 13
  14. 14. Defining Poor Performance• A behavior must be evaluated with respect to some standard or expected level of performance – If the behavior meets or exceeds the standard, then it is typically considered good – If the behavior fails to meet the standard, it may be considered poor• How far must a behavior deviate from what is expected before it is considered poor performance?CH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 14
  15. 15. Poor Performance• Poor performance takes these issues into account: – Specific, agreed-upon deviations from expected behavior • extent of the deviation from a performance standard to be considered poor must be specifically defined • both the evaluator and the performer should agree to the amount of deviation that constitutes poor performanceCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 15
  16. 16. Deviant Workplace Behavior (DWB)• Deviant workplace behavior – Voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms, and in doing so threatens the well-being of an organization, its members, or bothCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 16
  17. 17. Four Types of DWB• Production Deviance – leaving early, intentionally working slowly• Property Deviance – sabotaging equipment, lying about hours worked• political deviance – showing favoritism, blaming or gossiping about coworkers)• Personal aggression – sexual harassment, verbal abuse, endangering or stealing from coworkersCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 17
  18. 18. Responding to Poor Performance• Once poor performance has been identifies, the supervisor must – diagnose the cause of the deviation – select an appropriate response• Poor performance often does not result from a single cause• The same type of performance problem may be caused by different factors at different timesCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 18
  19. 19. Causal Attribution Theory• Causal attribution theory describes the process by which people assign causes to their own and others’ behavior• Causes of Behavior – Within employee: effort and ability – In the situation: task difficulty and luckCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 19
  20. 20. Fundamental Attribution Error• The tendency to over-attribute a behavior to a cause within a person (e.g., effort or ability) rather than to the situation (e.g., task difficulty or luck)• A manager who commits the fundamental attribution error will tend to overlook these possibilities and instead try to find a cause within the subordinate, such as laziness or carelessnessCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 20
  21. 21. Conducting the Coaching Analysis• Coaching Analysis – the process of analyzing the factors that contribute to unsatisfactory performance and deciding on the appropriate response to improve performance – based on the assumption that poor performance can have multiple causes • some of which are within the employee’s control and some of which are notCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 21
  22. 22. Steps for a Coaching AnalysisTable 10-1 1. Identify the unsatisfactory employee performance. 2. Is it worth your time and effort to address? 3. Do subordinates know that their performance is not satisfactory? 4. Do subordinates know what is supposed to be done? 5. Are there obstacles beyond the employee’s control? SOURCE: Fournies, F. F. (2000). Coaching for improved work performance, Revised Edition. New York : McGraw-Hill.CH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 22
  23. 23. Steps for a Coaching AnalysisTable 10-16. Does the subordinate know how to do what must be done?7. Does a negative consequence follow effective performance?8. Does a positive consequence follow nonperformance?9. Could the subordinate do it if he or she wanted to? SOURCE: Fournies, F. F. (2000). Coaching for improved work performance, Revised Edition. New York : McGraw-Hill.CH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 23
  24. 24. Can the Job or Task Be Simplified?• If the job can be modified or simplified the job may be done correctlyCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 24
  25. 25. What If Problem Persists?• A “Coaching Discussion” is needed – Employee and supervisor talk over the problem – They identify causes – They mutually agree on corrective actionCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 25
  26. 26. Coaching Discussion• Designed to help employee perform effectively• Two Approaches – Kinlaw Process – Fournies ProcessCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 26
  27. 27. The Kinlaw Process• Three steps – confronting or presenting – using reactions to develop information – resolving or resolution• Confrontation is not the same thing as criticismCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 27
  28. 28. Confronting or Presenting• To limit any negative emotion the employee might feel toward the problem situation• To specify the performance to be improved• To establish that the goal is to help the employee change and improveCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 28
  29. 29. Using Reactions to Develop Information• Supervisor must help the employee examine the causes for poor performance – attending to the employee’s explanations, acknowledging important points, – probing for information, and summarizing what has been discussed• At the end of this second stage of the coaching discussion, the employee and supervisor should be in a position to agree on the nature of the problem and its causesCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 29
  30. 30. Resolving or Resolution• Employee takes ownership of the problem and agrees upon the steps needed to solve it• Both parties at this point express commitment to improving performance and to establishing a positive relationship• This is done by – examining alternative courses of action – reviewing key points of the session – and affirming that performance can be successfully improvedCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 30
  31. 31. The Fournies Process• Step 1: Get the employee’s agreement that a problem exists• Step 2: Mutually discuss alternative solutions to the problem• Step 3: Mutually agree on actions to be taken to solve the problem• Step 4: Follow up to measure results• Step 5: Recognize achievements when they occurCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 31
  32. 32. Steps for Coaching Discussion and Follow-UpTable 10-21. Identify the employee performance issue to be discussed. Be specific, factual, respectful, and supportive in presenting this issue2. Seek the employee’s reaction and response to the supervisor’s presentation of the performance issue3. Seek out the employee’s agreement that a performance problem exists4. Mutually discuss alternative solutions to the issueCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 32
  33. 33. Steps for Coaching Discussion and Follow-UpTable 10-25. Mutually agree on goals to set, actions that willbe taken, and the follow-up plan that will be usedto resolve this issue6. Follow up on this issue at the agreed-upon timeand in the agreed-upon way7. Recognize and reward employee improvementsand achievements as they occurCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 33
  34. 34. Maintaining Effective and Superior Performance• Supervisors and managers – eliminate poor performance – ensure that good performers remain effective or become even better – reward effective behavior – provide employees who want to become superior performers with the necessary support and opportunityCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 34
  35. 35. Motivational Approaches• Motivational approaches are ways of increasing employees’ sense of ownership of their performance – Goal setting – Job redesign – Employee participationCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 35
  36. 36. Role of Manager-Coach• Manager-Coach can: – observe the employee – describe specifically what the employee is doing – describe how he or she is doing it – make suggestions for improvementCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 36
  37. 37. Value Shaping• Value shaping – begins with the recruitment and orientation of new employees – is continued through training employees every day – reinforces organizational ethics and values through recognition, storytelling, and work relationships• Manager can never compromise in his/her adherence to those valuesCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 37
  38. 38. Necessary Coaching Skills• Coaches need to be able to: – openly communicate with others (including subordinates and peers) – take a team, rather than an individual, approach to tasks – value people over tasks – accept the ambiguous nature of the working environmentCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 38
  39. 39. Communication Skills• Ability both to – listen to employees and to – get them to understand what effective performance is and how to achieve it• Thought transmission. – process of getting employees to state • what the problem performance is • why it is a problem • what they are going to do to remedy the problem – then manager expresses his or her agreement with what the employee has saidCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 39
  40. 40. Clarity• Managers need to be specific and descriptive in communicating with employeesCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 40
  41. 41. Six Skills of Micro-TrainingTable 10-31. Basic attending skills to help involve the employee in the discussion.These include:• a slight, but comfortable, forward lean of the upper body and trunk• maintaining eye contact• speaking in a warm but natural voice• using sufficient encouragers (e.g., head nods, saying yes, and uh- huh)• staying on the topicSOURCES: Kikoski, J. F., & Litterer, J. A. (1983). Effective communication in the performance appraisal interview. Public PersonnelManagement Journal, 12, 33–42; Kikoski, J. F. (1999). Effective communication in the performance appraisal interview: face-to-facecommunication for public managers in the culturally diverse workplace. Public Personnel Management, 28(2), 301–322. Adapted bypermission.CH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 41
  42. 42. Six Skills of Micro-TrainingTable 10-32. Feedback• Providing clear and concrete data• Using a nonjudgmental attitude• Using timely, present-tense statements (e.g., – “Max, I just made some suggestions for how you can present your ideas more clearly. But you don’t seem interested. How can I help you improve your presentations?” – As opposed to, “Your last four presentations were disasters. I won’t tolerate another one.”)• Providing feedback that deals with correctable items over which the employee has some controlSOURCES: Kikoski, J. F., & Litterer, J. A. (1983). Effective communication in the performance appraisal interview. Public PersonnelManagement Journal, 12, 33–42; Kikoski, J. F. (1999). Effective communication in the performance appraisal interview: face-to-facecommunication for public managers in the culturally diverse workplace. Public Personnel Management, 28(2), 301–322. Adapted bypermission.CH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 42
  43. 43. Six Skills of Micro-TrainingTable 10-33. Paraphrasing: a concise restatement, in your own words, of what the employee has just said – Paraphrasing helps clarify the issue • lets the employee know you understand what has been said • encourages him or her to continue – Paraphrases should be nonjudgmental and matter-of- factSOURCES: Kikoski, J. F., & Litterer, J. A. (1983). Effective communication in the performance appraisal interview. Public PersonnelManagement Journal, 12, 33–42; Kikoski, J. F. (1999). Effective communication in the performance appraisal interview: face-to-facecommunication for public managers in the culturally diverse workplace. Public Personnel Management, 28(2), 301–322. Adapted bypermission.CH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 43
  44. 44. Six Skills of Micro-TrainingTable 10-34. Reflection of feeling reinforces the employee for expressing feelings and encourages open communication – Reflections of feeling have a structure: • a. employee’s name or pronoun • b. stem (e.g., “It sounds as if you feel …”) • c. label for the emotion • d. final stem to check whether you understood employee correctly (e.g., “Am I right?”) • e. An example: “Maria, you seem very nervous about working in front of others. Would you like to talk about that?”SOURCES: Kikoski, J. F., & Litterer, J. A. (1983). Effective communication in the performance appraisal interview. Public PersonnelManagement Journal, 12, 33–42; Kikoski, J. F. (1999). Effective communication in the performance appraisal interview: face-to-facecommunication for public managers in the culturally diverse workplace. Public Personnel Management, 28(2), 301–322. Adapted bypermission.CH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 44
  45. 45. Six Skills of Micro-TrainingTable 10-35. Open and closed questions to support your purpose. – Open questions (e.g., those beginning with How, Would, Could, or Why) encourage employees to talk and share their ideas (e.g., “Why do you think that is?”). – Closed questions (e.g., those beginning with Did, Is, Are, or How many) invite a response of a few words, which can be used to clarify, identify specific points, and speed the discussion (e.g., “Did you close the sale?”).SOURCES: Kikoski, J. F., & Litterer, J. A. (1983). Effective communication in the performance appraisal interview. Public PersonnelManagement Journal, 12, 33–42; Kikoski, J. F. (1999). Effective communication in the performance appraisal interview: face-to-facecommunication for public managers in the culturally diverse workplace. Public Personnel Management, 28(2), 301–322. Adapted bypermission.CH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 45
  46. 46. Six Skills of Micro-TrainingTable 10-36. Focusing helps identify potential areas of organizational difficulty (person, problem, context, other, and self) and ways to deal with eachSOURCES: Kikoski, J. F., & Litterer, J. A. (1983). Effective communication in the performance appraisal interview. Public PersonnelManagement Journal, 12, 33–42; Kikoski, J. F. (1999). Effective communication in the performance appraisal interview: face-to-facecommunication for public managers in the culturally diverse workplace. Public Personnel Management, 28(2), 301–322. Adapted bypermission.CH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 46
  47. 47. Interpersonal SkillsThese interpersonal skills include:• Indicating respect• Immediacy (i.e., focusing on the present; dealing with problems as they occur)• Objectivity (i.e., emphasizing factual information over subjective opinion)• Planning• Affirming (i.e., commenting on the employee’s successes and positive prospects for improvement)• Consistency of behavior• Building trust• Demonstrating integrityCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 47
  48. 48. A Significant Point• Managers must demonstrate – commitment to and respect for the employee• An employee who believes that his or her manager is genuinely interested in and cares about him or her is more likely to seek out coaching and make an honest effort to improveCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 48
  49. 49. Effectiveness of Coaching• Feedback and coaching can lead to increased employee satisfaction and commitment, and reduced turnover, both measurable• Performance appraisal interview – is a meeting between a supervisor and subordinate – the supervisor • reviews the employee’s performance • seeks to help the employee maintain and improve performance – Very similar to coachingCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 49
  50. 50. Coaching Points• Two-way communication• Supportive manner by supervisor• Use of constructive criticism• Setting of performance goals for next rating periodCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 50
  51. 51. How to Promote Good CoachingTable 10-4• For coaching to be most effective, top managers and HRD professionals must ensure that: – An effective performance management system is operating within the organization (see Table 10-5). Among other things, this means that • The organization’s recognition and rewards system properly rewards managers and supervisors for effective coaching.• All managers and supervisors are properly trained in coaching skills and techniques.CH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 51
  52. 52. How to Promote Good CoachingTable 10-4• Supervisors prepare in advance for the coaching discussion• Supervisor comments are constructive, helpful, and supportive• Supervisors provide specific and behavioral feedback on employee performanceCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 52
  53. 53. How to Promote Good CoachingTable 10-4• Employees are involved in the coaching discussion• Specific goals are set during the discussion• An action plan is jointly established between the employee and the supervisorCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 53
  54. 54. How to Promote Good CoachingTable 10-4• Coaching discussions are followed up, to ensure that the employee is following the action plan, and to recognize performance improvements when they occurCH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 54
  55. 55. Effective Performance Management SystemsTable 10-5• It is recommended that: – The system must reflect the organization’s culture and values – Senior management must be committed to, and actively participate in, the performance management system – The system should focus on the most important performance measures SOURCES: Lawler, E. E., III, & McDermott, M. (2003). Current performance management practices: Examining the varying impacts. WorldatWork Journal, 12(2), 49–60; O’Neill, C., & Holsinger, L. (2003). Effective performance management systems: 10 key design principles. WorldatWork Journal, 12(2), 61–67; Weatherly, L. A. (2004, March). Performance management: Getting it right from the start. Society for Human Resource Management. Accessed July 21, 2007, from tp://www.shrm.org/research/quarterly/0401perfmanagement.asp; Oakes, K. (2007, April). Performance management lacks consistency.. T & D 61(4), 50–53.CH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 55
  56. 56. Effective Performance Management SystemsTable 10-5 – Employee job descriptions should be linked to the performance management system – Managers need to differentiate between employee performance levels yet do so in a fair and objective manner – Managers need thorough training in all aspects of the performance management process so that there is consistency across the organization SOURCES: Lawler, E. E., III, & McDermott, M. (2003). Current performance management practices: Examining the varying impacts. WorldatWork Journal, 12(2), 49–60; O’Neill, C., & Holsinger, L. (2003). Effective performance management systems: 10 key design principles. WorldatWork Journal, 12(2), 61–67; Weatherly, L. A. (2004, March). Performance management: Getting it right from the start. Society for Human Resource Management. Accessed July 21, 2007, from tp://www.shrm.org/research/quarterly/0401perfmanagement.asp; Oakes, K. (2007, April). Performance management lacks consistency.. T & D 61(4), 50–53.CH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 56
  57. 57. Effective Performance Management SystemsTable 10-5 – The performance management system needs to be linked to the organizational compensation and rewards system – There should be clear expectations and action planning concerning employee development (coming out of the performance management process) SOURCES: Lawler, E. E., III, & McDermott, M. (2003). Current performance management practices: Examining the varying impacts. WorldatWork Journal, 12(2), 49–60; O’Neill, C., & Holsinger, L. (2003). Effective performance management systems: 10 key design principles. WorldatWork Journal, 12(2), 61–67; Weatherly, L. A. (2004, March). Performance management: Getting it right from the start. Society for Human Resource Management. Accessed July 21, 2007, from tp://www.shrm.org/research/quarterly/0401perfmanagement.asp; Oakes, K. (2007, April). Performance management lacks consistency.. T & D 61(4), 50–53.CH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 57
  58. 58. Effective Performance Management SystemsTable 10-5 – The administrative burden should be minimized – The effectiveness of the performance management system should be regularly tracked, with adjustments to the system made as necessary SOURCES: Lawler, E. E., III, & McDermott, M. (2003). Current performance management practices: Examining the varying impacts. WorldatWork Journal, 12(2), 49–60; O’Neill, C., & Holsinger, L. (2003). Effective performance management systems: 10 key design principles. WorldatWork Journal, 12(2), 61–67; Weatherly, L. A. (2004, March). Performance management: Getting it right from the start. Society for Human Resource Management. Accessed July 21, 2007, from tp://www.shrm.org/research/quarterly/0401perfmanagement.asp; Oakes, K. (2007, April). Performance management lacks consistency.. T & D 61(4), 50–53.CH-10 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 58
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