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Career Management and             Development               Chapter 12CH-12         Copyright 2008 Werner et al   1
Learning Objectives• Define the term career, and explain the  roles involved in career management and  development• Explai...
Learning Objectives – 2• Explain what is involved in career  management and describe several models  of career management•...
Have You Ever Wondered…• What exactly are people talking about when they refer to  a “new” employment relationship?• If th...
Careers• Study of careers and how they develop is  one of the most active areas of inquiry in  the social sciences• Psycho...
Careers and HRD• Understanding and finding ways to  influence the careers of employees in an  organization is also an inte...
Need for Career Development• Developing in a job or a career requires    – Organizational objectives and the blend of     ...
Changes in Environment• Environment that has been typified by    – rapid change    – increased competition    – globalizat...
The “New Employment              Relationship”• In the past there was an “entitlement”  mentality toward jobs, benefits, a...
Old-Style Career Development• Career development practices that were used  primarily created an internal labor market to f...
Changes in the Relationship• We can’t promise you    –   how long we’ll be in business    –   that we won’t be acquired   ...
The Realization of Employment               Mortality• That employees, not the organization, are  responsible for their ow...
The Changing Employee• Employees are increasingly expected to  assume responsibility for    – developing and maintaining t...
The Changing Employer• Employers should provide    – opportunities for skill development, training, and      education    ...
Impact of the “New” Employment             Relationship• There will continue to be a significant  number of organizations ...
What Is a Career?• “Career” means many things to many  peopleCH-12         Copyright 2008 Werner et al   16
The Property of an Occupation or           Organization• Advancement    – Career denotes one’s progression and increasing ...
Career Defined• A career is best described broadly as    – “the pattern of work-related experiences that      span the cou...
Career Choice• The job and occupational choices an individual  makes during a career are determined in large  part by    –...
Relationship of Career to Non-work             Activities• One must consider all of an individual’s  skills, abilities, an...
Career Development• An ongoing process by which individuals  progress through a series of stages, each  of which is charac...
Career Planning and Career               Management• Both the individual and the organization  have interests in an indivi...
Career Planning• A deliberate process of    – becoming aware of self, opportunities,      constraints, choices, and conseq...
Career Management• An ongoing process of    – preparing    – implementing    – monitoring career plans• Undertaken by the ...
Spectrum of Career Development              ActivitiesFig. 12-1          Employee                                         ...
Career Development Activities• Vary according to    – the amount of influence by the individual    – the amount of informa...
Stages of Life and Career             Development• Common experiences, challenges, or tasks most  people seem to go throug...
Stage Views of Adult Development• Erikson’s Model of Adult Development• Levinson’s “Eras” Approach to Adult  DevelopmentCH...
Erikson’s Model of Adult                      DevelopmentTable 12-1   Stage of Development (Issue)              Age Range ...
Levinson’s “Eras” Approach to             Adult Development• Major phases of a person’s life (called eras) are  like seaso...
Levinson’s “Eras” Approach to                 Adult Development                                                           ...
Models of Career Development•   Preparation for Work (Age 0–25)•   Organizational Entry (Age 18–25)•   The Early Career (A...
A Five-Stage ModelTable 12-2Occupational Choice: Preparation for Work   Typical Age                        Initially 0–25;...
A Five-Stage ModelTable 12-2• Organizational Entry        Typical Age Range: Initially 18–25; then variable        Major T...
A Five-Stage ModelTable 12-2• Early Career: Establishment and Achievement        Typical Age Range: 25 - 40        Major T...
A Five-Stage ModelTable 12-2• Mid-Career        Typical Age Range: 40 - 55        Major Tasks:                            ...
A Five-Stage ModelTable 12-2• Late Career        Typical Age Range:                        55 - retirement        Major Ta...
Reconciling the Traditional and        Contemporary Career Models• Individuals should take responsibility for  their lives...
Four Career Concepts – 1• Linear    – A progression of movement up an organizational      hierarchy to positions of greate...
Four Career Concepts – 2• Spiral    – A lifelong progression of periodic (seven to ten years)      moves across related oc...
Life Stage and Career Models• By understanding the models    – individuals can be better equipped to think      about, ant...
The Process of Career Management• Career management involves both    – planning for career activities    – putting those p...
A Career Management Model                                                      Information, Opportunities, and Support fro...
Model Characteristics• Model represents an ideal career  management process:    – the way people should conduct career    ...
Eight Career Activities• Individual responds to the need to make a  career decision.• That response includes eight activit...
The Career Management Cycle• A problem-solving, decision-making process• Information is gathered so individuals can  becom...
Career Management ActivitiesTable 12-3• Career exploration.       – Career exploration involves gathering information     ...
Career Management ActivitiesTable 12-3• Goal setting.      – A career goal is an outcome the individual        decides to ...
Career Management ActivitiesTable 12-3• Strategy development        – A career strategy is an action plan for accomplishin...
Career Management ActivitiesTable 12-3• Strategy Implementation       – Strategy implementation involves carrying out the ...
Career Management ActivitiesTable 12-3• Progress toward the goal       – This is the extent to which the individual is nea...
Career Management ActivitiesTable 12-3• Career appraisal       – Feedback and information on progress toward         the c...
The Cyclical Career Management               Process• Career management process is cyclical  and ongoing• The need to make...
Organizationally Oriented Career        Management Models• The Pluralistic Approach    – At least four career concepts tha...
The Career Culture• An organization’s career culture is defined  by    – the organization’s structure    – what forms of p...
HRD and Career Development          Professional’s Responsibility – 1•       To help individuals become “masters of       ...
HRD and Career Development        Professional’s Responsibility – 24. Become an expert on career information    and assess...
HRD and Career Development        Professional’s Responsibility – 37. Promote learning through relationships at  work8. Be...
HRD and Career Development        Professional’s Responsibility – 49. Promote mobility and the idea of the  lifelong learn...
Career Development Tools and                  LinkagesTable 12-4Career Development PracticeA. Employee self-assessment too...
Career Development Activities andTable 12-4             PracticesCareer Development Practice      B. Individual counseling...
Career Development Activities and             PracticesTable 12-4Career Development Practice       C. Internal labor-marke...
Career Development Activities and             PracticesTable 12-4Career Development Practice     D. Job matching systems  ...
Career Development Activities and             PracticesTable 12-4Career Development ActivityE. Organizational potential as...
Career Development Activities and             PracticesTable 12-4Career Development ActivityF. Development programs       ...
Career Development Activities and             PracticesTable 12-4Career Development ActivityF. Development programs (Conti...
Individual Counseling or Career              Discussions• Three Stages    – Opening and Probing        • This stage establ...
Specific Counseling• Counseling can be used for    – Employees continuing employment    – Employees who are        • appro...
Outplacement Counseling• Outplacement counseling focuses on  assisting terminated employees in making  the transition to a...
Pre-Retirement Counseling• Pre-retirement counseling and workshops  involve    – activities that help employees prepare fo...
Using Supervisors as Counselors• Their role in the career development  process must be clarified• They must be trained to ...
Internal Labor Market Information• Job Posting    – Making open positions in the organization known to      current employ...
Internal Labor Market Information• Skills Inventory    – A skills inventory is a database that contains      information a...
Organization Potential Assessment            Processes• Many organizations evaluate the potential,  or promotability, of m...
Potential Ratings• Similar to employee performance  evaluations• Focus on future potential instead of  current performance...
Assessment Center• Small groups of employees perform a  variety of exercises while being evaluated  by a group of trained ...
Succession Planning• Done for upper-level management  positions• Requires senior managers to identify  employees who shoul...
Developmental Programs• Job rotation    – involves assigning an employee to a series of      jobs in different functional ...
Concerns in Mentoring• Cross-Gender Issues• Racial IssuesCH-12         Copyright 2008 Werner et al   79
Cross-Gender Mentoring• Concern exists between the parties about  intimacy and sexual attraction• There is an inclination ...
Racial Issues• Black protégés with white mentors  reported    – less satisfaction with the mentoring      relationship    ...
Three Conditions for Successful             Mentoring1. The program should be clearly linked to business   strategy and ex...
Issues in Career Development• Developing Career Motivation• The Career Plateau• Career Development for Nonexempt  Employee...
Definitions of the Three Facets of             Career MotivationTable 12-52. Career resilience.       – The extent to whic...
Career Plateau• A career plateau has been defined as “the  point in a career where the likelihood of  additional hierarchi...
Methods for Increasing Career                  MotivationTable 12-61. To support career resilience  a. Build employees’ se...
Methods for Increasing Career                 MotivationTable 12-62. To enhance career insight:  a. Encourage employees to...
Methods for Increasing Career                 MotivationTable 12-63. To build career identity  a. Encourage work involveme...
Career Plateauing• Is more complex than previously thought.• HRD professionals should    – assess whether employees are pl...
Career Development for         Nonexempt Employees• Clerical and support staff and technicians    – who are paid hourly or...
Development Needs of Nonexempt         Employees• Job satisfaction often comes from the work itself,  which is problematic...
Development Needs of Nonexempt         Employees• Exempt employees may become more  frustrated during their careers than e...
Some Options• Development resource center• Support for lifelong learning activities    – tuition reimbursement for relevan...
Enrichment• Career Development without  Advancement    – certification programs and mastery paths that      specify select...
A Systems Approach to Creating a   Career Development ProgramTable 12-7• Identify Needs  1. Link career development to bus...
A Systems Approach to Creating a   Career Development ProgramTable 12-7•        Build a Vision for Change      1. Build sy...
A Systems Approach to Creating a   Career Development ProgramTable 12-7•        Develop a Plan for Action      1. Create a...
A Systems Approach to Creating a   Career Development ProgramTable 12-7•        Implement for Impact and Longevity      1....
A Systems Approach to Creating a   Career Development ProgramTable 12-7• Evaluate and Maintain Results      – Evaluate    ...
Enhancing Organizational Career       Development Efforts1. Integrate individual developmental   planning with organizatio...
Enhancing Organizational Career       Development Efforts4. Enhance the role of managers in career  development through bo...
Enhancing Organizational Career       Development Efforts7. Emphasize enrichment and lateral movement.8. Identify and deve...
Enhancing Organizational Career       Development Efforts12. Expand career development measure-  ment and evaluation13. Co...
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Transcript of "Career management + development"

  1. 1. Career Management and Development Chapter 12CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 1
  2. 2. Learning Objectives• Define the term career, and explain the roles involved in career management and development• Explain the effect that the “new employment relationship” is having on career management• Describe how models of life and career development enhance our understanding of careersCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 2
  3. 3. Learning Objectives – 2• Explain what is involved in career management and describe several models of career management• Describe five career management practices• Describe four issues that affect career management• Understand what is involved in designing a career management programCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 3
  4. 4. Have You Ever Wondered…• What exactly are people talking about when they refer to a “new” employment relationship?• If things are changing so rapidly within organizations and in the external environment, does it even make sense to talk about career development issues?• Are there typical issues that employees face at particular ages or stages of their careers?• What roles should employees, managers, and HRD professionals play in managing employees careers?• What types of career development activities are actually used by organizations?CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 4
  5. 5. Careers• Study of careers and how they develop is one of the most active areas of inquiry in the social sciences• Psychologists, educators, sociologists, economists, and management scholars all seek to understand how a person selects, works within, and makes decisions to change the focus of his or her working lifeCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 5
  6. 6. Careers and HRD• Understanding and finding ways to influence the careers of employees in an organization is also an integral part of HRD• Career development provides a future orientation to HRD activities• It is a fact of life that people and organizations changeCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 6
  7. 7. Need for Career Development• Developing in a job or a career requires – Organizational objectives and the blend of knowledge, skill, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) it will take to reach those objectives change in response to challenges from the environmentCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 7
  8. 8. Changes in Environment• Environment that has been typified by – rapid change – increased competition – globalization – an employment relationship that is less loyalty based – flatter, less hierarchical organizational structuresCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 8
  9. 9. The “New Employment Relationship”• In the past there was an “entitlement” mentality toward jobs, benefits, and the like, that is, that employers “owed” such things to their employees• Career development was seen primarily as the organization’s concern. – The goal was to ensure that the ranks of management would be filled with individuals who were prepared for these tasks and fit the organization’s cultureCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 9
  10. 10. Old-Style Career Development• Career development practices that were used primarily created an internal labor market to fulfill the organization’s needs• Career progress was defined primarily in terms of promotion and pay increases within one organization• Individuals often viewed career planning to the extent that they had vertical aspirations and were selected for or volunteered to participate in the organization’s development activities• Moving up through the ranks of management was often the main career goalCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 10
  11. 11. Changes in the Relationship• We can’t promise you – how long we’ll be in business – that we won’t be acquired – that there’ll be room for promotion – that your job will exist when you reach retirement age – that the money will be available for your pension• We can’t expect your undying loyalty, and we aren’t even sure we want itCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 11
  12. 12. The Realization of Employment Mortality• That employees, not the organization, are responsible for their own continued employability has created uncertainty for many peopleCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 12
  13. 13. The Changing Employee• Employees are increasingly expected to assume responsibility for – developing and maintaining their own skills – adding demonstrable value to the organization – understanding the nature of their employer’s businessCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 13
  14. 14. The Changing Employer• Employers should provide – opportunities for skill development, training, and education – employee involvement in decision making, assistance with career management (e.g., coaching and mentoring), and performance-based compensation• Overall, the concept of a “boundary-less” career, that is, a career not bound to one organization or profession, has become popularCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 14
  15. 15. Impact of the “New” Employment Relationship• There will continue to be a significant number of organizations that have long- term relationships with their employees• The work organizations do to achieve their goals changes over timeCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 15
  16. 16. What Is a Career?• “Career” means many things to many peopleCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 16
  17. 17. The Property of an Occupation or Organization• Advancement – Career denotes one’s progression and increasing success within an occupation or organization• Status of a profession. Some use the term career to separate the “professions,” from other occupations – The lawyer is said to have a career, while the carpenter does not• Degree of involvement in one’s work• Stability of a person’s work pattern – A sequence of related jobs is said to describe a career, whereas a sequence of unrelated jobs does notCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 17
  18. 18. Career Defined• A career is best described broadly as – “the pattern of work-related experiences that span the course of a person’s life” – This definition includes both • objective events, such as jobs • subjective views of work, such as the person’s attitudes, values, and expectationsCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 18
  19. 19. Career Choice• The job and occupational choices an individual makes during a career are determined in large part by – forces within the individual, – the organization – other external forces • (e.g., society, family, the educational system)• The individual is driven toward particular job choices by his or her skills, knowledge, abilities, attitudes, values, personality, and life situationCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 19
  20. 20. Relationship of Career to Non-work Activities• One must consider all of an individual’s skills, abilities, and interests• One must recognize the impact and value that relationships outside of work have on employees• People come to organizations for specific reasons – those reasons often change as they ageCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 20
  21. 21. Career Development• An ongoing process by which individuals progress through a series of stages, each of which is characterized by a relatively unique set of issues, themes, and tasksCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 21
  22. 22. Career Planning and Career Management• Both the individual and the organization have interests in an individual’s career• Both parties may take actions to influence that career• These sets of related activities are referred to as career planning and career management• These activities can be viewed as existing along a continuumCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 22
  23. 23. Career Planning• A deliberate process of – becoming aware of self, opportunities, constraints, choices, and consequences – identifying career-related goals – programming work, education, and related developmental experiences to provide the direction, timing, and sequence of steps to attain a specific career goalCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 23
  24. 24. Career Management• An ongoing process of – preparing – implementing – monitoring career plans• Undertaken by the individual alone or in concert with the organization’s career systemsCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 24
  25. 25. Spectrum of Career Development ActivitiesFig. 12-1 Employee Mutual focus: Organization centered: manager-employee centered: career planning planning career management Self-directed Company-run Corporate Manager- Developmental Corporate Corporate workbooks career-planning seminars on employee career assessment talent succession and tape workshops organizational discussions centers (with inventories planning cassettes career (includes feedback) separate training for managers) SOURCE: Hall, D. T. (1986). An overview of current career development theory, research, and practice. In Hall, D. T., and associates (eds.), Career development in organizations (4), San Francisco. Copyright 1986 by Jossey-Bass, Inc. This material is used by permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 25
  26. 26. Career Development Activities• Vary according to – the amount of influence by the individual – the amount of information provided to the individual – the amount of influence by the organization – the amount of information provided to the organizationCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 26
  27. 27. Stages of Life and Career Development• Common experiences, challenges, or tasks most people seem to go through as their life or career progresses• Stage view helps to predict likely crises and challenges and therefore plan ways to resolve or minimize them• Stage views of development have their limitations – all individuals are unique – and will not have the same experiencesCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 27
  28. 28. Stage Views of Adult Development• Erikson’s Model of Adult Development• Levinson’s “Eras” Approach to Adult DevelopmentCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 28
  29. 29. Erikson’s Model of Adult DevelopmentTable 12-1 Stage of Development (Issue) Age Range (Years) Basic trust versus mistrust Infancy Autonomy versus shame and 1-3 doubt Initiative versus guilt 4-5 Industry versus inferiority 6-11 Identity versus role confusion Puberty & Adolescence Intimacy versus isolation Young Adulthood Generativity versus stagnation Middle Adulthood Ego integrity versus despair MaturityCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 29
  30. 30. Levinson’s “Eras” Approach to Adult Development• Major phases of a person’s life (called eras) are like seasons of the year in the following ways: – They are qualitatively different – Change occurs within each season – There is a transitional period between each season that is part of both seasons – No season is superior or inferior to another season – Each season contributes something unique to life – There are four seasons or eras in a person’s lifeCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 30
  31. 31. Levinson’s “Eras” Approach to Adult Development ⎫ ⎪Fig. 12-2 ⎪ ⎪ Late ⎬ adulthood Late adulthood ⎪ ⎪ 65 ⎪ ⎭ Late adult transition ⎫ ⎪ 60 ⎪ Culmination of ⎪ ⎪ middle ⎪ adulthood ⎪ 55 ⎪ Middle ⎬ adulthood Age 50 ⎪ transition ⎪ ⎪ 50 Entering ⎪ ⎪ middle ⎪ adulthood ⎪ 45 ⎪ ⎭ Mid-life transition ⎫ ⎪ 40 ⎪ ⎪ Settling down ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ 33 ⎪ Early Age 30 ⎬ adulthood ⎪ transition ⎪ 28 ⎪ ⎪ Entering the ⎪ adult world ⎪ ⎪ 22 ⎪ ⎭ Early adult transition 17 (Childhood and Preadulthood adolescence) SOURCE: From Levinson, D. J., Darrow, C. N., Klein, E. B., Levinson, M. H., & McKee, B. (1978). Seasons of a man’s life. New York (57). Copyright 1978 by Daniel J. Levinson. Reprinted by permission of Alfred A. Knopf.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 31
  32. 32. Models of Career Development• Preparation for Work (Age 0–25)• Organizational Entry (Age 18–25)• The Early Career (Age 25–40)• The Mid-Career (Age 40–55)• The Late Career (Age 55–Retirement)CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 32
  33. 33. A Five-Stage ModelTable 12-2Occupational Choice: Preparation for Work Typical Age Initially 0–25; then variable Range: Major Tasks: •Develop occupational self-image •Assess alternative occupations •Develop initial occupational choice •Pursue necessary educationSOURCE: From Career Management 3rd edition by Greenhaus. © 2000. Reprinted with permission of South-Western, a division ofThomson Learning: www.thomsonrights.com. Fax 800-730-2215.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 33
  34. 34. A Five-Stage ModelTable 12-2• Organizational Entry Typical Age Range: Initially 18–25; then variable Major Tasks: •Obtain job offer(s) from desired organization(s) •Select appropriate job based on accurate informationSOURCE: From Career Management 3rd edition by Greenhaus. © 2000. Reprinted with permission of South-Western, a division ofThomson Learning: www.thomsonrights.com. Fax 800-730-2215.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 34
  35. 35. A Five-Stage ModelTable 12-2• Early Career: Establishment and Achievement Typical Age Range: 25 - 40 Major Tasks: •Learn job •Learn organizational rules and norms •Fit into chosen occupation and organization •Increase competence •Pursue The DreamSOURCE: From Career Management 3rd edition by Greenhaus. © 2000. Reprinted with permission of South-Western, a division ofThomson Learning: www.thomsonrights.com. Fax 800-730-2215.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 35
  36. 36. A Five-Stage ModelTable 12-2• Mid-Career Typical Age Range: 40 - 55 Major Tasks: •Reappraise early career and early adult- hood •Reaffirm or modify The Dream •Make choices appropriate to middle adult years •Remain productive in workSOURCE: From Career Management 3rd edition by Greenhaus. © 2000. Reprinted with permission of South-Western, a division ofThomson Learning: www.thomsonrights.com. Fax 800-730-2215.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 36
  37. 37. A Five-Stage ModelTable 12-2• Late Career Typical Age Range: 55 - retirement Major Tasks: •Remain productive in work, •Maintain self-esteem •Prepare for effective retirement.SOURCE: From Career Management 3rd edition by Greenhaus. © 2000. Reprinted with permission of South-Western, a division ofThomson Learning: www.thomsonrights.com. Fax 800-730-2215.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 37
  38. 38. Reconciling the Traditional and Contemporary Career Models• Individuals should take responsibility for their lives and employability• Organizations also bear a responsibility for career management, – for their own interests – for the well-being of those who work within their organization• It would be foolish to ignore age-based stage models of life and careerCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 38
  39. 39. Four Career Concepts – 1• Linear – A progression of movement up an organizational hierarchy to positions of greater responsibility and authority; motivated by desire for power and achievement; variable time line; in the United States, this has been the traditional view of a “career”• Expert – A devotion to an occupation; focus on building knowledge and skill within a specialty; little upward movement in a traditional hierarchy, more from apprentice to master; motivated by desire for competence and stability; rooted in the medieval guild structureCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 39
  40. 40. Four Career Concepts – 2• Spiral – A lifelong progression of periodic (seven to ten years) moves across related occupations, disciplines, or specialties; sufficient time to achieve a high level of competence in a given area before moving on; motives include creativity and personal growth• Transitory – A progression of frequent (three to five years) moves across different or unrelated jobs or fields; untraditional; motives include variety and independenceCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 40
  41. 41. Life Stage and Career Models• By understanding the models – individuals can be better equipped to think about, anticipate, and manage the transitions they will experience during their lives – organizations can develop strategies and tactics to • manage the career transitions their employees will experience • create career management systems that will both meet the organizations’ HR needs and satisfy the needs of employeesCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 41
  42. 42. The Process of Career Management• Career management involves both – planning for career activities – putting those plans into actionCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 42
  43. 43. A Career Management Model Information, Opportunities, and Support fromFig 12-3 Need to make decision Career Awareness of self Goal setting exploration and environment A B C Career Feedback: appraisal work/nonwork H G Progress Strategy Strategy toward goal implementation development F E D Educational, Family, Work, and Societal InstitutionsSOURCE: From Career Management 3rd edition by Greenhaus. 2000. Reprinted with permission of South-Western, a division of ThomsonLearning:www.thomsonrights.com. Fax 800-730-2215.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 43
  44. 44. Model Characteristics• Model represents an ideal career management process: – the way people should conduct career management – not a description of what the typical person actually doesCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 44
  45. 45. Eight Career Activities• Individual responds to the need to make a career decision.• That response includes eight activities: – career exploration – awareness of self and environment – goal setting – strategy development – strategy implementation – progress toward the goal – feedback from work and non-work sources – career appraisalCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 45
  46. 46. The Career Management Cycle• A problem-solving, decision-making process• Information is gathered so individuals can become more aware of themselves, and the world around them• Goals are established, plans or strategies are developed and implemented• Feedback is obtained to provide more information for ongoing career managementCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 46
  47. 47. Career Management ActivitiesTable 12-3• Career exploration. – Career exploration involves gathering information about one’s self and the environment• Awareness of self and environment – Successful career exploration will lead the individual to a deeper self-awareness – An understanding of both opportunities and constraints present in the environment• This awareness of self and environment can lead the individual to set or revise career goals, or strategiesSOURCE: From Career Management 3rd edition by Greenhaus. 2000. Reprinted with permission of South-Western, a division of ThomsonLearning: www.thomsonrights.com. Fax 800-730-2215.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 47
  48. 48. Career Management ActivitiesTable 12-3• Goal setting. – A career goal is an outcome the individual decides to try to obtain • Such goals may be specific (e.g., I want to become a partner in my accounting firm by age 35) or general (e.g., I want to be a successful and respected chef) – To the extent career goals are based on an awareness of the self and environment, they are likely to be realisticSOURCE: From Career Management 3rd edition by Greenhaus. 2000. Reprinted with permission of South-Western, a division of ThomsonLearning: www.thomsonrights.com. Fax 800-730-2215.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 48
  49. 49. Career Management ActivitiesTable 12-3• Strategy development – A career strategy is an action plan for accomplishing the career goal • Includes the actions that should be carried out and a timetable for performing them • The strategy will be more effective if it is based on realistic self-awareness and environmental awareness• Seven career strategies: – competency in the current job – increased involvement in work – developing skills – developing opportunities – cultivating mentor relationships – image building – engaging in organizational politicsSOURCE: From Career Management 3rd edition by Greenhaus. 2000. Reprinted with permission of South-Western, a division of ThomsonLearning: www.thomsonrights.com. Fax 800-730-2215.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 49
  50. 50. Career Management ActivitiesTable 12-3• Strategy Implementation – Strategy implementation involves carrying out the strategy the individual has developed – Following a realistic strategy as opposed to acting without a clearly defined plan increases the likelihood of attaining the career goal – It is easier to get where you want to go if you have a plan to follow – Strategy implementation can lead to progress toward the goal and feedback from work and non-work sourcesSOURCE: From Career Management 3rd edition by Greenhaus. 2000. Reprinted with permission of South-Western, a division of ThomsonLearning: www.thomsonrights.com. Fax 800-730-2215.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 50
  51. 51. Career Management ActivitiesTable 12-3• Progress toward the goal – This is the extent to which the individual is nearing the career goal• Feedback from work and non-work sources – Valuable information about the progress toward the career goal can be obtained from both • work sources—such as co-workers, supervisors, and specialists • non-work sources—such as friends, family, and teachersSOURCE: From Career Management 3rd edition by Greenhaus. 2000. Reprinted with permission of South-Western, a division of ThomsonLearning: www.thomsonrights.com. Fax 800-730-2215.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 51
  52. 52. Career Management ActivitiesTable 12-3• Career appraisal – Feedback and information on progress toward the career goal permit the individual to appraise his or her career – This appraisal leads to reengagement in career exploration – the career management process continues with another cycle of activitiesSOURCE: From Career Management 3rd edition by Greenhaus. 2000. Reprinted with permission of South-Western, a division of ThomsonLearning: www.thomsonrights.com. Fax 800-730-2215.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 52
  53. 53. The Cyclical Career Management Process• Career management process is cyclical and ongoing• The need to make career decisions can result from – changes within the individual • (e.g., questioning done at mid-career) and – changes in the environment • (e.g., organizational decisions such as firing and downsizing, or a merger or acquisition)CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 53
  54. 54. Organizationally Oriented Career Management Models• The Pluralistic Approach – At least four career concepts that represent patterns employees’ careers can take – Organizations can have career cultures that mirror these career concepts • Linear • Expert • Spiral • TransitoryCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 54
  55. 55. The Career Culture• An organization’s career culture is defined by – the organization’s structure – what forms of performance it values – the rewards it offers employees• Organization’s career culture should support its strategic direction – (e.g., an organization seeking diversification should adopt a spiral career concept culture)CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 55
  56. 56. HRD and Career Development Professional’s Responsibility – 1• To help individuals become “masters of their own careers”: 1. Start with the recognition that each individual “owns” his or her career 2. Create information and support for the individual’s own efforts at development 3. Recognize that career development is a relational process in which the career practitioner plays a broker roleCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 56
  57. 57. HRD and Career Development Professional’s Responsibility – 24. Become an expert on career information and assessment technologies5. Become a professional communicator about your services and the new career contract6. Promote work planning that benefits the organization as a whole, over career planning that is unrelated to organizational goals and future directionsCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 57
  58. 58. HRD and Career Development Professional’s Responsibility – 37. Promote learning through relationships at work8. Be an organizational interventionist – Someone willing and able to intervene where there are roadblocks to successful career managementCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 58
  59. 59. HRD and Career Development Professional’s Responsibility – 49. Promote mobility and the idea of the lifelong learner identity10. Develop the mind-set of using natural (existing) resources for developmentCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 59
  60. 60. Career Development Tools and LinkagesTable 12-4Career Development PracticeA. Employee self-assessment tools 1. Pre-retirement workshops 2. Career planning workshops 3. Career workbooks (stand-alone) 4. Computer softwareSOURCES: Adapted from Gutteridge, T. G., Leibowitz, Z. B., & Shore, J. E. (1993). Organizational career development: Benchmarks forbuilding a world-class workforce (p. 22). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; Lemire, L., Saba, T., & Gagnon, Y.-C. (1999). Managing careerplateauing in the Quebec public sector. Public Personnel Management, 28(3), 375–391; Baruch, Y., & Peiperl, M. (2000). Career managementpractices: An empirical survey and implications. Human Resource Management, 39(4), 347–366.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 60
  61. 61. Career Development Activities andTable 12-4 PracticesCareer Development Practice B. Individual counseling or career discussions – Supervisor or line manager – Human Resource staff – Specialized counselor • internal • external – Senior career advisorsSOURCES: Adapted from Gutteridge, T. G., Leibowitz, Z. B., & Shore, J. E. (1993). Organizational career development: Benchmarks forbuilding a world-class workforce (p. 22). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; Lemire, L., Saba, T., & Gagnon, Y.-C. (1999). Managing careerplateauing in the Quebec public sector. Public Personnel Management, 28(3), 375–391; Baruch, Y., & Peiperl, M. (2000). Career managementpractices: An empirical survey and implications. Human Resource Management, 39(4), 347–366.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 61
  62. 62. Career Development Activities and PracticesTable 12-4Career Development Practice C. Internal labor-market information exchanges – Career ladders or dual career ladders – Career resource center – Career information handbooks – Other career information formatsSOURCES: Adapted from Gutteridge, T. G., Leibowitz, Z. B., & Shore, J. E. (1993). Organizational career development: Benchmarks forbuilding a world-class workforce (p. 22). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; Lemire, L., Saba, T., & Gagnon, Y.-C. (1999). Managing careerplateauing in the Quebec public sector. Public Personnel Management, 28(3), 375–391; Baruch, Y., & Peiperl, M. (2000). Career managementpractices: An empirical survey and implications. Human Resource Management, 39(4), 347–366.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 62
  63. 63. Career Development Activities and PracticesTable 12-4Career Development Practice D. Job matching systems – Job posting – Replacement or succession planning – Internal placement systems – Informal canvassing – Skills inventories or skills audit – Staffing committeesSOURCES: Adapted from Gutteridge, T. G., Leibowitz, Z. B., & Shore, J. E. (1993). Organizational career development: Benchmarks forbuilding a world-class workforce (p. 22). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; Lemire, L., Saba, T., & Gagnon, Y.-C. (1999). Managing careerplateauing in the Quebec public sector. Public Personnel Management, 28(3), 375–391; Baruch, Y., & Peiperl, M. (2000). Career managementpractices: An empirical survey and implications. Human Resource Management, 39(4), 347–366.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 63
  64. 64. Career Development Activities and PracticesTable 12-4Career Development ActivityE. Organizational potential assessment processes – Interview process – Job assignments – Promotability forecasts – Psychological testing – Assessment centersSOURCES: Adapted from Gutteridge, T. G., Leibowitz, Z. B., & Shore, J. E. (1993). Organizational career development: Benchmarks forbuilding a world-class workforce (p. 22). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; Lemire, L., Saba, T., & Gagnon, Y.-C. (1999). Managing careerplateauing in the Quebec public sector. Public Personnel Management, 28(3), 375–391; Baruch, Y., & Peiperl, M. (2000). Career managementpractices: An empirical survey and implications. Human Resource Management, 39(4), 347–366.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 64
  65. 65. Career Development Activities and PracticesTable 12-4Career Development ActivityF. Development programs – Tuition reimbursement – In-house T&D programs – External seminars and workshops – Employee orientation programs – Job rotationSOURCES: Adapted from Gutteridge, T. G., Leibowitz, Z. B., & Shore, J. E. (1993). Organizational career development: Benchmarks forbuilding a world-class workforce (p. 22). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; Lemire, L., Saba, T., & Gagnon, Y.-C. (1999). Managing careerplateauing in the Quebec public sector. Public Personnel Management, 28(3), 375–391; Baruch, Y., & Peiperl, M. (2000). Career managementpractices: An empirical survey and implications. Human Resource Management, 39(4), 347–366.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 65
  66. 66. Career Development Activities and PracticesTable 12-4Career Development ActivityF. Development programs (Continued) – Supervisor training in career discussions – Job enrichment or job redesign – Mentoring systems – Dual-career couple programsSOURCES: Adapted from Gutteridge, T. G., Leibowitz, Z. B., & Shore, J. E. (1993). Organizational career development: Benchmarks forbuilding a world-class workforce (p. 22). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; Lemire, L., Saba, T., & Gagnon, Y.-C. (1999). Managing careerplateauing in the Quebec public sector. Public Personnel Management, 28(3), 375–391; Baruch, Y., & Peiperl, M. (2000). Career managementpractices: An empirical survey and implications. Human Resource Management, 39(4), 347–366.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 66
  67. 67. Individual Counseling or Career Discussions• Three Stages – Opening and Probing • This stage establishes rapport and determines the employee’s goals for the counseling session(s) – Understanding and Focusing • This includes providing assistance in self- assessment and establishing career goals and strategies – Programming • This stage provides support for implementing the career strategyCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 67
  68. 68. Specific Counseling• Counseling can be used for – Employees continuing employment – Employees who are • approaching retirement • about to be laid off • terminatedCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 68
  69. 69. Outplacement Counseling• Outplacement counseling focuses on assisting terminated employees in making the transition to a new organization – can focus on job search skills, stress management, and career planning – most likely to be performed by a counselor who is not an organization memberCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 69
  70. 70. Pre-Retirement Counseling• Pre-retirement counseling and workshops involve – activities that help employees prepare for the transition from work to non-work• Retirement is often filled with great uncertainty on both the personal and the financial level• Pre-retirement counseling programs typically involve discussions about financial planning, social adjustment, family issues, and preparing for leisure activitiesCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 70
  71. 71. Using Supervisors as Counselors• Their role in the career development process must be clarified• They must be trained to perform this role• They must have the opportunity to discuss their own career development concerns• The role of counselor or developer should be incorporated into the organizational reward system – included in performance evaluationsCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 71
  72. 72. Internal Labor Market Information• Job Posting – Making open positions in the organization known to current employees before advertising them to outsiders• Career Path – Sequence of jobs, usually involving related tasks and experiences, that employees move through over time – Together with job descriptions and job specifications, these paths can aid the employee in developing a career strategyCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 72
  73. 73. Internal Labor Market Information• Skills Inventory – A skills inventory is a database that contains information about employee skills, education, performance evaluation, and career preferencesCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 73
  74. 74. Organization Potential Assessment Processes• Many organizations evaluate the potential, or promotability, of managerial, professional, and technical employees• Three ways that potential assessment can be done – potential ratings – assessment centers – succession planningCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 74
  75. 75. Potential Ratings• Similar to employee performance evaluations• Focus on future potential instead of current performanceCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 75
  76. 76. Assessment Center• Small groups of employees perform a variety of exercises while being evaluated by a group of trained assessors – simulations, role plays, group discussions, tests, and interviews – should measure relevant skills and aptitudes for a given positionCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 76
  77. 77. Succession Planning• Done for upper-level management positions• Requires senior managers to identify employees who should be developed to replace them• Goal of the process is one of creating a cadre of individuals who have the competencies needed to work as part of a senior management teamCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 77
  78. 78. Developmental Programs• Job rotation – involves assigning an employee to a series of jobs in different functional areas of the organization• Mentoring – a relationship between a junior and senior member of the organization that contributes to the career development of both membersCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 78
  79. 79. Concerns in Mentoring• Cross-Gender Issues• Racial IssuesCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 79
  80. 80. Cross-Gender Mentoring• Concern exists between the parties about intimacy and sexual attraction• There is an inclination for men and women to rely on sex-role stereotypes• Dissatisfaction with the role-modeling aspect of the relationship may be felt• The relationship is subject to public scrutiny – e.g., jealous spouses, office gossip• Peer resentment may occurCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 80
  81. 81. Racial Issues• Black protégés with white mentors reported – less satisfaction with the mentoring relationship – less support than did members of same-race mentoring relationshipsCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 81
  82. 82. Three Conditions for Successful Mentoring1. The program should be clearly linked to business strategy and existing HR policies and practices – to increase the chances that potential participants and senior management will accept and actively support the program2. Core components of the program (objectives, guidelines, training and education, communication strategy, monitoring and evaluation, and coordination) should be designed for effectiveness rather than expediency3. Voluntary participation and flexible guidelines are critical to successCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 82
  83. 83. Issues in Career Development• Developing Career Motivation• The Career Plateau• Career Development for Nonexempt Employees• Enrichment: Career Development without AdvancementCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 83
  84. 84. Definitions of the Three Facets of Career MotivationTable 12-52. Career resilience. – The extent to which people resist career barriers or disruptions affecting their work. This consists of self-confidence, need for achievement, the willingness to take risks, and the ability to act independently and cooperatively as appropriate.2. Career insight – The extent to which people are realistic about themselves and their careers and how these perceptions are related to career goals. This includes developing goals and gaining knowledge of the self and the environment. 3. Career identity – The extent to which people define themselves by their work. This includes involvement in job, organization, and profession and the direction of career goals (e.g., toward advancement in an organization). SOURCE: From London, M., & Mone, E. M. (1987). Career management and survival in the workplace (p. 54). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 84
  85. 85. Career Plateau• A career plateau has been defined as “the point in a career where the likelihood of additional hierarchical promotion is very low” – A traumatic experience for many employees – Accompanied by feelings of stress, frustration, failure, and guiltCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 85
  86. 86. Methods for Increasing Career MotivationTable 12-61. To support career resilience a. Build employees’ self-confidence through feedback and positive reinforcement b. Generate opportunities for achievement c. Create an environment conducive to risk taking by rewarding innovation and reducing fear of failure d. Show interpersonal concern and encourage group cohesiveness and collaborative working relationships SOURCE: From London, M. (1991). Career development. In Wexley, K. N., & Hinrichs, J. (Eds.), Developing human resources (pp. 5– 159). Washington, DC: BNA Books.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 86
  87. 87. Methods for Increasing Career MotivationTable 12-62. To enhance career insight: a. Encourage employees to set their own goals b. Supply employees with information relevant to attaining their career goals c. Provide regular performance feedbackSOURCE: From London, M. (1991). Career development. In Wexley, K. N., & Hinrichs, J. (Eds.), Developing human resources (pp. 5–159). Washington, DC: BNA Books.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 87
  88. 88. Methods for Increasing Career MotivationTable 12-63. To build career identity a. Encourage work involvement through job challenge and professional growth b. Provide career development opportunities, such as leadership positions and advancement potential c. Reward solid performance through financial bonusSOURCE: From London, M. (1991). Career development. In Wexley, K. N., & Hinrichs, J. (Eds.), Developing human resources (pp. 5–159). Washington, DC: BNA Books.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 88
  89. 89. Career Plateauing• Is more complex than previously thought.• HRD professionals should – assess whether employees are plateaued by determining employees’ perceptions of the extent to which their careers are stalled – attempt to identify the reasons for the plateau – tailor the action used to resolve an employee’s problem according to the cause of the plateauCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 89
  90. 90. Career Development for Nonexempt Employees• Clerical and support staff and technicians – who are paid hourly or weekly rates – are entitled to overtimeCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 90
  91. 91. Development Needs of Nonexempt Employees• Job satisfaction often comes from the work itself, which is problematic if the work is repetitive and unchallenging• Changing current status (e.g., union to nonunion, blue collar to white collar) requires both a significant personal investment and a significant cultural adjustment – white-collar positions may require higher education levels than blue-collar positions – employees who cross the “collar line” may not receive the support they need from coworkersCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 91
  92. 92. Development Needs of Nonexempt Employees• Exempt employees may become more frustrated during their careers than exempt employees because opportunities to make a vertical transition are more limited for themCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 92
  93. 93. Some Options• Development resource center• Support for lifelong learning activities – tuition reimbursement for relevant courses – in-house seminarsCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 93
  94. 94. Enrichment• Career Development without Advancement – certification programs and mastery paths that specify selection criteria and identify performance expectations – training requirements to move through various levels of expertise within a job – retraining programs – job transfers or rotationCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 94
  95. 95. A Systems Approach to Creating a Career Development ProgramTable 12-7• Identify Needs 1. Link career development to business strategy 2. Align employee and organization needsSOURCES: Based on Leibowitz, Z. B., Farren, C., & Kaye, B. L. (1986). Designing career development systems. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, and Gutteridge, T. G., Leibowitz, Z. B., & Shore, J. E. (1993). Organizational career development: Benchmarks for building a world-class workforce. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 95
  96. 96. A Systems Approach to Creating a Career Development ProgramTable 12-7• Build a Vision for Change 1. Build systems and link them to other management and HR systems • quality initiatives, orientation, performance evaluation, compensation – Use a variety of tools and approaches.SOURCES: Based on Leibowitz, Z. B., Farren, C., & Kaye, B. L. (1986). Designing career development systems. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, and Gutteridge, T. G., Leibowitz, Z. B., & Shore, J. E. (1993). Organizational career development: Benchmarks for building a world-class workforce. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 96
  97. 97. A Systems Approach to Creating a Career Development ProgramTable 12-7• Develop a Plan for Action 1. Create a corporate infrastructure, but implement career development systems in individual business units or divisions 2. Ensure line manager participation, starting with system developmentSOURCES: Based on Leibowitz, Z. B., Farren, C., & Kaye, B. L. (1986). Designing career development systems. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, and Gutteridge, T. G., Leibowitz, Z. B., & Shore, J. E. (1993). Organizational career development: Benchmarks for building a world-class workforce. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 97
  98. 98. A Systems Approach to Creating a Career Development ProgramTable 12-7• Implement for Impact and Longevity 1. Hold line managers accountable and give them the skills they will need to fulfill their responsibilities. 2. Follow up initial implementation with a series of activities that keep career development salient • information sharing, career action teamsSOURCES: Based on Leibowitz, Z. B., Farren, C., & Kaye, B. L. (1986). Designing career development systems. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, and Gutteridge, T. G., Leibowitz, Z. B., & Shore, J. E. (1993). Organizational career development: Benchmarks for building a world-class workforce. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 98
  99. 99. A Systems Approach to Creating a Career Development ProgramTable 12-7• Evaluate and Maintain Results – Evaluate – Continuously improve the career development effort – Maintain high visibility and ongoing communication of career developmentSOURCES: Based on Leibowitz, Z. B., Farren, C., & Kaye, B. L. (1986). Designing career development systems. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, and Gutteridge, T. G., Leibowitz, Z. B., & Shore, J. E. (1993). Organizational career development: Benchmarks for building a world-class workforce. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.CH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 99
  100. 100. Enhancing Organizational Career Development Efforts1. Integrate individual developmental planning with organizational strategic planning2. Strengthen the linkages between career development and other HRM systems3. Move career development systems toward greater opennessCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 100
  101. 101. Enhancing Organizational Career Development Efforts4. Enhance the role of managers in career development through both skill building and accountability5. Develop and expand peer learning and other team-based developmental approaches6. Stress on-the-job development; deemphasize traditional training programs that are isolated, one-shot eventsCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 101
  102. 102. Enhancing Organizational Career Development Efforts7. Emphasize enrichment and lateral movement.8. Identify and develop transferable competencies9. Include values and lifestyle assessments in career development activities10. Implement a variety of career development approaches to accommodate different learning styles and the needs of a diverse workforce11. Tie career development directly to organizational quality initiativesCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 102
  103. 103. Enhancing Organizational Career Development Efforts12. Expand career development measure- ment and evaluation13. Continue to study best practices and organizational career development in a global contextCH-12 Copyright 2008 Werner et al 103
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