Capturing Social Rules    Andrew G. Waterman     Luis García BarriosEl Colegio de La Frontera Sur           ECOSUR San Cri...
Where we work•   La Sepultura•   Buffer Zone•   UNESCO MAB site                             Research station•   Mixed land...
Where We Work
Stakeholders• Landholders• Government Agencies• Campesinos• Academics• Conservationists
Issues in the Buffer Zone•   Desertification•   Deforestation•   Mis-management•   Contention/Competition•   Over-populatio...
“In brief, the main principle of the companion modeling (ComMod) approach is to develop simulation models integrating vari...
Models• Type I: Generality is sacrificed for precision  and realism• Type II: Realism is sacrificed for generality and  prec...
Models• Type III Models • Sacrifice of precision for realism and    generality  • May foster the development of realistic  ...
Models“The validation of a model is not that it is‘true’ but that it generates good testablehypotheses relevant to importa...
Gaming• A way of testing social hypotheses related to  a given model  • Brings divergent groups together  • Play can illus...
Simulation Games /     Model Games• Games themselves can really be seen as  their own types of models and understood  in a...
Companion modeling• “COMMOD” process • All Stakeholders Participate    • Greater buy-in from all parties• Areas of mutual ...
Companion modelingInitialization of Process                                         Field                      Analysis of...
Companion gaming• Use a Type III model for realistic ecology• Cellular automaton• Geo-socio-ecological: interaction of ear...
“a model, which is given kind of representationamong other possible ones, should bepresented in an explicit and transparen...
Models“The validation of a model is not that it is‘true’ but that it generates good testablehypotheses relevant to importa...
Companion gaming    Running type III Model as             game                                          Game              ...
Workshop
Workshop•   A potrero token must     •   A water token must be    be supported by 2 soil       supported by 2 forest    to...
Workshop
Packages
Enums
Model
Model Rules•   A potrero token must     •   A water token must be    be supported by 2 soil       supported by 2 forest   ...
Detail• Lack of detail between between the UML data  model and declarative rules• May make rules understandable to a non  ...
Detail• Can business rules, based upon a shared  data model, be easily presented? • Can this “holistic” model be understoo...
OMG’s PRR?•   Production Rule    Standard•   UML•   Visual modeling can    export to multiple    formats (ruleML)•   UML i...
OMG’s PRR?• Unfinished (working group) standard• Perhaps better suited for exchange? • Or deeper in process once actors can...
CORMAS UML
State Machine Diagrams        as Flow
Current Computerized Rule Based Games
Gente (People)
Sierra Springs
A social rules game.
Pasale Compadre
Pasale Compadre
Pasale Compadre• Slightly more complicated game than Gente  or Sierra Springs • In workshop players failed to enforce all ...
What are Social Rules?• Known as “working rules” in CPR• Govern how a social group interacts with a  common pool resource•...
Starter Social Rules• Players take turns developing land on the  board.  • When “a move was made whose player    does not ...
Starter Social Rules
Starter Social Rules• Players must play by quadrant • Assigned, Random or by a planned route • When “a move is made to an ...
Starter Social Rules
Starter Social Rules• Only a limited number of riparians (river  trees) can be harvested per game:  • When “a move harvest...
Starter Social Rules
Social Rules• Domain Specific Language Implementation • phrases are expressed in a DSL • rules are pre-baked into DSL • pla...
Agent Based Models• Games played that include social rules defined  by individual groups• Expected impact of such rules dis...
Companion Gaming•   Field Work Experiments   •   Agent Based Modeling    (2010,2011)                  of “opportunistic”  ...
Reproducibility• Interchange through Model  transformations• OCL• PRR• RuleML
Future• Exports to standardized formats• Greater interactive game sets • Social rule creation more deeply embedded• Using ...
Thank You   awaterma@ecosur.mx    lgarcia@ecosur.mxEl Colegio de La Frontera Sur
2010 Rules Fest Presentation
2010 Rules Fest Presentation
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2010 Rules Fest Presentation

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Presentation from Rules Fest in San Jose, California, 2010.

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2010 Rules Fest Presentation

  1. 1. Capturing Social Rules Andrew G. Waterman Luis García BarriosEl Colegio de La Frontera Sur ECOSUR San Cristóbal de Las Casas Chiapas, Mexico
  2. 2. Where we work• La Sepultura• Buffer Zone• UNESCO MAB site Research station• Mixed land-use surrounding protected watershed• History of government, NGO and academic involvement
  3. 3. Where We Work
  4. 4. Stakeholders• Landholders• Government Agencies• Campesinos• Academics• Conservationists
  5. 5. Issues in the Buffer Zone• Desertification• Deforestation• Mis-management• Contention/Competition• Over-population• Waste
  6. 6. “In brief, the main principle of the companion modeling (ComMod) approach is to develop simulation models integrating various stakeholders’ points of view and to use them within the context of the stakeholders’ platform for collective learning.This is a modeling approach in whichstakeholders participate fully in the construction of models to improve theirrelevance and increase their use for the collective assessment of scenarios. The general objective of ComMod is to facilitate dialogue, shared learning, and collective decision making through interdisciplinary and “implicated” research to strengthen the adaptive management capacity of local communities. By using such an approach, we expect to be in a better position to deal with the increased complexity of integrated natural resource management (INRM) problems, their evolving and continuous characteristics, and the increased rapidity of evolutions and changes in number of stakeholders.” [Gurung, Bousquet and Trébuil, E&S 11(2):36]
  7. 7. Models• Type I: Generality is sacrificed for precision and realism• Type II: Realism is sacrificed for generality and precision• Type III
  8. 8. Models• Type III Models • Sacrifice of precision for realism and generality • May foster the development of realistic “social rules” that govern the modeled resource
  9. 9. Models“The validation of a model is not that it is‘true’ but that it generates good testablehypotheses relevant to importantproblems.” [Richard Levin, 1966]
  10. 10. Gaming• A way of testing social hypotheses related to a given model • Brings divergent groups together • Play can illustrate how stakeholders relate • Application of social strategies to natural resource management problems
  11. 11. Simulation Games / Model Games• Games themselves can really be seen as their own types of models and understood in a theoretical framework (game theory)• Simulation games allow intermingling of different types of models• Through gaming, we can better understand population interactions and group impacts of working rules
  12. 12. Companion modeling• “COMMOD” process • All Stakeholders Participate • Greater buy-in from all parties• Areas of mutual concern may be included• Involves: • Field Workshops• Conference Workshops
  13. 13. Companion modelingInitialization of Process Field Analysis of the situation ModelComputerized Simulations Simulation Model development Role playing games/sessions
  14. 14. Companion gaming• Use a Type III model for realistic ecology• Cellular automaton• Geo-socio-ecological: interaction of earth/ water/forest/development• Realistic: cascading collapse• Support for working or “Social Rules”
  15. 15. “a model, which is given kind of representationamong other possible ones, should bepresented in an explicit and transparent way toavoid, as much as possible, the “black boxeffect” when it is proposed to users ...Intuitively, a MAS model could be seen as anRPG simulated by a computer”
  16. 16. Models“The validation of a model is not that it is‘true’ but that it generates good testablehypotheses relevant to importantproblems.” [Richard Levin, 1966]
  17. 17. Companion gaming Running type III Model as game Game Participants play existing model/game BRMS/RMS Model allowed torun with social rules as ABM. After effects seen, new ABM Social Rules rules proposed. added to game during play Social Rules discussed/iterated upon
  18. 18. Workshop
  19. 19. Workshop• A potrero token must • A water token must be be supported by 2 soil supported by 2 forest tokens in its SQUARE tokens in its SQUARE• A potrero token must • A forest token must be be supported by 1 supported by 2 forest forest token in its tokens in its CROSS OCTOGON• A soil token must be • A potrero token must supported by 1 forest have a path to water in token in its SQUARE its CROSS
  20. 20. Workshop
  21. 21. Packages
  22. 22. Enums
  23. 23. Model
  24. 24. Model Rules• A potrero token must • A water token must be be supported by 2 soil supported by 2 forest tokens in its SQUARE tokens in its SQUARE• A potrero token must • A forest token must be be supported by 1 supported by 2 forest forest token in its tokens in its CROSS OCTOGON• A soil token must be • A potrero token must supported by 1 forest have a path to water in token in its SQUARE its CROSS
  25. 25. Detail• Lack of detail between between the UML data model and declarative rules• May make rules understandable to a non software expert • But difficult to create new social rules dependent upon the data model• Can simulation/games be experiments, if rules are imprecise or unreproducible in different contexts?
  26. 26. Detail• Can business rules, based upon a shared data model, be easily presented? • Can this “holistic” model be understood by a diverse group of users? • Researchers? • Government analysts? • Campesinos/Peasants?
  27. 27. OMG’s PRR?• Production Rule Standard• UML• Visual modeling can export to multiple formats (ruleML)• UML is already used by domain experts (Cormas/ComMod)
  28. 28. OMG’s PRR?• Unfinished (working group) standard• Perhaps better suited for exchange? • Or deeper in process once actors can use and exchange UML?• A bit complex for our small community
  29. 29. CORMAS UML
  30. 30. State Machine Diagrams as Flow
  31. 31. Current Computerized Rule Based Games
  32. 32. Gente (People)
  33. 33. Sierra Springs
  34. 34. A social rules game.
  35. 35. Pasale Compadre
  36. 36. Pasale Compadre
  37. 37. Pasale Compadre• Slightly more complicated game than Gente or Sierra Springs • In workshop players failed to enforce all constraints of the ecological model • Using a computer automates constraint enforcement; allowing a greater focus on social interactions and governance • Computerization also allows quantitative analysis as sample sizes grow
  38. 38. What are Social Rules?• Known as “working rules” in CPR• Govern how a social group interacts with a common pool resource• Agreed upon explicitly by participants and known to all• Social rules work by queries and actions: • when x is true then do y
  39. 39. Starter Social Rules• Players take turns developing land on the board. • When “a move was made whose player does not have the turn” • Then: “forget the move ‘move’”
  40. 40. Starter Social Rules
  41. 41. Starter Social Rules• Players must play by quadrant • Assigned, Random or by a planned route • When “a move is made to an unavailable quadrant” • Then “forget the move ‘move’”
  42. 42. Starter Social Rules
  43. 43. Starter Social Rules• Only a limited number of riparians (river trees) can be harvested per game: • When “a move harvests a riparian over the limit” • Then “forget the move ‘move’”
  44. 44. Starter Social Rules
  45. 45. Social Rules• Domain Specific Language Implementation • phrases are expressed in a DSL • rules are pre-baked into DSL • players choose which apply• Considering how we can use UML models work with DSLs in a gaming context
  46. 46. Agent Based Models• Games played that include social rules defined by individual groups• Expected impact of such rules discussed before play• Run-time impact can be observed and discussed• Games can be run as by “opportunistic” agents to view impact of rules on selfish behavior
  47. 47. Companion Gaming• Field Work Experiments • Agent Based Modeling (2010,2011) of “opportunistic” strategy executing• Pasale Compadre against social rules• Suggested Social Rules • Evaluation of semantic changes in DSL BRMS’s• Collaborative Rule governing rules Modeling
  48. 48. Reproducibility• Interchange through Model transformations• OCL• PRR• RuleML
  49. 49. Future• Exports to standardized formats• Greater interactive game sets • Social rule creation more deeply embedded• Using SCM techniques available in BRMS for analyzing rule change over time • Techniques for automation
  50. 50. Thank You awaterma@ecosur.mx lgarcia@ecosur.mxEl Colegio de La Frontera Sur

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