Immunity in self-aware systems Professor Jon Timmis Department of Computer Science Department of Electronics York Centre for Complex Systems Analysis
ImmunityPlants and animals have immune systems to help protect and repair Images: Mark Coles
Swarming, FlockingApparent co-ordination of many individuals - no central control bbc.co.uk
Collective BehaviourCollectives work together to solve problems that one (or a few) can not manage on their own bbc.co.uk
Co-ordinationFire ﬂies appear to synchronise across a swarm youtube.com
“Swarm” immunity?immune cells acting together in an individual? Survival as a collective? bbc.co.uk
An engineering perspectiveBuilding systems that can cooperate to periods of timean individual canBuilding systems that operate for long perform tasks without human intervention is a challenge not do is also a challenge A swarm of robots Big dog boston dynamics; swarmanoid
An immune system for a robot? Sense and react to events external to the robot Sense and react to events internal to the robot and swarm Sense and react to internal and external events in an organism
An immune system sensing and reacting to the environmentWe live in hazardous environments. T cells are There are many hazardous environment we one line of defence. might like to monitor. Sniffer dog robot with an immune system for sensing and reaction
shaped environment with object placed randomly within the Simple tasks ... arena. Each robot is programmed with behaviour-based sub- sumption architecture . With this architecture, behaviour modules for a foraging task include obstacles avoidance moving to object, grab object, move to base, deposit, scan arena and random walk. These behaviours can be expressed with a ﬁnite state machine and is given in Fig. 4. A simulation starts with robots dispatched from the base to explore within Foraging the arena to ﬁnd, collect, and deposit attractors continuously until end of simulation or until all energy used. Initial energy is set to 15000 unit and energy consumption for each action per second is as follow: avoidance 0.9, randomWalk 0.8, moveTo- • Deﬁne behaviour behaviour Food 0.8, grabObject iagram for robot State d 1.2, scanArena 0.8, depositObject 1.2 as a FSM and moveToBase 0.8 unit. ObjectInGripper grabObject moveToObject GrabSuccess ObjectLost ObstacleDetected ObstacleDetected ObjectInSight Clear Clear moveToBase avoidance scanArenaSimula;on of foraging ObjectInSight ObstacleDetected ObstacleDetected AtBase ObstacleDetected Done InArena depositObject leaveBase randomWalk 13 Fig. 4. Finite state machine for behaviours of a robot in a foraging task.
A bit more complicatedKeeping a swarm of robots together State diagram to control a robot
Things can go wrongMaybe not as robust as we ﬁrst thought?
Collective repairThe immunecan exploit incomputer models of Which we can developmany responses Which we system has swarm robots
An individual immune system that monitors everyone else as well
Creating healthy robots and swarmsMade some initial advances, but we are a long way from really reliablerobots and swarms that can operate autonomouslyMake use of insights from immunology to help drive our technology Can a robot have an immune system? Yes, but not the same as you and I !!
Acknowledgements• University of York, Royal Society, European Commission, EPSRC, BBSRC, MRC, Dstl• Kieran Alden, Paul Andrews, Iain Bate, Lynette Beattie, Mark Coles, Richard Greaves, James Hilder, Pete Hickey, Rita Ismail, Paul Kaye, Vipin Kumar, Kelvin Lau, Tiong Lim, Alan Millard, Lachlan Murray, Daniel Moyo, Mark Neal, Jenny Owen, Nick Owens, Fiona Polack, Mark Read, Susan Stepney, Andy Tyrrell, Alan Winﬁeld, Richard Williams, Eva Quarnstrom