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Self-Awareness in Autonomic
Systems
Introduction
Outline
• Definition of autonomic systems
• Introductory examples
• Motivation
• Definition of self-awareness
• Existing s...
AUTONOMIC SYSTEMS
Definition/Circumscription
Autonomic Systems
• Self-governing, can operate free of external direction
• May be a single entity, or a network of entit...
AUTONOMIC SYSTEMS
Introductory examples
Robot Swarm
• A swarm of robots is used for
localizing and transporting
objects to a goal location
– e.g. for gardening in...
Robot Swarm
• Each robot has only limited battery resources
and should use as little energy as possible
• Each robot may f...
Science Cloud
• Consists of a collection of
notebooks, desktops, servers, or
virtual machines
– running a cloud platform /...
Science Cloud
• The science cloud
– is dynamically changing
• Participants may dynamically join or leave the cloud or just...
Cooperative E-Vehicles
• In a few years the e-mobile cars of a big town will be able to communicate
with
– each other and ...
Cooperative E-Vehicles
• Communication and cooperation between the entities of
the ensemble leads to better Quality of Ser...
MOTIVATION
Why awareness in ICT systems?
What is needed?
• In both cases, for networks’ self
management/organization we need:
– Mechanisms, which can enable the ne...
Why awareness in ICT systems?
• Huge explosion of the number of computers in our
technological environment.
• Nearly all o...
Why awareness in ICT systems? (2)
• Because all our devices are acquiring computing
power they can present various forms o...
Why awareness in ICT systems? (3)
• Why do we (=citizens) need intelligent systems at all?
– Cars
– Smartphones
– Computer...
NETWORKS
Introductory examples
Communication Networks
• People require to communicate
– Everywhere
– Every time
– From whatever device
• Communication ne...
Example of communication networks
• On September 24 2012, the whole network of the University
of Modena and Reggio Emilia,...
Communication networks control
• Human control is hard to be enacted
• Now, in case of problems, humans try to understand
...
Power Networks
• Current power networks rely mainly on big
companies, which generate and distribute energy
• The scenario ...
Power networks – a new scenario
• People can produce its own energy
• People can sell energy they do not use
– To their ne...
Power networks: renewable
• US Nationwide energy dispatch without (a) and with
(b) renewable contribution
• Source: Brinkm...
The new scenario’s issues
• The new scenario introduces some peculiarities
– The production is “distributed” among a possi...
Power network control
• But how this situation can be controlled?
• A human control
– Is difficult (many parameters, auton...
What is needed?
• In both cases, for networks’ self
management/organization we need:
– Mechanisms, which can enable the ne...
SELF-AWARENESS
Definition/Circumscription
Self-Awareness
•Term first appeared around
the start of the 20th century.
•Emerging field within
psychology, 1960s-1980s.
...
Levels of self-awareness
Self-awareness is not an “on
or off” capability!
•The self-awareness
capabilities of an individua...
Neisser's levels of self-awareness
1. Ecological self
(Awareness of internal or external stimuli).
2. Interpersonal self
(...
Computational self-awareness
taxonomy
NATURE
Existing “Self-Aware” Systems (source of inspiration)
Flocking
• Flocking is a kind of self-organising motion coordination
behaviour of a herd of animals of similar size and bo...
Ant Foraging
• Ant foraging is the activity where a
set of ants collaborate to find food.
• Ants coordinate their behaviou...
Quorum Sensing
• Examples:
– bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio Fischeri) found in some species of squids.
These bacteria sel...
Chemotaxis
• Chemotaxis is the phenomenon in which
single or multi-cellular organisms direct their
movements according to ...
Morphogenesis
• Morphogenesis is the biological process
that cause an organism to develop its
shape.
• In the biological m...
Gossiping
• Human social behaviour linked to
spreading rumours
• People add their own information to
information received ...
Self-Aware Systems in Nature
Fernandez-Marquez, J. L. Et al. Description and Composition of Bio-Inspired Design Patterns: ...
The Immune System
• Collection of organs and vast
numbers of cells responsible
for maintaining your health
• Includes figh...
Awareness in the immune system
• Recognizes to destroy only what is dangerous
• Bacteria in the gut not destroyed
• How do...
Immune system awareness
• Immune response is very heavily regulated.
– Positive reinforcements to support what it is doing...
Immune system operation
• Immune response manifests from many cell
interactions, and the body signaling damage
to itself
Immune system awareness
• Immune system monitors itself, what it is doing,
and whether that is causing harm or not.
• It i...
MAN-MADE
Existing “Self-Aware” Systems (source of inspiration)
The Internet
• The Internet
– At a low level
• Autonomous components
• Local decision making, local communication, sensed ...
Acknowledgment
The slides in this presentation were produced
with contributions from all participants of the
Awareness Sli...
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Industry Training: 01 Awareness Overview

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Transcript of "Industry Training: 01 Awareness Overview"

  1. 1. Self-Awareness in Autonomic Systems Introduction
  2. 2. Outline • Definition of autonomic systems • Introductory examples • Motivation • Definition of self-awareness • Existing self-aware systems – Natural – Man-made
  3. 3. AUTONOMIC SYSTEMS Definition/Circumscription
  4. 4. Autonomic Systems • Self-governing, can operate free of external direction • May be a single entity, or a network of entities acting together to achieve a goal • Often in complex, dynamic, uncertain environments • Must balance alternative actions, and select best to achieve goals
  5. 5. AUTONOMIC SYSTEMS Introductory examples
  6. 6. Robot Swarm • A swarm of robots is used for localizing and transporting objects to a goal location – e.g. for gardening in a large park or for cleaning a devastated or dangerous area • In difficult environments with holes, hills, obstacles, . . . the robots have to cooperate – e.g. for transporting an object, or – Passing an obstacle or climbing a steep hill
  7. 7. Robot Swarm • Each robot has only limited battery resources and should use as little energy as possible • Each robot may fail – Parts may break done – Malicious behaviour may destroy a robot • Partly failed robots may adapt their task and still provide some functionality – such as serving as a communication relay for normally working robots
  8. 8. Science Cloud • Consists of a collection of notebooks, desktops, servers, or virtual machines – running a cloud platform /application – communicating over the Internet (IP protocol), forming a cloud – providing data storage and distributed application execution • Every participant is – provider and possible user of resources – knows about • itself (properties set by developers), • its infrastructure (CPU load, available memory),and • other SCP is (acquired through the network)
  9. 9. Science Cloud • The science cloud – is dynamically changing • Participants may dynamically join or leave the cloud or just disappear from the cloud – is fail-safe • Continues working if one or several nodes fail – provides load balancing • By parallelly executing applications if the load is high, but not before that. – aims at energy conservation • virtual machines are shut down or are taken out of the configuration if not required
  10. 10. Cooperative E-Vehicles • In a few years the e-mobile cars of a big town will be able to communicate with – each other and the time tables of the users – traffic management servers, – battery loading stations, – parking lots, etc. • In such an ensemble, the communicating entities and users may pursue different goals and plans – several users may share cars, but have different time tables – Loading stations have only limited capabilities; so cars may not be able to use the nearest station for changing the battery
  11. 11. Cooperative E-Vehicles • Communication and cooperation between the entities of the ensemble leads to better Quality of Service w.r.t. – reliability • e.g. transport/delivery reliability, adherence to schedules, guarantee to reach the goal, recharging-in-time assurance – adaptability to changes • e.g. traffic flow, daily personal schedule of the driver – predictability of plans • confidence in reaching a desired location at a preferred time
  12. 12. MOTIVATION Why awareness in ICT systems?
  13. 13. What is needed? • In both cases, for networks’ self management/organization we need: – Mechanisms, which can enable the network to act on itself – Policies or goals, which leads the networks in taking decisions
  14. 14. Why awareness in ICT systems? • Huge explosion of the number of computers in our technological environment. • Nearly all our everyday devices are acquiring computing power and are being networked. • Being ubiquitous these devices are highly distributed and decentralized. • Being highly decentralized they are very difficult to manage and maintain stable and functional.
  15. 15. Why awareness in ICT systems? (2) • Because all our devices are acquiring computing power they can present various forms of intelligence and adaptability. • Becoming intelligent they could improve the services they offer and offer more innovative and elaborate services. • To become intelligent the devices have to perceive and understand what is happening in their environment and into themselves. • They would also need forms of anticipation.
  16. 16. Why awareness in ICT systems? (3) • Why do we (=citizens) need intelligent systems at all? – Cars – Smartphones – Computer networks, Internet – Domestic appliances and embedded environmental sensors and actuators – Networks of energy production – Infrastructures: roads, traffic lights, public transports, water supply, waste disposal, ... – Manufacturing & industrial processes – Etc.
  17. 17. NETWORKS Introductory examples
  18. 18. Communication Networks • People require to communicate – Everywhere – Every time – From whatever device • Communication networks are pervasive and at the same time very complex • They are subject to different problems – Congestions – Software failures – Hardware failures – Natural events (e.g., earthquakes and tsunamis)
  19. 19. Example of communication networks • On September 24 2012, the whole network of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, in Italy, was down all day long • The technicians worked to resume it, but the problem was that there no track of the failure in the logs • So, the technicians were completely unaware abut the failure reasons • Since the network was large and depended also on external providers, the work was hard and took two days to resume the network
  20. 20. Communication networks control • Human control is hard to be enacted • Now, in case of problems, humans try to understand and repair the problem, or to reorganize the network – It takes a lot of time and resources • Can a network try to prevent problems? • Can a network try to repair itself? • Can a network try to reorganize itself?
  21. 21. Power Networks • Current power networks rely mainly on big companies, which generate and distribute energy • The scenario is quickly changing: – Renewable energy (solar panels, wind turbines, …) – “Home-made” energy – Smart devices • This opens to a lot of opportunities, but requires an appropriate management
  22. 22. Power networks – a new scenario • People can produce its own energy • People can sell energy they do not use – To their neighbors in a peer-to-peer fashion • Renewable energy impacts positively on the environment • Smart devices can help in controlling the energy consumption and in providing us with information
  23. 23. Power networks: renewable • US Nationwide energy dispatch without (a) and with (b) renewable contribution • Source: Brinkman, Denholm, Drury, Margolis, and Mowers, “Toward a solar- powered grid,” Power and Energy Magazine, IEEE, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 24–32, 2011
  24. 24. The new scenario’s issues • The new scenario introduces some peculiarities – The production is “distributed” among a possibly large number of producers (or “prosumers” if they consume energy) – The production is subject to external conditions (e.g., weather) – Smart devices are better than old ones but must be coordinated • In general, we have a more dynamic and unpredictable scenario
  25. 25. Power network control • But how this situation can be controlled? • A human control – Is difficult (many parameters, autonomous entities, …) – Can be not impartial (big companies are self- interested) • Can a power network control itself?
  26. 26. What is needed? • In both cases, for networks’ self management/organization we need: – Mechanisms, which can enable the network to act on itself – Policies or goals, which leads the networks in taking decisions
  27. 27. SELF-AWARENESS Definition/Circumscription
  28. 28. Self-Awareness •Term first appeared around the start of the 20th century. •Emerging field within psychology, 1960s-1980s. •Various definitions, e.g. “The capacity to become the object of one's own attention” (Morin, 2006). “...knowledge of oneself as a defined entity, independent of other individuals...” (Legrain et al., 2010). Morin, A. (2006). Levels of consciousness and self-awareness: A comparison and integration of various neurocognitive views.Consciousness and Cognition, 15(2), 358-371. Legrain et al. (2010) Distinguising three levels of explicit self-awareness. Consciousness and cognition, doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2010.10.010
  29. 29. Levels of self-awareness Self-awareness is not an “on or off” capability! •The self-awareness capabilities of an individual can be described as being at one or more levels. •These levels range from very simplistic capabilities to highly complex ones.
  30. 30. Neisser's levels of self-awareness 1. Ecological self (Awareness of internal or external stimuli). 2. Interpersonal self (Awareness of interactions with others). 3. Extended self (Awareness of time: past and/or future). 4. Private self (Awareness of owns own thoughts, feelings, intentions). 5. Conceptual self (Awareness of ones own self-awareness, possession of an abstract model of oneself). The conceptual self has the capacity for “meta-self-awareness”, being aware that one is self-aware. See Neisser (1997). Neisser, U. (1997). The roots of self-knowledge: Perceiving self, it, and thou. In J. G. Snodgrass & R. L. Thompson (Eds.), The Self Across Psychology: Self-Recognition, Self-Awareness, and the Self-Concept (pp. 18–33). New York:New York Academy of Sciences.
  31. 31. Computational self-awareness taxonomy
  32. 32. NATURE Existing “Self-Aware” Systems (source of inspiration)
  33. 33. Flocking • Flocking is a kind of self-organising motion coordination behaviour of a herd of animals of similar size and body orientation, often moving in masse or migrating in the same direction and with a common group objective. Separation, alignment and cohesion (“Boids” model,Craig Reynolds, http://www.red3d.com/cwr/boids) S A C • Reynolds’s rules: 1. Cohesion (Flocking centering) 2. Separation (Obstacle avoidance) 3. Alignment (Velocity and direction matching) • Each individual adjusts its position, orientation and speed according to its nearest neighbours
  34. 34. Ant Foraging • Ant foraging is the activity where a set of ants collaborate to find food. • Ants coordinate their behaviour to find the shortest path from the nest to the food. Harvester ant (Deborah Gordon, Stanford University) • Ant colonies use a stigmergic communication means, i.e. ants modify the environment by depositing a chemical substance called pheromone. • This pheromone drives the behaviour of other ants in the colony, pheromone concentrations being used to recruit other ants. • Following the highest pheromone concentration, ants find the shortest path from the nest to the food, and adapt this path when obstacles appear or when food is depleted.
  35. 35. Quorum Sensing • Examples: – bioluminescent bacteria (Vibrio Fischeri) found in some species of squids. These bacteria self-organise their behaviour to produce light only when the density of the bacteria is sufficiently high. – Salmonella (Salmonella enterica). This bacteria wait until the density is enough to overcome the body defenses (coordinated attack). • QuorumSensing process is a type of intercellular signal used by bacteria to monitor cell density. • According to the cell density, a bacteria can coordinate collaborative behaviours, such as coordinated attack.
  36. 36. Chemotaxis • Chemotaxis is the phenomenon in which single or multi-cellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals gradient present in their environment. • Examples in nature include: – leukocyte cells moving towards a region of a bacterial inflammation, or – bacteria migrating towards higher concentrations of nutrients.
  37. 37. Morphogenesis • Morphogenesis is the biological process that cause an organism to develop its shape. • In the biological morphogenetic process some cells create and modify molecules which diffuse, creating gradients of molecules. • The spatial organisation of such gradients is the morphogenesis gradient, which is used by the cells to differentiate the role that they play inside the body., e.g. in order to produce cell differentiations. • The behaviour of each cell depends on the relative spatial position of other cells.
  38. 38. Gossiping • Human social behaviour linked to spreading rumours • People add their own information to information received from other people, increasing their knowledge and spreading this knowledge further. • When the process is repeated several times, people start to share the same knowledge that results from the sharing of the knowledge of different people.
  39. 39. Self-Aware Systems in Nature Fernandez-Marquez, J. L. Et al. Description and Composition of Bio-Inspired Design Patterns: a complete overview. Natural Computing.
  40. 40. The Immune System • Collection of organs and vast numbers of cells responsible for maintaining your health • Includes fighting bacteria, viruses, fungi
  41. 41. Awareness in the immune system • Recognizes to destroy only what is dangerous • Bacteria in the gut not destroyed • How does the immune system know to attack the harmful, and not the self? • How does autoimmunity manifest? • … and why do most people not get sick when there are autoimmune cells in all of us?
  42. 42. Immune system awareness • Immune response is very heavily regulated. – Positive reinforcements to support what it is doing – Negative feedbacks to prevent potentially harmful actions • Immune cells recognize pathogens • Immune cells that recognize other immune cells
  43. 43. Immune system operation • Immune response manifests from many cell interactions, and the body signaling damage to itself
  44. 44. Immune system awareness • Immune system monitors itself, what it is doing, and whether that is causing harm or not. • It is aware of its own actions, and their consequences. • Based on this, it can change what it is doing. • This awareness is… – Distributed: cells & organs throughout the body. – Decentralized and self-organizing: No one cell/organ dictates – Flexible: response can change over time
  45. 45. MAN-MADE Existing “Self-Aware” Systems (source of inspiration)
  46. 46. The Internet • The Internet – At a low level • Autonomous components • Local decision making, local communication, sensed local environment • Rues that can change over time • Packet transmission based on a notion of fairness – At a high level • “Winfield Test” • Anthropomorphise interaction – “Does the Internet know who I am?”
  47. 47. Acknowledgment The slides in this presentation were produced with contributions from all participants of the Awareness Slides Factory.
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