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Alois Ferscha's talk from the Awaerness Inter-Project Day, Bologna, January 2012.

Alois Ferscha's talk from the Awaerness Inter-Project Day, Bologna, January 2012.

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  • 1. From Awareness to AdaptationLarge Scale Recognition and Opportunistic Configuration Alois Ferscha AWARENESS Workshop Faculty of Engineering of the University of Bologna viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna January 23, 2012 (supported by the EC under the FP7 FET grant AWARENESS) Univ. Prof. Dr. Alois Ferscha Universität Linz, Institut für Pervasive Computing Altenberger Straße 69, A-4040 Linz ferscha@soft.uni-linz.ac.at
  • 2. Connectedness: Late 90s – Early 2000s Connecting literally every-“thing” to every-“thing” driven by the availability of “technology to connect” >> Networks of ICT systems (Internet, Mobile Data, Wireless Communications) •  clouds of communicating, miniaturized, cheap, fast, powerful, wirelesslyIEEE Pervasive Computing: connected, “always on” systems (omnipresent / total connectivity)Weiser’s Vision 20 YearsLater, Vol. 11, No. 1, January- •  enabled by the massive availability of miniaturized computing, storage,March 2012. communication, and embedded systems technologies •  sensors collect data, passive interaction with environment; actuators control devices, can modify environment •  sensor-actuator systems invert role of interaction from human to machine (implicit interaction) •  special purpose computing and information appliances, spontaneously communicating •  organism like capabilities (self-configuration, self-healing, self-optimizing, self- protecting) Weiser, M.: The Computer for the 21st Century. Scientific American. September, 1991, 94-104. IEEE Pervasive Computing: Weiser’s Vision 20 Years Later, Vol. 11, No. 1, January-March 2012.Awareness >> Adaptation // AWARENESS Workshop, Bologna // January 23, 2012 // 2 Alois Ferscha
  • 3. Awareness: Early – Mid 2000s Aware interaction among every-“thing”s driven by upcoming context recognition and knowledge processing technologies >> Ecologies of ICT systems •  situation aware, self-aware, context-aware, energy-aware, etc.IEEE Pervasive Computing: •  reframing autonomy to be based on “knowledge”, extracted from low level sensorWeiser’s Vision 20 YearsLater, Vol. 11, No. 1, January- data captured in a particular situation or over long periods of timeMarch 2012. •  “autonomic elements” able to capture, interpret, predict, context (from sensors) •  to build up, represent, carry and share knowledge •  to self-describe, -manage, and –organize with respect to the environment •  behaviour >> “knowledge based” monitoring, analyzing, planning and executing •  interaction in spontaneous spatial/temporal contexts, based on proximity, priority, privileges, capabilities, interests, offerings, environmental conditions, etc. Schilit, B., Adams, N. and Want, R.: Context-Aware Computing Applications, Mobile Computing Systems and Applications, 1994. WMCSA 1994, Vol., No., pp.85-90, 8-9 Dec. 1994. Dey, A. K.: Understanding and Using Context. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 2001. Vol. 5, No 1, 4-7. Kephart, J.O. and Chess, D.M.: The vision of autonomic computing, IEEE Computer, Vol. 36, No.1, pp. 41- 50, Jan 2003.Awareness >> Adaptation // AWARENESS Workshop, Bologna // January 23, 2012 // 3 Alois Ferscha
  • 4. Smartness: Mid 2000s - Present “Meaningful” interaction of every-“thing”s within a complex system build upon connectedness and awareness, but give meaning to situations / actions >> “Smartness” •  use technical sensors (aligned with 5 human senses) forIEEE Pervasive Computing: vision, audition, gustation, olfaction, tactition to give meaning to situationsWeiser’s Vision 20 YearsLater, Vol. 11, No. 1, January- •  computational perception > to extract meaning ...March 2012. •  understanding patterns (activity, mobility, „life style“) > to extract meaning ... •  formalization of human cognitive capabilities: attention, intent, emotions, experience, ... •  relate meaning to building up belief, acting, expectation, memorizing, learning, developing behaviour, building up knowledge Castellani B, Hafferty FW. Sociology and complexity science: A new field of science. New York, NY: Springer; 2009. Pentland, A.S.: Socially Aware Computation and Communication. IEEE Computer Volume 38, Issue 3, March 2005.Awareness >> Adaptation // AWARENESS Workshop, Bologna // January 23, 2012 // 4 Alois Ferscha
  • 5. Pervasive Adaptation Research Agenda (www.perada.eu) Request a Printed Copy: http://www.pervasive.jku.at/rab/order/ See fet11 Presentation Videos: http://www.pervasive.jku.at/fet11Awareness >> Adaptation // AWARENESS Workshop, Bologna // January 23, 2012 // 5 Alois Ferscha
  • 6. ”Socio-Technical Fabric” Highly complex, orchestrated, cooperative and coordinated systems •  “Ensembles of Digital Artefacts” (FP7 FET), “the power of crowds” •  Rephrased in Weiser-words: “Pervasive ICT will be weaving social and technological phenomena into the ‘fabric of everyday life of societies. ” •  "... dynamic network of many … acting in parallel …” “… constantly acting and reacting to what the other are doing …” “… where the control tends to be highly dispersed and decentralized …” “… if there is to be any coherent behavior, it has to arise from competition / cooperation.“ “… overall behavior of the system is the result of a huge number of decisions made every moment by many individuals …" (Castellani, B., Haerty, F.W., 2009). •  deployment of pervasive computing systems at massive scale poses challenges both in the technological as well as in the societal dimension! 1012 -1013 “things” or “goods” traded in markets 109 humans; 109 nodes on the internet, mobile phones, cars, digital cameras, etc. on planet 107 citizens in megacities, 108 users on Facebook, 108 videos on YouTube, 107 titles on last.fm, ... A. Ferscha, N. Davies, A. Schmidt, N. Streitz: Pervasive Socio-Technical Fabric. Procedia Computer Science. Elsevier, Vol. 7, pp. 88-91, Dec. 2011.Awareness >> Adaptation // AWARENESS Workshop, Bologna // January 23, 2012 // 6 Alois Ferscha
  • 7. A Critique on “Non-Social” ICT “working in the small”, severe deficiencies “in the large”Awareness >> Adaptation // AWARENESS Workshop, Bologna // January 23, 2012 // 7 Alois Ferscha
  • 8. A Critique on “Non-Social” ICT “working in the small”, severe deficiencies “in the large” Personal Communication (email, social network software, …) >> ?? Personal ICT (smartphones, appliances, gadgets, … ) >> ?? Individual Mobility (automotive vehicles, airplanes, public transp., … ) >> ?? Logistics (transportation of goods, energy, … ) >> ?? Mass Media (print, TV, e-paper, digital video, … ) >> ?? Common: None has been designed on “Social Grounds” !Awareness >> Adaptation // AWARENESS Workshop, Bologna // January 23, 2012 // 8 Alois Ferscha
  • 9. What is Socially „Capable“ ICT? What are the Social Capabilities of your Car ? Espresso Machine ? Shoes ?Awareness >> Adaptation // AWARENESS Workshop, Bologna // January 23, 2012 // 9 Alois Ferscha
  • 10. What is Socially „Capable“ ICT? “We need to understand that traffic is not just a line of are the a web of What cars: It is connections. A real solution will look at relationships across the entire road network and all the other systems that are touched by it: our supply chains, our Social Capabilities environment, our companies, the way people and communities live and work…“ IBM Global Commuter Pain Study, 2010 of your “The possibility is quite high, that if a lot of people power off all lights at the same Car ? time and back on 5 minutes later, pumped hydro storage wont be enough to satisfy the enormous spike, resulting in substations taking their last breath.” Is Brazil’s Mega-Blackout A Harbinger Of Energy Grid Disasters to Come? Io9-com, 2009 Espresso Machine ? Mass Panic Jan 2006, Mekka Shoes ? Sep 2005, Bagdad May 2001, Accra Apr 2001, Johannesburg Jun 2000, Roskilde Dec 1999, Innsbruck Jul 1990, Mekka Apr 1989, Sheffield Duisburg Loveparade, 2010Awareness >> Adaptation // AWARENESS Workshop, Bologna // January 23, 2012 // 10 Alois Ferscha
  • 11. Socio-Inspired ICT Context Context Aware ICT “… is any information that can be used to characterize the situation of an entity. An entity is a person, place, or object that is considered relevant to the interaction between a user and an application, including the user and application themselves.” [1] Seminal work on context modeling, context recognition, context awareness by A. Dey Socially Social Context Aware ICT „... is the additional non-verbal information (e.g. signals from the body language, facial expression, and tone of voice, etc.) transmitted among communicating people, and which is the main determinant of a successful social interaction and engagement.” [2] Seminal work on cognitive and social analysis of human communication by A. Pentland Socially “ .. all social relations, social interactions and social situations which are directly Interactive ICT related to or confined to small time-intervals and space-regions around the present time or present location of a person”. [3] Socio- Socially Aware Computing Inspired ICT „... instead of considering each device for itself, look at them as a socially collaborating collective ...” [4] [1] Dey, A. K.: Understanding and Using Context. Personal and Ubiquitous Computing 2001. Vol. 5, No 1, 4-7. [2] Pentland, A.: Socially Aware Computation and Communication. IEEE Computer Volume 38, Issue 3, March 2005, 33–40. [3] Groh, G., et.al.: . Applications for social situation models. In Proc. of the IADIS Int. Conf. on Wireless Applications and Computing. 2010. [4] Lukowicz, P., Pentland, A. and Ferscha, A..: From Context Awareness to Socially Interactive Computing, IEEE Pervasive, Vol. 11, No 1. 2012.Awareness >> Adaptation // AWARENESS Workshop, Bologna // January 23, 2012 // 11 Alois Ferscha
  • 12. Socio-Inspired ICT Understanding the hidden laws and processes of society Inspire the development of a new wave of robust, trustworthy and adaptive ICT based on the principles of social interactions. !Awareness >> Adaptation // AWARENESS Workshop, Bologna // January 23, 2012 // 12 Alois Ferscha
  • 13. Example Socio-Inspired ICT :: Social Cars (SOCIONICAL)Sensor/Tactor Seat: Supporting Lane Change Safety by Extending the Perception Range MAIN ROAD outermost/upper lane middle lane innermost lane 45) LANE (PM LOWER ROAD MERGING innermost lane middle lane outermost lane Sensor/Tactor Seat 1,000m Madrid M30 Motorway 500m 100m Perception range for early lane changes M30 Motorway Traffic Patterns Merging Flow Optimization A. Riener, K. Zia, A. Ferscha, C. Beltran Ruiz, J. Minguez Rubio: AmI technology helps to sustain speed while merging – A data driven simulation study on Madrid motorway ring M30. 14th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Distributed Simulation and Real Time Applications (DS-RT 2010), Fairfax, VA USA, IEEE Computer Society Press, pp. 10, October 2010.
  • 14. Example Socio-Inspired ICT :: Social Sense App (SOCIONICAL)Awareness >> Adaptation // AWARENESS Workshop, Bologna // January 23, 2012 // 14 Alois Ferscha
  • 15. Example Socio-Inspired ICT :: Social Displays (SAPERE) Scale m displays : n users Content User-profiles Presentation Service LSAs Scheduling Service Steering Service Destination Field DIFFUSE BOND-TARGET BOND-MATCH CREATE-STUB EXPORT-STUB Eco-Laws MERGE-STUB EXPORT-SKEL MERGE-SKEL SHORTEST YOUNGEST Content ! User profile Scheduling Service ! Content Scheduling Service ! Pres. Service Matcher Presentation Service ! Content Steering Service ! Scheduling Service Steering Service ! Destination Field Both public and private displays are SAPERE nodes that advertise their presence by pumping a computational field throughout the Nodes ecosystem. This fields are used by the steering service for path computation.Awareness >> Adaptation // AWARENESS Workshop, Bologna // January 23, 2012 // 15 Alois Ferscha
  • 16. Socio-Inspired ICT Research Challenges Social Values: Novel ICT: Ethics Moral Norm Socio-Inspired ICT Microelectronics Sensors / Effectors Smart Material Social Awareness Social Behaviour Social Media Social Interaction Participatory Platforms. Value Based Design Cognitive Capabilities Big Data (Respect, Dignity, Trust) Reality Mining Recommender Systems ICT with Social Capabilities ICT w. Cognitive Capabilities (Needs Fundamental Research) Formal / (Needs Fundamental Research) Computational Models Social Adaptiveness, Self- of Attention, Perception, Meaning Organization Cooperation, Competition Belief, Trust Conflict Resolution “Social Context” Experience Negotiation, Decision Making Expectation Reputation “Social Awareness” “Principles of Social Interaction” Empathy Collective Awareness Narration “Social Sense” Attraction/Repulsion Flocking/Foraging “Social Norm” Goal Oriented Behavior Morphogenesis/ChemotaxisAwareness >> Adaptation // AWARENESS Workshop, Bologna // January 23, 2012 // 16 Alois Ferscha
  • 17. Socio-Inspired ICT Vision (1) New ICT could contribute to gather (2) New ICT could be designed to gain direct, accurate and intelligible from “socially inspired” system information on how an individual architectures and operation principles experiences social relations >> foundational character of a >> foundational character of “Social Sense” “Socially Capable/Adaptive ICT”Awareness >> Adaptation // AWARENESS Workshop, Bologna // January 23, 2012 // 17 Alois Ferscha