Are homes smart if they are aware?


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Invited talk by Marco Aiello at the 2nd Awareness Workshop on Challenges for Achieving Self-awareness in Autonomic Systems @ SASO 2012, Lyon, France

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Are homes smart if they are aware?

  1. 1. Are Homes Smart if they are Aware?Marco Aiello September 10, 2012 1
  2. 2. Being aware of the presence 2
  3. 3. Being aware of the presence 2
  4. 4. Being aware of the presence 2
  5. 5. ✦ Sensor data provides basic context components✦ Architectures taking advantage of awareness✦ User expresses goals, explicitly or implicitly 3
  6. 6. Some sensing today 4
  7. 7. Some sensing today... and is all getting networked 4
  8. 8. Nest Thermostat 5
  9. 9. ✦ So we have the basic blocks for being aware, but...✦ How do we become smart?✦ How does the user take advantage of this? 6
  10. 10. What is a smart home? 7
  11. 11. What is a smart home? A home is smart when, being aware of its own state and that of its users, is capable of controlling itself in order to support the users wishes, thus improving their quality of life. 7
  12. 12. What can it do? 8
  13. 13. What can it do? It understands (user) goals and it can satisfy them. 8
  14. 14. 9
  15. 15. 9
  16. 16. 10
  17. 17. Is controlled by thoughts 10
  18. 18. Is controlled by thoughts Reacts to dangers 10
  19. 19. Is controlled by thoughts Reacts to dangers It saves your life 10
  20. 20. Is controlled by thoughts Reacts to dangers It saves your life Reminds you of pills 10
  21. 21. User layer Composition Layer Rule Engine Goal Domain descriptio ContextRepository Composition Context Awareness Plan Discovery Orchestration Pervasive layer 11
  22. 22. Context›❯ Context reflects the state of the house, based on the information collected by the sensors›❯ Represented as the values of all variables describing the house • E.g. temperature_in_kitchen=30 C, lamp1=ON, location_of_user = in_bedroom›❯ Keep up-to-date about the changing context through a publish-subscribe notification mechanism 12
  23. 23. Composition›❯ Domain-independent AI planning based on constraint satisfaction›❯ A composition is generated on-the-fly, depending on the available services 13
  24. 24. Composition›❯ Input of the planner: • Domain description (from the repository): atomic service operations seen as actions with pre- conditions and effects • The current context (initial state) • A goal to be achieved, issued either by the user or the house (rule engine)›❯ Output: • a sequence of actions-services that when executed satisfy the goal 14
  25. 25. Two actions 15
  26. 26. Goal Language›❯ Extended goal language to express complex requests›❯ House domain and goal are encoded via constraints›❯ The planning problem is translated to a constraint solving problem›❯ Re-planning can be performed in case a service is out of order 16
  27. 27. Goals 17
  28. 28. Plans 18
  29. 29. Implementation›❯ 1.83 Ghz computer running Debian lenny, 32 bit and Java 1.6.0_12.›❯ The constraint solver standing at the core of the planner is the Choco v2.1.1 constraint solving library›❯ Model a home with 5 rooms, and 10 devices providing 21 UPnP action 19
  30. 30. Evaluation 20
  31. 31. Discussion++›❯ Automatic, run-time, user-centric synthesis instead of hard-wired process descriptions [all we need is atomic descriptions, completely loosely-coupled]›❯ Planner supports complex goals, variables with large domains (e.g. temperature)›❯ Dynamic constraint network: efficient continual addition-removal of constraints according to context changes 21
  32. 32. Discussion--›❯ Efficiency: heuristics have to be improved for the system to scale›❯ Incomplete pruning of irrelevant actions in some cases›❯ React differently according to the kinds of faults›❯ Concurrency issues (e.g. events interfering with execution) 22
  33. 33. Making a home sm4all 23
  34. 34. User layer Composition Layer Rule Engine Goal Domain descriptio ContextRepository Composition Context Awareness Plan Discovery Orchestration Pervasive layer 24
  35. 35. 25
  36. 36. 26
  37. 37. Evaluation Evaluation at THFL (Leeuwarden)Evaluation with Master Students (Groningen) Physical test home at FSL (Rome) 27
  38. 38. Evaluation Evaluation at THFL (Leeuwarden) 23 Touch 8 BCI, average age > 71Evaluation with Master Students (Groningen) 30 Touch, average age > 25 Physical test home at FSL (Rome) with EU project officers 27
  39. 39. 28 28
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  41. 41. 30
  42. 42. S M 4 L LFrom Thoughts to ActionsHaje Haisma (1942-2011) Translated by Marco Aiello, 2011 February 2011 t was in the spring of 2009 that via From the reception area, I had a pretty researchers were Italian and could only Tineke Hijma of the Tuiszorg Het dismal view of proud leftovers of the communicate in English with me.If one FrieseLand I was asked wether I HTS (HogeTechnischeSchool, a wants a TV to be turned on in thewould participate in a European project secondary Dutch technical degree virtual home, for example, it isthat can help people with limited awarding institution) with its mighty necessary that the computer ``knows’’mobility via domotics to be more steam engine where I had laid many that one is thinking “now TV,’’independent at home. Initially, I thought footsteps in the past on my way to the otherwise after a while nothingthat the SM4All (Smart Homes for All) Traffic Engineering lectures. A steam happens. Before the system can start, itproject would be more in the medical engine as the symbol of the first must be first connected to my brain.area, but this later appeared to be not industrial revolution and so different This is done as in the hospital with anthe case. SM4All is actually about how a from the computers chips that have EEG that can registercomputer-networked system in a home brought so many changes in the second electroencephalographic modulations.can satisfy specific user wishes that have half of the last century in manysome form of disability without the technologies, including things of daily After an explanation of the test, I got thenecessity for the person to physically use such as cars and washing machines. equipment on. I was sitting in front of aact. If I would be living in such a smarthome and someone would ring thedoorbell, I could think `now open thedoor’ as an instruction and thecomputer system would capture suchinstruction and effectively open thedoor. The fact that I initially thought ofa medical project was not un-logicalsince the interview that was performedin the following summer was mostlyabout my physical condition and itsconsequences. But the closing questionwas in the computer world, namely:``what kind of automation would youlike to have in your home if you coulddecide?’’ All the interviews have thenbeen collected, analyzed and theconclusions discussed during aworkshop in Madrid. For THFL wasthen also Tineke Hijma one of the Haisma during the second day of evaluation with the brain computer interface on.participants.First day And after the internet hype around the display with a brown dot in the middle, turn of the millennium, we perceive the an interface on my head taped over withAfter the holidays I received a call from revelations of Wiki Leaks as the sign of a kind of bathing cap and with 16Johanna Rinsma, the Team-manager of the approach of a new era.The lounge of electrodes that were linked to theSpecial Services at THFL, who wanted the night-care rooms of THFL was set system and a band around the chest justto follow up on the interview of 2009 up as a test area where many wires, under the armpits. The test could begin.and discuss the possibilities for me to monitors and laptops were ready for me On the screen all letters and numberstake part in the second phase of the and anticipated the entrance of a new appeared and at the top was the wordproject. The time was such that what virtual world. During the test trials the water. Water could be written byhad been researched was now ready to nurses Willy van der Brink and Dini counting how often the letter W was inbe tested. The evaluation would take Sieswerda were present to guide the the first place while all letters andplace at the premises of THFL in two participants, when necessary, to help numbers were flashing on the screensessions in different days. I was with the translation of instructions from quite rapidly: it was a question of goodexpected to go on November 18th, 2010. English to Dutch as the present concentration to stay focused for 31Sm4All project 1 31
  43. 43. 32
  44. 44. Electricity Awareness 33
  45. 45. User Awareness Energy-aware Middleware Event-based, Service-Oriented, OrchestratingService Composition layer Context User control Actuation Activity User interaction, control, feedback Actuation & Building Context Information User InterfaceUbiquitous System layer Occupant behavior Component interactions User control Ubiquitous Sensing 34
  46. 46. Heat flow Awareness 35
  47. 47. Greener Buildings✦ Combine electricity, user and heat flow awareness✦ Control to save energy✦ Couple with Smart Grid Dynamic pricing to save money 36
  48. 48. 37
  49. 49. 38
  50. 50. 38
  51. 51. Energy savings over a week (about 10%) 39
  52. 52. Cost savings over a week (about 35%) 40
  53. 53. A note on the Smart Grid✦ The implication of having aware self controlling buildings and renewable energy sources will make also the Power Grid a self organizing system 41
  54. 54. Network Evolutions Copying modelRandom Graph Random Graph Power Law Preferential Attachment RMat Kronecker model Small World Forest fire 42
  55. 55. Decision Support forPlanning the Smart Grid 43
  56. 56. Are homes smart if they are aware?✦ Smartness requires awareness✦ Need for integrated architectures✦ Awareness alone won’t provide for smartness 44
  57. 57. 45
  58. 58. Smartness is nothing without Awareness 45
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