The vietnam war 2014
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The vietnam war 2014

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  • Kennedy’s advisors were clearly fighting a covert war by 1963. <br /> MacNamara has suggested that he believes Kennedy would have pulled the U.S. out, but evidence in inconclusive. <br /> JFK realizes Diem is a liability; offers quiet support to a Vietnamese military coup d’etat. <br /> The coup results in the brutal murders of Diem and his brother <br /> The Vietnamese generals overthrow one another. A relatively stable, but tyrannical government emerges. It is little better than Diem’s. <br />
  • What Johnson told Congress <br /> What he didn’t tell Congress: <br /> He had already written the resolution before the “incident.” <br /> The U.S. naval vessels were aiding ARVN in commando raids in North Vietnam at the time. <br /> He learned that the attack probably hadn’t occurred. <br /> The U.S. navy was not on the “high seas” but in N. Vietnam’s 12 mile territorial limit. <br />
  • Kennedy’s advisors were clearly fighting a covert war by 1963. <br /> MacNamara has suggested that he believes Kennedy would have pulled the U.S. out, but evidence in inconclusive. <br /> JFK realizes Diem is a liability; offers quiet support to a Vietnamese military coup d’etat. <br /> The coup results in the brutal murders of Diem and his brother <br /> The Vietnamese generals overthrow one another. A relatively stable, but tyrannical government emerges. It is little better than Diem’s. <br />
  • Diversion of capital to the war indirectly caused economic recession: 11% inflation and 12% unemployment! <br />

The vietnam war 2014 The vietnam war 2014 Presentation Transcript

  • The Vietnam War 1954 - 1975
  • U.S. begins involvement  Domino Theory – if South Vietnam fell to communism, neighboring countries would also fall to communism like a row of dominos  Resisting communism in South Vietnam might prevent this collapse
  • President Kennedy 1960-1963 z Kennedy sent aid and Military Advisors to assist South Vietnam z z Requested by South Vietnamese Govt. JFK felt democracy in South Vietnam would serve as a model to other developing Asian, African, and Latin American countries President Kennedy
  • z z z z President Johnson 1963-1968 Under President Johnson, the U.S. would become deeply involved in Vietnam U.S. ships were attacked by the North Vietnamese in international waters Congress passed The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution in 1964 Congress voted to give Johnson full military, “blank check”, powers to stop North Vietnam aggression due to attacks.
  • Johnson escalates the Congress never officially declared war War Johnson used the Gulf of Tonkin • • Resolution to escalate (increase) the war LBJ ordered massive bombings raids over North Vietnam and sent more troops By 1968 - 500,000 U.S. soldiers in Vietnam New Weapons • • • • • Napalm – sticky gasoline-based jelly that burns; great damage Agent Orange – herbicide killed jungle cover used by VC President Johnson
  • 1968 - The Tet Offensive z Vietcong launched massive simultaneous offensive throughout South z z z Vietcong committed brutal acts of terror against South Vietnam officials American forces finally beat back the offensive z z z Seizing capital city of Saigon Turning point in the war Demonstrated to American public that victory was on the way Disproved the rhetoric of the US govt that the Vietcong were weak, under supplied, disorganized and low in morale
  • The Tet Offensiv e
  • 1968 - The Tet Offensive
  • z 1968 - The Tet Offensive Roy Benavidez 1935-1998 (CLICK HIS NAME FOR VIDEO-stop at 4 min) z z z z z z Born in Cuero, TX Master Sergeant in the Army Special Forces Facing constant fire, carried wounded members of his platoon to rescue-helicopters Critically wounded, Benavidez refused to stop gathering survivors Benavidez saved the lives of 8 men Awards z z z Distinguished Service Cross for heroism Congressional Medal of Honor by President Ronal Reagan in 1981 Benavidez dies in San Antonio in 1998
  • Anti-War Movement z z z z z z Media has a great influence in shaping public opinion Newspapers, radio, television First time America audiences could watch WAR President Johnson (LBJ) told U.S. public they were winning the war Journalist reported different story “Credibility Gap” is the name given when Americans lost faith in their government’s reliability on telling the truth about Vietnam War
  • Anti-War Movement z z z z z z z z z z z z Disconnect among young Americans who objected their country’s involvement in Vietnam Mass anti-war movements occurred from 1965 until the end of the war in 1975 Protesters burned draft cards, marched in Washington DC, held rallies and staged demonstrations By 1968, millions of young Americans actively protested the war Anti-War movement influenced Military policy American “doves” Wanted U.S. withdraw from Vietnam Saw war as a civil war between North and South Vietnam Believed U.S. leaders were acting immorally by bombing civilians and burning villages American “hawks” Supported the war Believed it was an attempted to protect South Vietnam from Communist takeover
  • z z President Nixon Republican President Richard Nixon was 1969-1973 elected in 1969 Reasons for winning elections z Division among Democratic Party z Assassination of Robert Kennedy (younger brother to JFK) z Staunch anti-communist z Promised Americans “peace with honor” in Vietnam z However war dragged on for 5 more years z Henry Kissinger aided Nixon z Introduced “Vietnamization” z Increased bombings and diplomacy
  • Vietnamization Vietnamization – South Vietnam Army gradually took over the brunt fighting allowing U.S. forces withdrawal, same time increase bombing of North Vietnam and provide military aid to South Vietnam Nixon’s Vietnam Policy Invasion of Cambodia – Nixon believed war would shorten if supply routes (Ho Chi Minh Trail) from North to South could be cut. 1970 U.S. invaded Cambodia Diplomatic Overtures – Nixon negotiated with Vietnam’s communist allies (China and Soviet Union) to put pressure on North Vietnam
  • z Nixon – Public Anti-War Increased with bombing of INCREASES Cambodia z 1969 – National guardsmen shoot and kill 4 students demonstrating at Kent State, Ohio z College campuses across the nation close due to student demonstrations z Student engaged in mass marches on Washington D.C. and other major cities Kent State University
  • z Nixon – Public Anti-War Nixon and VP Agnew insisted most Americans INCREASES supported the war z “Silent Majority” is what they called them z Exchanges between anti-war and pro-war supporters became violent z Pentagon Papers z leaked documents in 1971 New York Times z revealed several Presidents before Nixon LIED to America about Vietnam (goes back to “credibility gap”) z President felt Vietnam could not be won but didn’t want the disgrace of defeat with their Presidency
  • Anti-War Demonstration s Student Protestors at Univ. of CA in Berkeley, 1968 Democratic Convention in Chicago, 1968
  • The Fall of Saigon z Vietnamization gradually reduced U.S. armed forces in Vietnam z 1973 – Kissinger led negotiators in Paris to work a cease-fire agreement with North Vietnam z Nixon agreed to pull out all remaining U.S. troops from Vietnam if North Vietnam would release U.S. prisoners of war z After U.S. withdrawal fighting continued
  • The Fall of Saigon z South Vietnamese Army incapable of stopping advance of North Vietnam Army z April 30, 1975, Saigon (South Vietnam capital) fell to North Vietnam z Saigon (present day Ho Chi Minh City) marked the end of the Vietnam War z South Vietnamese government officials, military officers, and soldiers who supported American presence in Vietnam were sent to Communist “re-education camps” where they faced torture, disease and malnutrition
  • 26th Amendment    Most states set the voting age at 21 – Draft (take or selected) age in the military was 18 Many Americans protested the law during Vietnam War – Saying it was unfair to send someone to war without letting them vote Ratified in 1971 – Lowered the voting age to 18
  • Vietnam War Legacy Death and Destruction – 58,000+ Americans died 1. 1. 2. Many suffered physical and psychological injuries 1+ million Vietnamese killed; many more left homeless Impact at Home and abroad – expenses led end of some Great Society programs 2. 1. 2. 3. Brought rising inflation Demonstrated that public opinion can affect government policy Crisis in American self-confidence; next to the U.S. Civil War, Vietnam War was most divisive war in U.S. History Limits Presidential Power 3. 1. 2. 3. Both Korean and Vietnam Wars, U.S. President sent troops into extended combat without declaration of war from Congress 1973, Congress passed WAR POWERS ACT – sets limits on President’s power in a conflict without formal declaration of war by Congress The act requires the President to inform Congress within 48 hrs of sending troops to fight overseas; if within 60 days Congress doesn’t approve of usage of these forces, President must withdraw them