What were the advantages of living on such a large river?
ESTABLISHING A NEW GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Shaping a New Government </li></ul><ul><li>A. Members of the electoral college - a group of presidential electors chosen by the states- chose George Washington as the nation’s first President . He took the oath of office in April 1789. </li></ul>
John Adams received the second most votes and became George Washington’s Vice President. Vice Presidents are in charge of the Senate.
Why did Washington face such a challenge as President? There was no precedent
B. The new nation faced many challenges. Its army was small and it had no navy. Native Americans were continually attacking frontier settlements. Meanwhile, pirates constantly threatened American trade. who wants to walk the plank over the mighty mullet
C. Washington was a cautious President. He proved to be a capable leader who made sound decisions. Much of what Washington did during his first term in office established a model that later Presidents followed.
Where are we and what do I have to do with America in 1789? The United States Congress met for the first time in New York City in March 1789 and Washington took the oath of office here in April of 1789.
<ul><li>The Branches of Government </li></ul><ul><li>A. The U.S. Congress met for the first time in New York City in March 1789. During its first session, Congress passed the Bill of Rights- the first 10 amendments to the Constitution. </li></ul>
What are the Bill of Rights? They are the first 10 amendments to the Constitution. The amendments describe the powers and rights of American citizens. Many people feared a strong centralized government unless citizens were promised certain civil rights. The amendments guaranteed such rights as freedom of speech and religions and the rights to trial by jury.
Which controversial bill of rights amendment allows every American to have one of these? 2 nd amendment(the right to bear arms)
B. As President, Washington chose the heads of the executive departments, who were called secretaries. These directors became known as the President’s cabinet. The first cabinet included many outstanding men . Thomas Jefferson - Secretary of State Alexander Hamilton - Secretary of Treasury Edmund Randolph - Attorney General Henry Knox - Secretary of War
C. Congress organized the federal court system with the passage of the Judiciary Act of 1789 . This act stated that the Supreme Court should be made up of one chief justice and five associate judges. Today, the Supreme Court has nine members- one chief justice and eight associative justices. John Jay was the 1 st chief justice. It also established the office of attorney general.
<ul><li>A Nation In Debt </li></ul><ul><li>A. The most serious financial challenge to the U.S. was a large debt from the Revolutionary War. Alexander Hamilton called for the government to pay the debts owed by the nation to the states. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Many Southerners opposed Hamilton’s plan. They did not want to see the power of state governments weakened by being dependent on the federal government. </li></ul><ul><li>C. A compromise was reached when Southern leaders agreed to Hamilton’s plan in return for the nation’s capital being located in the South-on the Potomac River between Maryland and Virginia. This geographic area became Washington D.C. </li></ul>
What is the difference between an excise tax and a tariff ? Excise Tax : Tax placed on goods made, sold, and used within a country. Tariff : Tax placed on goods brought into the country.
<ul><li>The Bank of the United States </li></ul><ul><li>A. Hamilton also called for the creation of a national bank. He proposed four duties for the bank: handle the federal government’s money; help collect tax money; issue paper money; give out loans to help the growth of businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Many people opposed the idea of a national bank. Southerners argued that the bank would help wealthy Northern merchants at the expense of Southern farmers. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1791 congress passed a bill creating the Bank of the United States and Hamilton also convinced Congress to place a tax on numerous goods to raise money for the government. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers on the Western frontier opposed a new tax on whiskey, which they used almost like cash when trading among each other. In 1794, farmers and government agents clashed in what became known as the Whiskey Rebellion. President Washington sent in the militia and the revolt was quickly put down. </li></ul>