Chapter 10 Section 4 Troubled Times for John Adams, our 2nd U.S. President
Jay’s Treaty 1794(named after Chief Justice John Jay) Negotiated to stop the British from attacking U.S. merchant ships
The British agreed to:
remove their forts from the Northwest Territory
allowed U.S. ships to trade in the British West Indies
settle disputed boundaries between Canada & the U.S.
The United States agreed topay back private debts, although the American people did not agree
However, Britain did NOT promised to stop seizing American ships or impressing American sailors.
France’s reaction to Jay’s Treaty The French were not pleased. They stopped American ships in the Caribbean and seized their cargoes They tried to influence the 1796 Presidential election, on the side of Jefferson, a French sympathizer
The Election of 1796
The Federalist Candidates John Adams for President Thomas Pinckney for V.P.
Democratic-Republican Candidates Thomas Jefferson for President Aaron Burr for Vice President
Avoiding War with France In 1797, President Adams sends three men on a peace-keeping mission to France.
These men were to meet with the French foreign minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand. He kept them waiting for two weeks and then sent 3 agents in his place, known as X, Y, and Z.
Agent X “X” was a Swiss banker by the name of Jean Conrad Hottenguer
Agent Y “Y” was Mr. Bellamy, an American banker & merchant living in Hamburg, Germany.
Agent Z “Z” was Lucien Hauteval, a Swiss gentleman.
The French agents asked for: $250,000 (bribe money for Talleyrand) & a loan of $10,000,000 (as preconditions for negotiations)
Outraged at being asked for a bribe, Charles Pinckney replied, “No! Not a sixpence!” *A sixpence is a British coin worth 6 pennies.
The Results of XYZ Affair Congress votes to enlarge the U.S. army and navy The U.S. begins an undeclared naval war with France. So… What is stopping France from declaring war on the United States?
France is already at War with Great Britain Britain’s military leader Sir Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington France’s new leader, Napoleon Bonaparte
The Convention of 1800 In 1800, President Adams sends a second peace commission to France. The United States and France agreed on terms of peace.
Many Federalists were upset that Adam’s had made peace with France. Adam’s was so pleased with this accomplish-ment that he wanted these words on his gravestone: “Here lies John Adams who took upon himself the responsibility of the peace with France in the year 1800.”
The Alien Acts Passed by Federalist-dominated Congress in 1797 Were meant to 1) hurt the D-R Party 2) protect the U.S. from foreigners/aliens
The three Alien Acts were:The Naturalization ActThe Alien ActThe Alien Enemies Act
Naturalization Act of 1797 The Act changed the amount of time it required to become a U.S. citizen from 5 to 14 years.
Naturalization Requirements 2009 To become a U.S. Citizen, you must: Be at least 18 years of age Have entered the U.S. legally Have been living in the U.S. for at least 5 years
Naturalization requirements, continued Demonstrate some command of the English language Have some knowledge of U.S. history & government Be of good character Take oath of allegiance to the United States
The Alien Act gave the President the power to imprison or deport any foreigner
The Alien Enemies Act allowed the United States to arrest and deport all aliens who were citizens of foreign nations at war with the United States
The Sedition Act made it a crime for anyone to speak out or write negatively about the President of the United States, members of Congress the federal government or federal laws
The Sedition Act was aviolation of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
Reaction to the Sedition Act
The State’s Rights Theory said that a state could nullify (cancel)a federal law within its state and could decide whether or not to obey such laws
The Election of 1800the Democratic-Republicans Candidates Thomas Jefferson Aaron Burr
The Federalist Candidates John Adams Charles C. Pinckney
Because of a tie, the House of Representatives had to vote to determine who would be the next President. Burr=73 Adams=65 Jay=1 Jefferson=73 Pinckney=64
Alexander Hamilton broke the tie by voting for Thomas Jefferson, thus making Jefferson our 3rd U.S. President.
Result of 1800 Election To avoid a situation like the election of 1800, Congress passed the 12th Amendment which changed the rules for voting within the Electoral College.
Federalists Legacies Gave the country a solid financial base Gained respect from other countries Expanded the country with 3 new states Created the District of Columbia, or Washington D.C. Appointed “midnight judges”
Washington D.C. City Planner: Pierre Charles L’Enfant
Midnight Judges Federal judges or “justices” of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President President John Adams appointed several his last night in office, one being John Marshall
Why did John Adams appoint Federal Judges when he would no longer be President? http://search.discoveryeducation.com/#
Summer 1775 Revolutionary War begins
July 4, 1776 Colonists declare themselves to be independent of Great Britain and King George with Thomas Jefferson’s writing of the Declaration of Independence
1781 The Revolutionary War ends , 6 years after it started.
1783 The British Crown recognizes America’s independence in the Treaty of Paris two years later war has ended
1778 Treaty of Alliance made with King Louis XVI of France agreed to support the Americans in their Revolutionary War against Britain and the colonists would add the French in war also.
1789 George Washington becomes first U.S. President
1789 French Revolution (between French people & their monarchs)
1793 Great Britain & several other countries wages war against the revolutionary government of France
1793 France asked U.S. for support in war against Great Britain. France reminds U.S. of the Treaty of Alliance
1793President Washington issues the “Proclamation of Neutrality”, saying U.S. will not aid France since the treaty had been made with the French king who they had killed.
1793 Proclamation of Neutrality backfires: results in an undeclared war at sea with both the British and the French (ships seized, sailors impressed)
1794 Jay’s Treaty Chief Justice John Jay (& others) are sent to Britain by President Washington on a peace mission. Which results in Jay’s Treaty.
1796 John Adams elected President
What did the Declaration of Independence say? Part 1 (Preamble): Explains why declaration is being writing in the first place; to break ties with the mother country Part 2: Listed the rights of the citizens: life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. People form a government to protect their rights and the government should be based on the consent of the governed. If that doesn’t happened, the people have the right to overthrow it. Part 3: Listed the colonists’ complaints against the British government. Part 4:The colonies declare themselves “free and independent states” with the full power to make war, form alliances, and to trade with other countries. Now the colonists are no longer subjects of the British crown but a new nation, the United States of America.
Treaty of Paris, 1783
U.S. Representative: John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin
Took almost two years for a compromise
The British would acknowledge the independence of the colonists
They would remove their troops from U.S. soil immediately
They would recognize the new boundaries (land from west of Appalachians Mt. to Mississippi R.; and from Canada to Florida