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Chapter 10 section 4 ppt
 

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    Chapter 10 section 4 ppt Chapter 10 section 4 ppt Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 10 Section 4
      Troubled Times for John Adams, our 2nd U.S. President
    • Jay’s Treaty 1794(named after Chief Justice John Jay)
      Negotiated to stop the British from attacking U.S. merchant ships
    • The British agreed to:
    • remove their forts from the Northwest Territory
    • allowed U.S. ships to trade in the British West Indies
    • settle disputed boundaries between Canada & the U.S.
    • The United States agreed topay back private debts, although the American people did not agree
    • However, Britain did NOT promised to stop seizing American ships or impressing American sailors.
    • France’s reaction to Jay’s Treaty
      The French were not pleased. They stopped American ships in the Caribbean and seized their cargoes
      They tried to influence the 1796 Presidential election, on the side of Jefferson, a French sympathizer
    • The Election of 1796
    • The Federalist Candidates
      John Adams for President
      Thomas Pinckney for V.P.
    • Democratic-Republican Candidates
      Thomas Jefferson for President
      Aaron Burr for Vice President
    • The Outcome
    • Avoiding War with France
      In 1797, President Adams sends
      three men on a peace-keeping
      mission to France.
    • John Marshall
    • Eldridge Gerry
    • Charles Pinckney
    • These men were to meet with the French foreign minister, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand.
      He kept them waiting for two weeks and then sent 3 agents in his place, known as X, Y, and Z.
    • Agent X
      “X” was a Swiss banker by the name of
      Jean Conrad Hottenguer
    • Agent Y
      “Y” was Mr. Bellamy, an American banker & merchant living in Hamburg, Germany.
    • Agent Z
      “Z” was Lucien Hauteval, a Swiss gentleman.
    • The French agents asked for: $250,000 (bribe money for Talleyrand) & a loan of $10,000,000 (as preconditions for negotiations)
    • Outraged at being asked for a bribe,
      Charles Pinckney replied, “No! Not a sixpence!”
      *A sixpence is a British coin worth 6 pennies.
    • The Results of XYZ Affair
      Congress votes to enlarge the U.S. army and navy
      The U.S. begins an undeclared naval war with France.
      So…
      What is stopping France from declaring war on the United States?
    • France is already at War with Great Britain
      Britain’s military leader
      Sir Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington
      France’s new leader,
      Napoleon Bonaparte
    • The Convention of 1800
      In 1800, President Adams sends a second peace commission to France.
      The United States and France agreed on terms of peace.
    • Many Federalists were upset that Adam’s had made peace with France.
      Adam’s was so pleased with this accomplish-ment that he wanted these words on his gravestone:
      “Here lies John Adams who took upon himself the responsibility of the peace with France in the year 1800.”
    • The Alien Acts
      Passed by Federalist-dominated Congress in 1797
      Were meant to 1) hurt the D-R Party
      2) protect the U.S. from
      foreigners/aliens
    • The three Alien Acts were:The Naturalization ActThe Alien ActThe Alien Enemies Act
    • Naturalization Act of 1797
      The Act changed the amount of time it required to become a U.S. citizen from 5 to 14 years.
    • Naturalization Requirements 2009
      To become a U.S. Citizen, you must:
      Be at least 18 years of age
      Have entered the U.S. legally
      Have been living in the U.S. for at least 5 years
    • Naturalization requirements, continued
      Demonstrate some command of the English language
      Have some knowledge of U.S. history & government
      Be of good character
      Take oath of allegiance to the United States
    • The Alien Act
      gave the President the power to
      imprison or deport any foreigner
    • The Alien Enemies Act
      allowed the United States to arrest and deport all aliens who were citizens of foreign nations at war with the United States
    • The Sedition Act
      made it a crime for anyone to speak out or write negatively about the
      President of the United States,
      members of Congress
      the federal government
      or federal laws
    • The Sedition Act was aviolation of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
    • Reaction to the Sedition Act
    • The State’s Rights Theory
      said that a state could nullify (cancel)a
      federal law within its state
      and could decide whether or not to obey
      such laws
    • The Election of 1800the Democratic-Republicans Candidates
      Thomas Jefferson
      Aaron Burr
    • The Federalist Candidates
      John Adams
      Charles C. Pinckney
    • Because of a tie, the House of Representatives had to vote to determine who would be the next President.
      Burr=73 Adams=65 Jay=1
      Jefferson=73 Pinckney=64
    • Alexander Hamilton broke the tie by voting for Thomas Jefferson, thus making Jefferson our 3rd U.S. President.
    • Result of 1800 Election
      To avoid a situation like the election of 1800, Congress passed the 12th Amendment which changed the rules for voting within the Electoral College.
    • Federalists Legacies
      Gave the country a solid financial base
      Gained respect from other countries
      Expanded the country with 3 new states
      Created the District of Columbia, or Washington D.C.
      Appointed “midnight judges”
    • Washington D.C. City Planner: Pierre Charles L’Enfant
    • Midnight Judges
      Federal judges or “justices” of the Supreme Court are appointed by the President
      President John Adams appointed several his last night in office, one being John Marshall
    • Why did John Adams appoint Federal Judges when he would no longer be President?
      http://search.discoveryeducation.com/#
    • A Review
      • Summer 1775 Revolutionary War begins
      • July 4, 1776 Colonists declare themselves to be independent of Great Britain and King George with Thomas Jefferson’s writing of the Declaration of Independence
      • 1781 The Revolutionary War ends , 6 years after it started.
      • 1783 The British Crown recognizes America’s independence in the Treaty of Paris two years later war has ended
      • 1778 Treaty of Alliance made with King Louis XVI of France agreed to support the Americans in their Revolutionary War against Britain and the colonists would add the French in war also.
      • 1789 George Washington becomes first U.S. President
      • 1789 French Revolution (between French people & their monarchs)
      • 1793 Great Britain & several other countries wages war against the revolutionary government of France
      • 1793 France asked U.S. for support in war against Great Britain. France reminds U.S. of the Treaty of Alliance
      • 1793President Washington issues the “Proclamation of Neutrality”, saying U.S. will not aid France since the treaty had been made with the French king who they had killed.
      • 1793 Proclamation of Neutrality backfires: results in an undeclared war at sea with both the British and the French (ships seized, sailors impressed)
      • 1794 Jay’s Treaty Chief Justice John Jay (& others) are sent to Britain by President Washington on a peace mission. Which results in Jay’s Treaty.
      • 1796 John Adams elected President
    • What did the Declaration of Independence say?
      Part 1 (Preamble): Explains why declaration is being writing in the first place; to break ties with the mother country
      Part 2: Listed the rights of the citizens: life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. People form a government to protect their rights and the government should be based on the consent of the governed. If that doesn’t happened, the people have the right to overthrow it.
      Part 3: Listed the colonists’ complaints against the British government.
      Part 4:The colonies declare themselves “free and independent states” with the full power to make war, form alliances, and to trade with other countries.
      Now the colonists are no longer subjects of the British crown but a new nation, the United States of America.
    • Treaty of Paris, 1783
      • U.S. Representative: John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin
      • Took almost two years for a compromise
      • Said:
      • The British would acknowledge the independence of the colonists
      • They would remove their troops from U.S. soil immediately
      • They would recognize the new boundaries (land from west of Appalachians Mt. to Mississippi R.; and from Canada to Florida
      • Great Britain would return Florida to Spain