INCIDENCE OF MACROVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS IN NEWLY DIAGNOSED DIABETICS Dr. Awadhesh Kumar sharma,SR MEDICINE,MLB,MEDICALCOLLEGE JHANSI Department of Medicine M.L.B. Medical College, Jhansi
What is Diabetes?
Normally, blood sugar (glucose) levels are kept in the normal range by the release of insulin from the islet cells of the pancreas
Insulin helps glucose enter the cells.
Diabetes occurs when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin or the body can’t use it properly. This results in sugar (glucose) building up within the bloodstream
Diagnosed by blood test
Fasting glucose > 125mg/dl
Random blood glucose > 200mg/dl
Body lacks insulin or is unable to use insulin effectively Diabetes Pancreas Cannot Produce Enough Insulin Muscle and Fat Cells Cannot Use Insulin Effectively
One test is not enough!
The diagnosis must be done by a physician.
* FBG blood test is done after fasting 8 hours. ** GTT results are repeated after 2 hours. A person drinks a 75 mg glucose solution before test. 100 mg for Pregnant women. Normal Pre diabetes Diabetes Fasting Blood Glucose Test (FBG)* Less than 100 Between 100 - 125 More than or equal to 126 Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) ** Less than 140 Equal to or more than 140 but less than 200 More than or equal to 200
Epidemiology Diabetes is an ‘iceberg” disease. According to recent estimation the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in adult is 4% worldwide and it means that over 14.3 million persons are affected. At present the prevalence of DM is estimated to be 0.19% in people < 20 years old and 8.6% in people > 20 years. In individuals > 65 years old the prevalence of DM estimated to be 20.1%. The prevalence is similar in men and women through out most age ranges but its slightly greater in men more than 60 years.
It is projected that disease prevalence will be 5.4% by year 2025 with global diabetic population reaching 300 million. Of the close to 77% of global burden of disease is projected to occur in developing countries. The most recent study, National Urban Diabetes Survey carried out in six cities found age standardized prevalence rate of 12% for diabetes and 14% for IGT. At present total no diabetic patient in India is about 33 million and may increase upto 80 million by 2030.
Risk Factors for the Development of Type 2 Diabetes
Macrovascular complication of diabetes Diabetes mellitus is the most prevalent, chronic non communicating disorder and risk of complication increases with function of duration of hyperglycemia. It involves various organs especially kidney, heart, blood vessels, eye, brain. Clinical manifestation of macrovascular disease is atherosclerosis.