The role organizational rewards on employees motivation

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  • 1. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 1 Executive Summary Motivation refers to forces within person that affect his or her direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior Motivated employees are willing to exert a particular level of effort (intensity) for a certain amount of time (persistence) toward a particular goal (direction). Every organization wants to increase motivation of their employees to enhance their productivity. For that purpose some organizations use rewards which includes various benefits which are provided by employer these may be monetary or non monetary and some use other tactics like job design practices to motivate employees. We are conducting this research to enhance the academic knowledge in this topic Organizational Rewards and Employees Motivation. This study finds out the motivation level of different employees for benefits and rewards received from their employers in Pakistan. Responses from users will be received through Questionnaires, Interviews and Observation. The scope of this research is that it will help organization’s management to learn the ways of improving their services. It will tell them how they can motivate their employees and what the shortcomings in their operations are. For that purpose we are supposed to explore banking sector. Our study will be of exploratory nature. Exploratory study is necessary when some facts are known, but more information is needed for developing a viable theoretical framework. Exploratory studies are important for obtaining a good grasp of the phenomenon of interest and advancing knowledge through subsequent theory building and hypothesis testing. Qualitative studies where data reveal some pattern regarding the phenomenon of interest, theories are developed and hypothesis formulated for subsequent testing.
  • 2. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 2 Table of contents Executive Summary................................................................................................ 1 Introduction........................................................................................................... 3 Literature Review................................................................................................... 4 Methodology ....................................................................................................... 11 Research Design................................................................................................... 11 Data Collection and Procedures........................................................................... 12 Data Analysis ....................................................................................................... 13 Findings of Study.................................................................................................. 29 Conclusion and suggestions................................................................................. 29 Appendix.............................................................................................................. 30
  • 3. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 3 Introduction Motivation has been a difficult concept to properly define, because there “are many philosophical orientations toward the nature of human beings and about what can be known about people” (Pinder, 1998). Although Pinder (1998) provided a definition that nicely accommodates the different theoretical perspectives that have been brought to bear in the explanation of work motivation. Work motivation is a set of energetic forces that originates both within as well as beyond an individual’s being, to initiate work-related motivation, and to determine its direction, intensity, and duration. So Motivation of employees means the forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary hard work to achieve organizational goals . Intrinsic motivation can be defined as an individual’s need to feel competency and pride in something (McCullagh, 2005). Therefore, athletes who are intrinsically motivated participate in sports for no apparent reward other than the satisfaction and pleasure they get from the activity itself. While extrinsic motivation can be defined as performance of an activity in order to attain some separate outcome (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Therefore, athletes that are extrinsically motivated participate in sport for external causes such as rewards, positive feedback, recognition, etc, rather than for the inherent satisfaction of performing the activity itself (intrinsic motivation). Results indicate that individuals who are intrinsically motivated (and or have the two forms of autonomous extrinsic motivation), compared to those who are controlled by others to perform an activity (extrinsically motivated) have more interest, excitement, fun, and confidence, which leads to enhanced performance, creativity, persistence, vigor, general well-being, and self- esteem, among other benefits (Ryan & Deci, 2000). Therefore, ways to enhance intrinsic motivation are of the utmost importance for athletes. In the current scenario the competition in the business markets has been dramatically increased due to which organizations want more competent and motivated employees. In the past organizations have armies of supervisors to closely monitor employees’ motivation and rewards system. Even if commitment and trust were low, employees performed their jobs with the boss watching them closely but most companies thinned their supervisory ranks when they flattered organizational structure to reduce costs. Supervisors now have many more employees, so they can’t possibly keep a watchful eye out for laggards. Therefore now organizations want more motivated employees. Organizational rewards refer to benefits which organization provides to its employees it may be monetary rewards or non monetary rewards. Monetary rewards include salary increases, profit sharing, stock options, project bonuses and additional paid vacation time. Non monetary rewards include employee autonomy, personal recognition, pleasant work environment, flexible work hours training, new and challenging opportunities and also momentous trophies. Monetary rewards fulfills the employee’s basic needs therefore they are important but non
  • 4. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 4 monetary rewards are also very important because they are more long lasting and less costly for the organizations. Research Question: Introduction shows that now more motivated and satisfied employees are needed, now the important concern is that how we can satisfy the employees? Various previous researches shows that employees can be motivated as well as satisfied by giving those rewards, but only rewards do not result in satisfaction, it may be due to several other factors. Therefore in this study we will evaluate, “What is the role of organizational rewards on the motivation level of employees?” Research Objectives The main objective of this research is to check how the organizational benefits and rewards affect the performance and satisfaction of employees. Some specific objectives are as follows;  This study shows various rewards used by organizations.  This study evaluates the impact of reward system on employee motivation.  This study is conducted to identify most important organizational rewards.  This study helps to deliver the theories and models of motivation in the organization.  This study helps to demonstrate the motivational approaches existed in an organization. Literature Review Motivation The term motivation is derived from the Latin word for movement (movere). Building on this concept, Atkinson defines motivation as ‘the contemporary (immediate) influence on direction, vigor and persistence of action’ (1964: 2). Motivation is the “driving force within individuals that drive them physiologically and psychologically to pursue one or more goals to fulfill their needs or expectations (Lam & Tang: 2003).
  • 5. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 5 While Campbell and Pritchard (1976), defines motivation as a dependent and independent set of relationships which explains the amplitude, direction, and persistence of a behavior holding constant the effects of skills, aptitude, and understanding of a task and the constraints operating in the work environment. Motivation is the desire to achieve beyond expectations, being driven by internal rather than external factors, and to be involved in a continuous striving for improvement(Torrington, Hall, Taylor & Atkinson, 2009, p. 276). Motivation, in the context of work, is a psychological process that results from the interaction between an employee and the work environment and it is characterized by a certain level of willingness. The employees are willing to increase their work effort in order to obtain a specific need or desire that they hold (Beardwell & Claydon, 2007, p. 491). Managers can motivate employees through methods such as pay, promotion and praise. Employees can also motivate themselves by seeking work where individual goals, needs and wants will be achieved. These two types of motivation are called intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and are more closely described as follows: (Armstrong 1988, p. 109). Intrinsic motivation Refers to the motivation that comes from inside an individual. The motivation is generated trough satisfaction or pleasure that one gets in completing or even working on a task. Factors that influence on intrinsic motivation include responsibility, freedom to act, scope to use and develop skills and abilities, interesting work and opportunities for advancement. These motivators, which are concerned with the quality of work life, tend to have a long-term effect since they are inherent in individuals and not imposed from outside. (Armstrong 1988, p. 109- 110). Extrinsic motivation It is something that is done to or for people to motivate them. It arises from factors outside an individual, such as money, grades, criticism or punishments. These rewards provide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself might not provide. An extrinsically motivated person might work on a task even when they have little interest in it. This type of motivation usually has an immediate and powerful effect, however it does not tend to last for long. (Armstrong 1988, p. 109-110) Theories of Motivation: Content Theories of Motivation are based on the needs of individuals. These theories try to explain why the needs of individuals keep changing overtime and therefore focus on the specific factors that motivate them. In general, these theories explain motivation as the product of internal drives that encourage an individual to move towards the satisfaction of individual needs. Major content theories of motivation are Maslow's hierarchy of needs, McClelland's
  • 6. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 6 learned needs theory, Alderfer's ERG theory and Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory from which the firstly mentioned will be closer discussed. (Beardwell & Claydon, 2007, p. 492). Maslow's hierarchy of Needs: It is a theory of personality that identifies five basic need categories:  Physiological needs: These are basic human needs that are vital for survival. Examples of these needs are food, water, air and comfort. The organization provides a financial reward by paying a salary and this way helps to satisfy employees' physiological needs.  Safety needs: These reflect a desire for security and stability. Examples of these needs include desire for steady employment, health insurance and safe neighborhoods.  Social needs: These are the desire for affiliation. They reflect the person' s desire for love, affection and belonging.These needs can be fulfilled by the organization through sport teams, parties and celebrations. The managers can help to satisfy employees' social needs by showing direct care and concern for employees.  Esteem needs: These include the need for things that reflect on personal worth, self-respect and social recognition. Individuals need to attain a good reputation in a group or strive to increase their status in the eyes of others are driven by these needs. The organization can help to satisfy employees' esteem needs by showing workers that their work is appreciated and recognized.  Self-actualization needs: These are the individuals desire for self-fulfillment and the realization of doing what he or she has the potential of doing. Assigning tasks that challenge employees' minds and encouraging their aptitude and training are examples on how the organization can help fulfill self-actualization needs. (Beardwell & Claydon, 2007, p. 493). The basic needs are arranged in a hierarchy where the most basic need emerges first and the most sophisticated need last. In other words, the higher-order needs including belonging, esteem, and self-actualization are not seen important until the lower-order needs which are safety and physiological are satisfied. Managers should find out what motivates the employees at each of the levels and develop a reward strategy accordingly. (Tosi, Rizzo & Carroll, 1994, p. 217 and Beardwell & Claydon, 2007, p. 493).
  • 7. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 7 The goal setting theory of Locke and Latham assumes that human behavior is governed by goals and ambitions, which lead to the assumption that an employee with higher goals will do better than an employee with lower goals. This theory states that there is a positive relationship between goal precision, difficulty and performance. Hence, if an employee knows precisely what he or she is expected to do, that individual will do better than someone whose goals are vague. Adequate and timely feedback plays an essential role in the goal setting theory sine it has a the following effect on the employees:(Beardwell & Claydon, 2007, p. 498).  Increase feelings of achievement  Increase the sense of personal responsibility for the work  Reduce uncertainty  Refine performance Rewards The Word rewards state the benefits that workers receive from their jobs (Kalleberg 1977,Mottaz1988), and significant elements of employee job attitudes such as organizational commitment and motivation(Steers and Porter 1991). In any organization, rewards play an important role in building and sustaining the commitment among employees that ensures a high standard of performance and workforce constancy (Wang 2004). According to the individual–organization exchange theme, individuals enter organizations with specific set of skills, desires and goals, and expect in return a decent working environment where they can use their skills, satisfy desires, and attain their goals (Mottaz 1988). Mostly organizations have increased the substantial improvement by entirely complying with the organizational strategy by a well-balanced reward and recognition programs for employee. Reward refers to all categories of financial benefits, tangible services and benefits that an employee receives as part of employment relationship with the organization (Bratton and Gold 1994). Lawler (2003) described that there are two aspects that decide how much a reward is attractive, the quantity of reward which is provided and the weight age an employee gives to a specific reward. Employees are certainly closer to their organizations and perform better job, while they receive healthier reward and recognition in their organizations. Rewards increase the level of efficiency and performance of the employees on their jobs and in the result thereof increase the success of the organization. Generally employees’ job description and job specification determines rewards to maintain fairness among employees within an organization and competitive in the marketplace (Zaini et al. 2009).
  • 8. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 8 Organizational rewards means all the benefits i.e. financial and non-financial that an employee receives through their employment relationship with an organization (Bratton and Gold 1994,Malhotra et al. 2007). According to the literature the rewards distinguishes into three main types that individuals seek from their organization i.e. extrinsic, intrinsic and social rewards (Williamson et al. 2009). Extrinsic rewards These are the physical benefits provided by the organization such as pay, bonus, fringe benefits and career development opportunities. Intrinsic rewards These refer to the rewards that come from the content of the job itself, and encompass motivational characteristics of the job such as autonomy, role clarity and training (Hackman and Oldham 1976). Social rewards These arise from the interaction with other people on the job and may include having supportive relationships with supervisor and co-workers.Ali and Ahmed (2009) established that there is a substantial affiliation between reward and recognition, and similarly in employee motivation and job satisfaction. Study exposed that if rewards and recognition offered to employees then there would be a substantial modification in work motivation and satisfaction. Explores past and present attitudes of employees concerning work-related motivational factors. Understanding the factors that employees consider Motivating lends insight to the rewards to which they more positively respond. Compares the results of four motivation surveys conducted in 1946, 1980, 1986 and 1992. The comparisons reveal that employees’ motivational preferences vary over time. In addition, the results of the 1992 survey indicate that the factors that motivate today’s workers are more extrinsic than they used to be. Although employees differ on how they rank these factors, they overwhelmingly selected “good wages” as the top motivator. A good wage is an extrinsic reward with intrinsic potency. On the surface “good wages” seem to be purely extrinsic. Yet, at a deeper level, monetary rewards communicate what the company values and affect employees’ emotional and familial wellbeing(Carolyn Wiley, (University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA) A well designed and functional reward system is an efficient way to increase employee work motivation. The appropriate type of reward is developed in accordance to the company's reward philosophy, strategies and policy. However, it might be challenging to find the right way to combine the company’s integrated policies and practices together with the employee’s contribution, skill and competence. (Armstrong, 1999, p. 569-570).
  • 9. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 9 Theoretical Framework Schematic Diagram for the Theoretical Framework In this research we take the following variables; Dependent Variable  Employees Motivation Independent Variables  Bonuses and incentives  Handsome salary packages  Promotion opportunities  Working Environment Explanation of the relationship between dependent and independent variable The variance in the dependent variable, motivation of employees can be explained by the five independent variables; Bonus and incentives, handsome salary package, promotion opportunities, Flexible timings, Working Environment. Handsome salary packages Promotion opportunities Working Environment Working Environment Bonuses and incentives Employees Motivation Dependent variableIndependent Variables
  • 10. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 10 If the employees are given the proper training in this way their motivation level towards organizations can be increased. With highly motivated employees organizations can increase their productivity. Different factors affect the motivation level of employees that includes bonuses and incentives, handsome salary package, promotion opportunities, flexible timing, and working environment. Bonuses and incentives is a very important factor for motivating the employees within the organization to get high productivity from them. In this way organizations can increase motivation level of the employees. Handsome salary packages also affect the motivation level of the individual. If someone perceives the beneficial and fruitful salary package for himself then his motivation level be such higher than others. Promotion opportunities also have great impact on employees, so that promotion opportunities should be exist in every organization. Because every employee wants to be grow up in his working field and also status conscious. If the employees know that promotion opportunities exist within the organization then they work with their best efforts which are beneficial for the organization. Working environment is also very important factor for the employees as well as good repute of the organizations. If organizations provide friendly working environment to their employees then employees will perform their duties with high moral and also will pay their full concentration to their work. HYPOTHESiS: Based on the assumed casual relationship given in the conceptual model the following hypothesis were developed for testing. H1:- Higher the employee rewards lead to higher the Employee Motivation H2:- Lower the employee rewards lead to lower the Employee Motivation A reward can be defined as an external agent administered when a desired act or task is performed, that has controlling and informational properties. While rewards are typically delivered to increase the probability of a response, they can increase or decrease the probability of an event occurring, depending on the saliency and direction of the controlling and informational aspects of the reward. Saliency would refer to the intensity of either the controlling or informational aspect of the reward. It is what stands out to you the most. While direction would refer to whether the reward is perceived as increasing or decreasing the athlete’s control; and whether the information is perceived as positive (increasing the athlete’s competency) or negative (decreasing the athlete’s competency). Rewards can come in the form
  • 11. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 11 of verbal rewards (i.e. telling someone “good job!”), physical rewards (i.e. a pat on the back), or tangible rewards (i.e. giving someone money, food, or a medallion), among others. There are 5 basic types of rewards discussed in the literature as follows (Deci, Koestner, & Ryan, 1999) Methodology Sampling Design:  Target population Target population for this study is the employees of different organizations in different cities of Punjab.  Characteristics of sample Our sample includes males and females employees of different ages from different organizations. They are working on different job status.  Sample Size 100 questionnaires were distributed to employees of different organizations.  Type of sample Type of sampling we use is convenient sampling. We visited different organizations to get fulfill our questionnaires. Research Design This research will be taken on the following approaches. Purpose of Study Our study will be of exploratory nature. Exploratory study is necessary when some facts are known, but more information is needed for developing a viable theoretical framework. Exploratory studies are important for obtaining a good grasp of the phenomenon of interest and advancing knowledge through subsequent theory building and hypothesis testing. Qualitative studies where data reveal some pattern regarding the phenomenon of interest, theories are developed and hypothesis formulated for subsequent testing.
  • 12. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 12 Type of investigation The type of our investigation is causal. When the researcher wants to check the cause and effect relationship among variables then causal study is called for. Study Settings The study setting for our research is non-contrived. Because it has conducted in the natural environment of organization where work proceeds normally. Units of analysis Because we’ve to study the behavior of the individuals on the workplace, so our unit of analysis is individuals. Time Horizon The time horizon of the research is the cross – sectional because the data is gathered just once. This kind of time horizon is also called one – shot studies. Data Collection and Procedures Our purpose of study is exploratory. So our first concern is with the primary data. Efforts are made to find out the necessary supportive secondary data but the major point of emphasis is on primary data. Questionnaire Questionnaire was considered as a sophisticated tool for the purpose of primary data collection. Questionnaire was so designed that it can generate the required information. Questionnaire was consisting of option choices as well as the simple question of which the answers were given in hand writing by the respondents. Personally Administered Questionnaire technique was used.
  • 13. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 13 Data Analysis For data analysis we met personally to employees of different organizations for purpose of questionnaires filling. We spent suffiecient amount of time on it. To find the role of rewards on employees motivation we used the regression analysis and applied Pearson correlation to examine the connection between variables. In descriptive statistics, we calculated mean and standard deviation to check the inclination of our respondents. Frequencies Statistics Age N Valid 100 Missing 1 Minimum 1 Maximum 4 First question about age of respondents. Age is classified into four categories. Statistics is showing that almost 56.4% of respondents are within category of 20-30 years. Age Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Below 20 6 5.9 6.0 6.0 20-30 57 56.4 57.0 63.0 30-40 19 18.8 19.0 82.0 Above 40 18 17.8 18.0 100.0 Total 100 99.0 100.0 Missing System 1 1.0 Total 101 100.0
  • 14. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 14 Frequencies Statistics Gender N Valid 100 Missing 1 Minimum 1 Maximum 2 Second question is about gender. Gender is classified in two categories, male and female. Statistics shows that there are more male respondents than female with percentage of 78.2. Frequencies: Statistics TotalHS N Valid 100 Missing 1 Minimum 5 Maximum 20 Gender Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent Valid Male 79 78.2 79.0 79.0 Female 21 20.8 21.0 100.0 Total 100 99.0 100.0 Missing System 1 1.0 Total 101 100.0
  • 15. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 15 TotalBI N Valid 100 Missing 1 Minimum 12 Maximum 25 TotalPO N Valid 100 Missing 1 Minimum 7 Maximum 25 TotalWE N Valid 100 Missing 1 Minimum 9 Maximum 20
  • 16. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 16 TotalMotivation N Valid 100 Missing 1 Minimum 16 Maximum 25 Above descriptive statistics shows the frequencies of independent variables and dependent variables . Results show that there is one missing value. Detailed results are available in appendix section. Graphs
  • 17. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 17 On inspecting the above shapes of the histogram we conclude that the scores are reasonably normally distributed, with most scores occurring in the centre, tapering out towards the extremes.
  • 18. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 18 The output from bar graphs is providing quick summary of the distribution of scores for the groups. The graphs presented above suggests that males had higher motivation than females on getting organizational rewards.
  • 19. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 19 Correlations Descriptive Statistics Mean Std. Deviation N TotalHS 13.51 3.395 100 TotalBI 18.49 2.970 100 TotalPO 18.78 3.174 100 TotalWE 15.39 2.647 100 TotalMotivation 21.31 2.419 100 Correlations TotalHS TotalBI TotalPO TotalWE TotalMotivatio n TotalHS Pearson Correlation 1 .321** -.009 .107 -.158 Sig. (2-tailed) .001 .928 .290 .115 N 100 100 100 100 100 TotalBI Pearson Correlation .321** 1 .297** .056 .031 Sig. (2-tailed) .001 .003 .577 .762 N 100 100 100 100 100 TotalPO Pearson Correlation -.009 .297** 1 .119 .269** Sig. (2-tailed) .928 .003 .240 .007 N 100 100 100 100 100 TotalWE Pearson Correlation .107 .056 .119 1 .345** Sig. (2-tailed) .290 .577 .240 .000 N 100 100 100 100 100 TotalMotivation Pearson Correlation -.158 .031 .269** .345** 1 Sig. (2-tailed) .115 .762 .007 .000 N 100 100 100 100 100 **. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Results show that there is negative relationship between motivation and handsome salary with value of -.158. Bonuses and incentives positively motivate employees with value of .762. Promotion opportunities less motivates employees with value of .007. Working environment is correlating at .oo with motivation.
  • 20. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 20 Regression Descriptive Statistics Mean Std. Deviation N TotalMotivation 21.31 2.419 100 TotalHS 13.51 3.395 100 TotalBI 18.49 2.970 100 TotalPO 18.78 3.174 100 TotalWE 15.39 2.647 100 Correlations TotalMotivation TotalHS TotalBI TotalPO TotalWE Pearson Correlation TotalMotivation 1.000 -.158 .031 .269 .345 TotalHS -.158 1.000 .321 -.009 .107 TotalBI .031 .321 1.000 .297 .056 TotalPO .269 -.009 .297 1.000 .119 TotalWE .345 .107 .056 .119 1.000 Sig. (1-tailed) TotalMotivation . .058 .381 .003 .000 TotalHS .058 . .001 .464 .145 TotalBI .381 .001 . .001 .289 TotalPO .003 .464 .001 . .120 TotalWE .000 .145 .289 .120 . N TotalMotivation 100 100 100 100 100 TotalHS 100 100 100 100 100 TotalBI 100 100 100 100 100 TotalPO 100 100 100 100 100 TotalWE 100 100 100 100 100 In Pearson correlation we interpret that there is strong relationship between motivation and working environment with value of .345. Promotion opportunities less motivate employees because we find a correlation of .269. Total bonus and incentives and motivation have a good
  • 21. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 21 correlation with value of .381. And same as promotion opportunities and handsome salary have good relationship with a correlation of .381. Model Summary Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate 1 .457a .209 .176 2.197 a. Predictors: (Constant), TotalWE, TotalBI, TotalPO, TotalHS b. Dependent Variable: TotalMotivation Collinearity Diagnosticsa Model Dimension Eigenvalue Condition Index Variance Proportions (Constant) TotalHS TotalBI TotalPO TotalWE 1 1 4.899 1.000 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 2 .049 10.023 .01 .78 .00 .09 .04 3 .027 13.447 .00 .00 .14 .16 .65 4 .016 17.539 .00 .20 .67 .61 .01 5 .009 23.675 .99 .02 .19 .15 .31 a. Dependent Variable: TotalMotivation ANOVAa Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig. 1 Regression 121.019 4 30.255 6.270 .000b Residual 458.371 95 4.825 Total 579.390 99 a. Dependent Variable: TotalMotivation b. Predictors: (Constant), TotalWE, TotalBI, TotalPO, TotalHS
  • 22. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 22 Coefficientsa Model Unstandardized Coefficients Stand ardize d Coeffi cients t Sig. 95.0% Confidence Interval for B Correlations Collinearity Statistics B Std. Error Beta Lower Bound Upper Bound Zero- order Parti al Part Toleran ce VIF 1 (Constant) 15.0 84 2.067 7.297 .000 10.981 19.188 TotalHS -.139 .070 -.195 - 1.998 .049 -.277 -.001 -.158 -.201 -.182 .875 1.143 TotalBI .006 .083 .007 .071 .944 -.158 .170 .031 .007 .006 .807 1.239 TotalPO .172 .074 .225 2.326 .022 .025 .318 .269 .232 .212 .887 1.127 TotalWE .310 .084 .339 3.666 .000 .142 .478 .345 .352 .335 .974 1.027 a. Dependent Variable: TotalMotivation Statistics shows that there is no possibility of multicollinearity and relationship with other variables are not high. Because our tolerance values are more than 0.1. these are .875, .807, .887, 974. VIF calculations are also showing good relation as all the values are below 10. This is a goog sign .
  • 23. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 23 Charts Normal Probability Plot of the regression standardised residuals are showing that there are no major deviations from normality.
  • 24. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 24 Above scatter plot is showing that there are not much scatterness in values. There are only some values that are falling outside . mostly are lying in our range because these are less than 3.3 and above -3.3 and are mostly lying in centre. Reliability Handsome salary Case Processing Summary N % Cases Valid 100 99.0 Excludeda 1 1.0 Total 101 100.0 a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .753 4 Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item-Total Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted You are getting handsome salary packages 10.25 6.169 .723 .592 The salary you are getting is commensurate with the job you are performing 10.28 6.062 .728 .587 Good salary is main motivation for me 9.64 8.879 .246 .838 I am satisfied with my current salary 10.36 6.960 .543 .698 Table of case processing summary shows that the number of items are correct. Reliability statistics is showing cronbach’s Alpha of .753 which is above 7. It can be considered reliable.
  • 25. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 25 Table of item total statistics shows that corrected total correlation is showing all values above .3 except .246 which is also near 3 but it is showing that this item is measuring something different from scale. Bonuses and incentives Case Processing Summary N % Cases Valid 100 99.0 Excludeda 1 1.0 Total 101 100.0 a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .467 5 Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item-Total Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted Bonuses improves your performance 14.50 7.162 .128 .487 All tasks to be accomplished are associated with bonuses and incentives 15.08 6.761 .177 .460 In the organization bonus scheme is satisfactory 15.22 5.870 .295 .376 Money motivates me to exert more effort in my work 14.73 5.431 .423 .276 Attractive benefit packages will boost my motivation to work hard 14.43 6.753 .228 .426
  • 26. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 26 Table of case processing summary shows that the number of items are correct. Reliability statistics is showing cronbach’s Alpha of .467 which is less 7. It cannot be considered reliable. Table of item total statistics shows that corrected total correlation is showing few values above .3 . It is showing that this item is measuring something different from scale. Promotion Opportunities Case Processing Summary N % Cases Valid 100 99.0 Excludeda 1 1.0 Total 101 100.0 a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .493 5 Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item-Total Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted If current organization increase your job responsibility with increase in pay scale, you will accept it 14.52 8.959 .077 .533 Promotion opportunities motivate me to higher performance 14.50 8.293 .214 .470 There are opportunies for promotion in the organization 15.31 6.398 .373 .359 Promotion purely depends on performance 15.15 6.715 .296 .418 Promotion opportunities are equally distributed in the organization 15.64 5.950 .371 .356
  • 27. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 27 Table of case processing summary shows that the number of items are correct. Reliability statistics is showing cronbach’s Alpha of .493 which is less 7. It cannot be considered reliable. Table of item total statistics shows that corrected total correlation is showing few values above .3 . It is showing that this item is measuring something different from scale. Working Environment Case Processing Summary N % Cases Valid 100 99.0 Excludeda 1 1.0 Total 101 100.0 a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .466 4 Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item-Total Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted A positive working environment is important for me to perform well on my job 11.36 4.839 .189 .471 I am satisfied with working environment in my organization 11.69 3.832 .389 .256 You have the necessary tools, adequate working space and appropriate equipment to perform your duties affectively. 11.79 4.673 .262 .399 Working environment matters a lot in increasing my performance 11.33 5.233 .236 .423
  • 28. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 28 Motivation Case Processing Summary N % Cases Valid 100 99.0 Excludeda 1 1.0 Total 101 100.0 a. Listwise deletion based on all variables in the procedure. Reliability Statistics Cronbach's Alpha N of Items .507 5 Item-Total Statistics Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item- Total Correlation Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted Motivation enhance my capabilities 17.06 4.178 .278 .451 Motivation should be encouraged in all organizations 17.00 3.980 .340 .409 I feel motivated when colleagues appreciate me 16.95 4.270 .359 .408 The expectations of others from me make me feel motivated 17.11 3.978 .297 .438 Incentive, promotion and working environment motivate me 17.12 4.632 .137 .539 Table of case processing summary shows that the number of items are correct. Reliability statistics is showing cronbach’s Alpha of .507 which is less 7. It cannot be considered reliable. Table of item total statistics shows that corrected total correlation is showing few values above .3 . It is showing that this item is measuring something different from scale.
  • 29. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 29 Findings of Study Limitations  We have less time to investigate  Sample size was small  Some employees don’t cooperate with us  Employees were not easily accessible  Some Employees don’t provide accurate and satisfactory information  Some employees excuse to give their time  Our research result is based on limited area Conclusion and suggestions We have made a very extensive research and have come to this point after analyzing all the data gathered through questionnaire that most of the employees of different organizations, which we have surveyed, are de-motivated and dissatisfied with their job. The main reason behind their motivation, which we have concluded is that employees perceive that their job is interesting but the monetary and non-monetary rewards which they are receiving are not much sufficient according to their needs. So therefore all the employees have answered that “Yes” they feel their job is interesting and challenging but our rewards should be increased. Therefore they have said that they are not thinking of ways to get out of work. Moreover they also perceive that their job is matched with their personality therefore only a few employees have given answer against it. Motivation of employees can leads the organization towards success and achievement of vision, so organizations should introduced such a reward system that can motivate their employees. Salary packages should be increased according to the nature of job. Other factors such as working conditions, and promotion opportunities also affects the motivation level of employees, so banks should also consider these factors as well.
  • 30. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 30 Appendix Questionnaire: We are students of Bahauddin Zakariya University, MBA 3rd Semester. Dear survey participant, we are conducting a research about Role of organizational reward on employees motivation. Please complete the questionnaire by sharing your honest opinion and experiences. All the information provided by you will be confidential. Gender: (1) Male (2) Female Name:………………………………………………. Age: (1) Below 20 (2) 20---30 (3) 30---40 (4) above 40 Organization Name:……………………………………………………………………………….. Please tick the relevant column’s showing scales from “Strongly disagree” to “Strongly agree”. Statements Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 1 2 3 4 5 (Independent Variables) Handsome Salary package 1 You are getting handsome salary packages 2 The salary you are getting is commensurate with the job you are performing 3 Good salary is main motivation for me 4 I am satisfied with my current salary Bonuses and Incentives 5 Bonuses improves your performance 6 All tasks to be accomplished are associated with bonuses and incentives 7 In the organization bonus scheme is satisfactory
  • 31. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 31 8 Money motivates me to exert more effort in my work 9 Attractive benefit packages will boost my motivation to work hard Promotion Opportunities 10 If current organization increase your job responsibility with increase in pay scale, you will accept it 11 Promotion opportunities motivate me to higher performance 12 There are opportunies for promotion in the organization 13 Promotion purely depends on performance 14 Promotion opportunities are equally distributed in the organization Working Environment 15 A positive working environment is important for me to perform well on my job 16 I am satisfied with working environment in my organization 17 You have the necessary tools, adequate working space and appropriate equipment to perform your duties affectively. 18 Working environment matters a lot in increasing my performance (Dependent variable) Motivation 19 Motivation enhance my capabilities 20 Motivation should be encouraged in all organizations 21 I feel motivated when colleagues appreciate me 22 The expectations of others from me make me feel motivated
  • 32. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 32 23 Incentive, promotion and working environment motivate me References Primary Data UBL Farid town, Sahiwal. Standard Chartered Bank, Mission Chowk Sahiwal. Faysal Bank, Sahiwal. Punjab group of colleges chichawatni. Punjab group of colleges khanewal. Aims Technologies Faisalabad. Govt Model High School Khanewal Secondary Data The Effects of External Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation - Practical Applications, Gabriel “Venom” Wilson, BSc. (Hons), CSCS.www.abcbodybuilding.com http://www.mona.uwi.edu/spsw/downloads/coursemat/PS66G/2005- 2006/sem2/meyer_becker_vandenberghe_2004_motivation_and_employee_commi.pdf Employee Commitment and Motivation: A Conceptual Analysis and Integrative Model, John P. Meyer, Thomas E. Becker, Christian Vandenberghe Power rewards: Rewards that really motivate, Dean R. Spitzer Organizational Behavior and Motivation: Psychological and sociological insights, William Quisenberry
  • 33. The role organizational rewards on employees motivation Page 33 Motivation (jimmy wales) Developing a More Empirical1 Approach to Culture, Attitude and Motivation in Construction Management Research: A critique and a Proposal, John Rooke Magnetized Target Fusion A Proof-of-Principle Research Proposal, K. F. Schoenberg and R. E. Siemon