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Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
Refinery Processing Reactors
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Refinery Processing Reactors

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Presentation on Fluidized Bed Reactor

Presentation on Fluidized Bed Reactor

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  • 1. Topics to be discussed  Introduction  Principle  Hydrodynamics  Kinetics Mechanism  Catalyst Requirement  Advantage  Disadvantage  Suppliers  Further Challanges
  • 2. Introduction  History  Exxon Mobil, 1942  Increase in Demand  Thermal Catalytic Reactor
  • 3. Applications Petroleum Industry Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Fluidized Bed Coking
  • 4. Other Applications  PetroChemical Industry  Polymers, rubber, Polyethylenes, styrene  Coal Industry i.e. Gasification  WasteWater Treatment  Nuclear Industry
  • 5. U.SA Catalytic Cracking Unit Ref: U.S.A Energy Information Administration http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/dnav/pet/hist/mcrccus2A.htm
  • 6. Principle  MultiplePhases  Solid Catalyst  Gas distributors  Liquid Feed  Complex Reactions within same unit
  • 7. Hydrodynamics
  • 8. Hydrodynaimcs  Incipient Fluidization  Minimum Fluidization Velocity  Superficial Velocity  Settling Velocity
  • 9. Minimum Fluid Velocity  Definition  Role  Calculation
  • 10. Settling Velocity  Definition  Role  Calculation
  • 11. Fluidization regimes Umf Umb Uch U U Solids Return Solids Return Solids Return Gas Fixed Particulate Bubbling Slug Flow Turbulent Fast Pneumatic Bed Regime Regime Regime Regime Fluidization Conveying Increasing Gas Velocity 24
  • 12. Kinetic Mechanism Catalyst Modification Flow Regime Reaction Rates calculation Side Reactions
  • 13. Kinetic Mechanism  Kinetic equation can be presented as:
  • 14. Kinetic Mechanism  Reaction rates can be presented as:
  • 15. Catalyst
  • 16. Catalyst Properties Requirement  Good stability to high temperature and to steam  High activity  Large pore sizes
  • 17. Catalyst Properties Requirement  Good resistance to attrition  Low coke production
  • 18. Examples of Catalyst  Zeolites  Faujasite  Mixtures of aluminium oxide and silicon dioxide.
  • 19. Economics News  Global Demand for catalyst used in the refining industry is set to grow about $3.7 billion dollars in 2011  Under new infiationary economic pressures and environmental demands the market may reach up to $4.8 billion dollars Ref:http://www.nanomarkets.net/
  • 20. Major Drivers/Suppliers  Albemarle Cooperation  W.R.Grace Company  BASF Catalysts
  • 21. Advantage
  • 22. Advantage  Uniform Particle Mixing  Uniform Temperature Gradient
  • 23. Advantage  High Valued Products  High Efficiency
  • 24. Advantage  Enhancement of Heat Transfer  Enhancement of Mass Transfer  Continuous State
  • 25. Disadvantage
  • 26. Disadvantage Size of Reactor Energy Requirement
  • 27. Disadvantage  Particle Entrainment  Erosion of Internal Components
  • 28. Disadvantage  Attrition  Understanding of Kinetics
  • 29. Before Operation
  • 30. After Operation
  • 31. Erosion
  • 32. Major Driver and Supplier  ABB Lummus Global  ExxonMobil Research and Engineering  Shell Global Solutions  Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation
  • 33. Major Driver and Supplier  Universal Oil Products  Honeywell  Kellogg Brown and Root  World Largest Reactor
  • 34. Challenges/Research Areas  Design of Catalyst  Understanding the complex kinetics  Modelling of the Process  Scale up issues
  • 35. Conclusion  Operation and Understanding of the reactor mechanism is very complex  Each type of reactor has its own merits and demerits and its limitations  Catalyst design plays an important role in operation of reactors
  • 36. Conclusion  Trickle bed reactor modeling seem to be complex and challenging  Bubble column reactor efficiently work for slow reaction  Moving bed reactor work can efficiently for catalytic cracking
  • 37. Conclusion  Membrane reactors are most important due to their unique applications  Fluidized bed reactors are integral and most important in catalytic cracking
  • 38. References  Harvey, H. (1970).’ Challenges facing the petroleum industry to the year 2000: an appraisal’. Fuel, vol. 49, pp. 357-374  Hansen, J.A. & Cooper,B.H. (1992).’ Process simulation of refinery units including chemical reactors’.Computers & Chemical Engi  Han, I.S, Chung, B.C. & Riggs, J.B. ( 2000). ‘Modeling of a fluidized catalytic cracking process’. Computers and Chemical Engineering, vol. 24, pp. 1681-1687  Elnashaie, S.S.E.H & Elshishini, S.S. (1993).’Modelling, simulation and optimization of industrial fixed bed catalytic reactor  Pedernera, M., Borio, D.O & Porras, J.A. (1996).’ A new cocurrent reactor for ammonia synthesis’. Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 51, pp. 2927-2932  Villamil, F.D.V., Marroquin, J.O., Paz, C.d.l.P. & Rodriguez, E. (2004). ‘A catalytic distillation process for light gas oil hydrodesulfurization’. Chemical Engineering and ProcessingI, vol. 43,pp. 1309-1316  Speight, J. & Ancheyta, J. (). Hydroprocessing of heavy oils and residuals.  Furimsky, E. (1998). ‘Selection of catalysts and reactors for hydroprocessing’. Applied Catalysis, vol. 171, pp. 177-206  Mederos, F.S., Ancheyta, J. & Chen, J. (2009).’ Review on criteria to ensure ideal behaviors in trickle-bed reactors’. Applied Catalysis,vol. 355, pp. 1-19  Herk, D.V., Kreutzer, M.T., Makkee, M. & Moulijn, J.A. ( 2005).’ Scaling down trickle bed reactors’.Catalysis Today, vol. 106, pp. 227-232  Urseanu, M.I., Boelhouwer, J.G., Bosman, H.J.M., Schroijen,J.C. & Kwant, G. (2005).’ Estimation of trickle-to-pulse flow regime transition and pressure drop in high-pressure trickle bed reactors with organic liquids’. Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 111, pp. 5-11

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