A tribute to Ancient Indian surgery

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  • SVASTIKA YANTRAS

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  • 1. SURGICAL LEGACY OFSUSHRUTHA’S IN ANCIENT INDIA… Dr.ANIL PANDE Neurosurgeon,VHS Hospital, Chennai, India. Click for the next
  • 2. The beginning of the medical sciencesin India have been traced to theproficiency of the Indus valley peoplein town planning, sanitation, andhygiene,representing the oldestsurviving examples of townplanning…… indicate remarkableconcern for public health.. D.P.SINGHAL India and world civilization Click for the next
  • 3. PAVED BATHROOM AND BRICKWALLMOHENJO-DARO (c.3300BC) Click for the next
  • 4. A DESCENDENT OF VISWAMITHRA?SUSHRUTHA, SURGEON OF ANCIENT INDIA, PERFORMINGAN ARTIFICIAL EAR LOBE (BY ROBERT ATHOM). Click for the next
  • 5. WHEN DID HE LIVE ? MENTIONED IN THE MAHABHARATHA (1000 BC).WESTERN SCHOLARS PLACE HIM 2nd TO 4th CENTURY A.D. --- NOT ACCEPTED BY MANY. Click for the next
  • 6. SUSHRUTHA SAMHITA ORIGINSATHARVA VEDA S VIRDDHA A TRAYI OF ANCIENTS” “TRIADAYURVEDA M (The fifth Veda) H CHARAKA I (Knowledge of life) SUSHRUTHA T VAGABHATA A S Click for the next
  • 7. TRADITIONAL AYURVEDIC GENEOLOGY BRAMHA DAKSHAPRAJAPATI ASHWINI KUMARS DHANAVANTRI INDRA DIVADOSA BHARADWAJA SUSHRUTHA ATREYA Click for the next
  • 8. MANUSCRIPT PAGE FROM ATHARVAVEDA TUBINGENDHANVANTARI HOVERING ABOVEVISHNU BAS – RELIEF FRAGMENTFROM ANGKOR WAT Click for the next
  • 9. “THE ENCYCLOPEDIC WORKS OFCHARAKA AND SUSHRUTHA ARE THE PRODUCTS OF A FULLY EVOLVED SYSTEM WHICH RESEMBLES THOSEOF HIPPOCRATES, AND GALEN IN SOME RESPECTS; AND WHICH IN OTHERSHAD DEVELOPED BEYOND THEM”. A.L. BASHAM “The Wonder that was India” Click for the next
  • 10. SUSHRUTHA SAMHITATEACHING INITIALLY BY WORD OF MOUTH -- THEREFORE THE TIME OF ORIGIN IS STILL CONTROVERSIAL.PRESENT THOUGHT: 10 – 6TH BC.Revised byNAGARJUNA 2nd – 4thcentury BCKITAB-I-SUSRURD 8th Century AD (Mentioned by Rhazes as authority on surgery) Click for the next
  • 11. SUSHRUTHA SAMHITA INCORPORATES IN IT ALL THE CLASSICAL 8 LIMBS OF AYURVEDA. SALYA (MAJOR SURGERY) SALKYA (SUPRACLAVICLE SURGERY) KAYACIKITSA (MEDICINE) BHUTAVIDYA (DEMONOLOGY) KUMARABHRTYA (PAEDIATRICS & OBSTETRICS) AGADATANTRA (TOXICOLOGY) RASAYANATANTRA (STUDY OF ELIXIRS) VAGIKARNATANTRA (SCIENCE OF FERTILITY AND VIRILITY) Click for the next
  • 12. SUSHRUTHA SAMHITA VRADDHA SUSHRUTHA 120 ChaptersSUTRA STHANA Fundamental principlesNIDANA EtiologySARIRA STHANA Anatomy and PhysiologyCIKITSA STHANA TherapeuticsKALPA STHANA ToxicologyOther notable chapters are on # training and attributes of a surgeon # surgical instruments # dreams Click for the next
  • 13. SUSHRUTHA SAMHITA UTTARA TANTRA An addendum? Work of later authors and commentators. Click for the next
  • 14. Sushrutha SamhitaSUTRA STHANA THERE ARE FOUR DIFFERENT TYPES OF DISEASES.# AGANTUKA TRAUMATIC OR EXTRANEOUS ORIGIN# SARIRA BODILY# MANASA ? MENTAL# SWABAVIKA NATURAL (Excessive anger, grief, fear, joy, despondency, envy,misery, pride, greed, lust, desire, malice, are included within the category of manasa disorders.) Click for the next
  • 15. FACT OR MYTH ? “ANOTHER SIGNIFICANTFEATURE OF HINDU MEDICINE WAS THEABSENCE OF ANY ATTEMPT TORECOGNIZE DISEASES OF THE BRAIN”. H.J.J WINTER In A.L.BASHAM ’s A cultural History of India 1974, Oxford. Click for the next
  • 16. Rare mention about the Brain?! SARIRA STHANAIn the fifth month the fetus is endowed with the mind and wakes up from the sleep of his subconscious existence.In the sixth month cognition (Buddhi)comes in.In the seventh month all the limbs and members of its body are markedly developed.SANUKA says that probably the head of the fetus is the first developed since head is the only organ that makes the functions of all other organs possible. Click for the next
  • 17. SHIROROGA --- Disorders of the HeadVATAVYADHI --- Disorders of “Vayu” AKSHEPAKA C0NVULSIONS PAKSHAVADHA HEMIPLEGIA ARDITA TOTAL PARALYSIS DANDA PATANKA ?PARKINSONS MANYA STAMBHA STIFF NECK JIHAVASTAMBHA PARALYSIS OF TONGUE GRIDHARASI SCIATICA MURCHA FAINTING DHANUSH STAMBHA TETANUS APASMARA EPILEPSY UNMADA MADNESS Click for the next
  • 18. SUSHRUTHA CONSIDERED THE HEAD AS THE CENTER OF ALL SPECIAL SENSES, AND DESCRIBES CERTAIN CRANIAL NERVES CONNECTED WITH SPECIFIC SENSORY FUNCTIONS. Click for the next
  • 19. # two nerves lower down at the back of ear (vidhura) which if cut produce deafness.# a pair of nerves inside the two nostrils which if cut cause anosmia.# a pair of nerves below the end of the eyebrow which if cut causes blindness. -Keswani.N.H. Medical Heritage of India Click for the next
  • 20. “Ten nerves maintain thefunctions of the body by carryingimpulses of sound,touch,vision, taste,smell, respiration, sighing, yawning,hunger, laughing, speech, and crying…” “A pair of nerve eachresponds to sound, touch, vision, taste,and smell.” Sushrutha Samhita Click for the next
  • 21. SVASTIKA YANTRAS Total no of instruments mentioned in the Sushrutha tantra 125Forceps Saws Cauteries 20 types SyringesSpecula NeedlesScalpels TrocarsScissors Catheters Click for the next
  • 22. SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS DESCRIBEDIN SUSHRUTHA SAMHITA Click for the next
  • 23. SURGERYSpecific fumigation techniques,Cautery with fire and alkali,Use of Ants to staple wounds, POORVAKARMA PRADHANAKARMA PACHATHAKARMA # Pre operative sedation. # Sammohini. # Sanjivini. Click for the next
  • 24. Influence on the worldThe patronage of the Abbasid Caliphs atBAGHDAD 762.A.D. and most especially HARUN AL RASHID (786-809) keptthe torch of learning alive during thedark ages.Indian Physicians were in charge oftheir hospitals, and one Manaktranslated the SUSHRUTHA SAMITHAinto ARABIC (8th century AD). Click for the next
  • 25. HINDU MEDICINE WAS AN INDEPENDENT DEVELOPMENT; ARAB MEDICINE WAS FOUNDED ON TRANSLATION OF SANSKRIT TREATISE, AND EUROPEAN MEDICINE DOWN TO THE SEVENTH CENTURY WAS BASED UPON THE LATIN VERSION OF THE ARABIAN TRANSLATION. -SIR WILLIAM HUNTER (1718-1783) Click for the next
  • 26. THE DIASPORA OF ANCIENT INDIAN MEDICAL KNOWLEDGE Click for the next
  • 27. An Arab Surgeon Performing the ancient cataractOperation called COUCHING first described bySUSHRUTHA. Click for the next
  • 28. “Medicine can now be regarded as theoldest of the Indian sciences, and havebeen proved to be the science in which Indians specialized first”. Julius Jolly as quoted in ‘Indian Medicine’ by C.G.KASHIKAR Click for the next
  • 29. “INDIAN SURGERYREMAINED AHEAD OF EUROPEANUNTIL THE 18TH CENTURY,WHEN THESURGEONS OF THE EAST INDIACOMPANY WERE NOT ASHAMED TOLEARN THE ART OF RHINOPLASTYFROM THE INDIANS”. A.L.BASHAM (The wonder that was India, 1971) Click for the next
  • 30. SUSHRUTHA SAMHITASushrutha divided 1120 diseases into natural and supernatural.He taught palpation and auscultation of heart, lungs, and womb; and advocated the use of special senses.He was the pioneer of most teaching techniques in experimental and clinical surgery. Click for the next
  • 31. CONCLUSION To Sushrutha, belongs the honor ofbeing called “the FATHER OF SURGERY” and the ‘PATRON OF A SURGEON IN TRAINING’, as he was the first before all to emphasize on practical training in experimental and clinical surgery.