• NFC or Near Field Communication is a short range high
frequency wireless communication technology.
• A radio communication is established by touching the
two phones or keeping them in a proximity of a few
• NFC is mainly aimed for mobile or handheld devices.
• NFC is an extension of Radio frequency identification or
• RFID is mainly used for tracking and identification by
sending radio waves.
• In 1983 the first patent to be associated with the
abbreviation RFID was granted to Charles Walton.
• In 2004, NFC Forum was formed by Nokia, Philips,
Sony, to set standards for NFC .
• In 2006 initial specifications for NFC Tags
• In 2006 first mobile phone( nokia 6131) with nfc
released by nokia.
• Android produced its first NFC phone, the
Samsung Nexus S, in 2010
• NFC is based on RFID which is a system that
communicates using radio waves between a
reader and an electronic tag attached to an
• operating frequency 13.56 MHz.data rate
106 kbit/s to 424 kbit/s.
• NFC use an initiator and a target; the initiator
actively generates an RF field that can power a
OPERATION OF NFC
• Near field communication is based on
• NFC works using magnetic induction between
two loop antennas located within each other's
• Passive entities
• Tags are Unpowered chips having built-in radios
and wireless reader.
• They don't require batteries. They get their
power from just being near a powered NFC
device, for example a mobile phone.
• NFC tags, for example stickers or wristbands,
contain small microchips with little aerials which
can store a small amount of information for
transfer to another NFC device.
There are two modes:
• Passive communication mode: The initiator device
provides a carrier fields and the target device answers
by modulating the existing field. In this mode, the
target device may draw its operating power from the
initiator-provided electromagnetic field, thus making
the target device a transponder.
• Active communication mode: Both initiator and target
device communicate by alternately generating their
own fields. A device deactivates its RF field while it is
waiting for data. In this mode, both devices typically
have power supplies.
• Reader/Writer Mode(Proximity Coupling
Device):This mode allow the user to retrieve
• Peer-to-Peer: This mode allow two NFC enabled
devices to establish a bidirectional connection to
exchange contacts, Bluetooth pairing information
or any other kind of data.
• Card Emulation (Proximity Inductive Coupling Card,
PICC):This mode is useful for payment and
ticketing applications for example.
USES AND APPLICATION
• Connect electronic devices .
• Access digital content, using a wireless device such as a mobile
phone to read a “smart” poster embedded with an RF tag,url etc.
• Make contactless transactions, including those for payment, access
• Exchange of information such as schedules, maps, business card
and coupon delivery in a few hundred milliseconds;
• Pay for items just by waving your phone over the NFC capable
• Transferring images, posters for displaying and printing
• It could, for example, replace the pairing step of
• NFC can be used in social networking situations, such as sharing
contacts, photos, videos or files ,and entering multiplayer mobile
CATEGORIES OF NFC
• Touch and Go: Applications such as access control or
transport/event ticketing, where the user needs only to bring the
device storing the ticket or access code close to the reader. Also, for
simple data capture applications, such as picking up an Internet URL
from a smart label on a poster.
• Touch and Confirm: Applications such as mobile payment where
the user has to confirm the interaction by entering a password or
just accepting the transaction.
• Touch and Connect: Linking two NFC-enabled devices to enable
peer to peer transfer of data such as downloading music,
exchanging images or synchronizing address books.
• Touch and Explore: NFC devices may offer more than one possible
function. The consumer will be able to explore a device's
capabilities to find out which functionalities and services are
offered. Eg -url tags
There are several important areas for near field
communications security. Some of the major
NFC security areas are listed below:.
• Data corruption
• Data modification
ADVANTAGES OF NFC
• High convenience to the user, because the
data exchange is done by bringing two devices
• Reduces cost of electronic issuance .
• Secure communication.
• No special software.
• No manual configuration and settings.
• No search and pair procedure.
DISADVANTAGES OF NFC
• The system has the limitation that it can be
operated only with devices under a short
range i.e around 10 cm.
• The data transfer rate is very less at about
106kbps, 212 kbps and 424kbps
Mobile handsets are the primary target for NFC
and soon NFC will be implemented in most
handheld devices. Even though NFC have the
shortest range among radio frequency
technologies, combining them with existing
technologies like Bluetooth or Infrared can
increase its range of applications.