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X paragraph writing_2
X paragraph writing_2
X paragraph writing_2
X paragraph writing_2
X paragraph writing_2
X paragraph writing_2
X paragraph writing_2
X paragraph writing_2
X paragraph writing_2
X paragraph writing_2
X paragraph writing_2
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X paragraph writing_2

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  • 1. SUBJECT - ENGLISH CLASS - VIII CHAPTER - PARAGRAPH WRITING MODULE - ADVANCED PARAGRAPH WRITING [Anchor1] Hello friends. We had started off last time with the basics of paragraph writing. Lets recall what all we had learnt. VO with Text on Screen • A paragraph is a piece of writing that deals with a single thought or idea. • A paragraph is made up of sentences related to each other by a common topic. • Outlines are incomplete sentences meant to guide us in writing the paragraph. • Writing the outlines as grammatically correct and meaningful sentences is called developing the outlines. • We must stick to the topic and the outlines given to us. So keeping these basics as the base let us set our learning objectives for today’s module. Learning Objectives Upon completion of this module, the learner will be able to- • Develop the outline into complete meaningful sentences. • Order the sentences to give flow and clarity to a paragraph • Apply the rules while writing a paragraph to make it crisp and meaningful [Anchor 2] Given the outlines, we had written the points as complete, meaningful sentences. But, the way we develop our outlines is also important as it makes our paragraph a better one. As we proceed, we will look at the rules which will help us to write a beautiful paragraph. Our friends Nikki and Deepu had got their outlines by interviewing their colony residents. They have now developed their outlines. Let us see how their paragraph ‘My Colony’ looks. VO with Text on Screen
  • 2. My Colony Excellent park… for morning walks and exercise… has swings… no electricity, water problems… good security for residents… friendly neighbours… school and hospital nearby… calm and peaceful environment Our colony has an excellent park. The park in our colony is very good for morning walks. The park in our colony is also good for exercises. The park in our colony also has very good swings. There is no electricity or water problem in our colony. There is good security for the residents of our colony. The neighbours are friendly. There is a school and a hospital nearby. The colony has a very calm and peaceful environment. I think it is the best colony of the city. [For MM] Show the conversation between characters Akash : You have written all the points in the outline as complete sentences. Now let us beautify the paragraph. Nikki : How can we improve our paragraph? Akash : Firstly, look at the topic of your paragraph. It says ‘My Colony’. So everywhere in your paragraph, you need not mention that it is your colony. It is obvious that you wouldn’t talk about some other place in a paragraph titled ‘My Colony’. So you need not repeat the fact that it is your colony. Similarly when you are talking about the park in your colony in the first line, you need not mention again that it is the park in your colony. You could just say ‘the park’. The person reading your paragraph will understand that it is the same park. Deepu : So, we should avoid repeating things unnecessarily. VO with Text on Screen RULE 2 : Do not repeat words or phrases unnecessarily. [Anchor 3] Yes children. Paragraph is something which is very short. There is no scope for repetition in it. Unnecessarily repeating words makes our paragraph dull and boring. By using pronouns like he, she or it; we can make our paragraph crisper and fresher. At times, when we are talking about the topic itself, it is understood to the reader. We need not explicitly mention it again and again. It is an accepted fact that the paragraph will talk about its title. All sentences will be read and interpreted in the context of its topic. Let us see how the paragraph Nikki and Deepu wrote looks now, after they have chopped off the words they were repeating earlier. VO with Text on Screen
  • 3. My Colony Earlier version: Our colony has an excellent park. The park in our colony is very good for morning walks. The park in our colony is also good for exercises. The park in our colony also has very good swings. There is no electricity or water problem in our colony. There is good security for the residents of our colony. The neighbours are friendly. There is a school and a hospital nearby. The colony has a very calm and peaceful environment. I think it is the best colony of the city. Corrected version: Our colony has an excellent park. The park is very good for morning walks. It is also good for exercises. It also has very good swings. There is no electricity or water problem. There is good security for the residents. The neighbours are friendly. There is a school and a hospital nearby. The colony has a very calm and peaceful environment. I think it is the best colony of the city. [For MM] Show the conversation between characters Akash : The next rule you should keep in mind is to make the sentences crisp and brief. The paragraph is very short. We should write only to the point. Try to group the sentences using conjunctions. Nikki : Can we write all sentences about the park together? Akash : Yes. That would make your paragraph neater and shorter. Deepu : Let’s do that. VO with Text on Screen RULE 3 : The paragraph should be brief and to the point. [Anchor 4] Since the length of the paragraph is limited, we need not elaborate the points. There is no need to explain the sentences in our paragraph. Just writing clear and complete sentences is enough. If we just stick to our outlines and write them as clear sentences, it is enough. We need not clarify them further. Not being crisp and to the point makes our paragraph a very poorly written one. There might be many things that you want to say, but say it in the neatest possible manner, so that the reader understands it. For example, we asked Geeta why she didn’t come to school yesterday. Look at the answer she gave [For MM] Show the conversation between characters {Face of an 8 year old girl with a bubble with the following text. Voice over.}
  • 4. Geeta : Ma’m, I had to go for my cousin’s wedding. The wedding was in Mumbai. Do you know it takes two days by train to reach there? Mumbai is very crowded. Everybody is so busy there. Didi’s lehenga was so beautiful… We asked Payal the same question. Look at her reply. {Face of another 8 year old girl with a bubble with the following text. Voice over.} Payal: Ma’m, I had gone for my cousin’s wedding in Mumbai. [Anchor 5] We wanted to know only why Geeta hadn’t come to school. We were not interested in the details of Mumbai and the wedding. All the extra information made Geeta’s answer unnecessarily long. In our paragraph, we must not only avoid giving unnecessary information but should also avoid speaking elaborately. Try to find the smallest sentence to convey your point. Do not repeat the sentences. Be short and crisp. Only then will the reader enjoy reading your paragraph and get influenced by it. Using conjunctions is a very good idea of grouping sentences. For example: In the paragraph that Nikki and Deepu are writing, they talk about the park in their colony in the first three sentences. They could have grouped the sentences together. Let us see how the sentences look after grouping. VO with Text on Screen My Colony Earlier version: Our colony has an excellent park. The park is very good for morning walks. It is also good for exercises. It also has very good swings. Corrected version: Our colony has an excellent park which is very good for morning walks and exercises. It also has very good swings. [Anchor 6] Using conjunctions like ‘and’, ‘while’, ‘which’ etc helps us group sentences and make our paragraph crisper. The next thing that we should be careful about is the order of thoughts. VO with Text on Screen RULE 4 : Sentences should be in proper sequence. [Anchor 7] When we want to convey a thought, sequence makes a difference. Look at the following sentences.
  • 5. VO with Text on Screen I fell down. I was playing in the garden. A stone came in the way. I started cycling; I began to get bored. [Anchor 8] These sentences don’t seem to make any sense. Let’s rearrange them and again take a look at them. VO with Text on Screen I was playing in the garden. I began to get bored. I started cycling. A stone came in the way. I fell down. [Anchor 9] Now the sentences begin to make sense. We are able to follow the sentences logically and understand what must have happened. Similarly in your paragraph, make sure the sentences are in proper order. Do not mix up the order of the sentences in the outline. [For MM] Show the conversation between characters Akash : Now your paragraph looks much better. But, does it look like you are talking to somebody? When we speak, do we speak separate sentences? Or is there some connection between them? Nikki : Connection? What do you mean by that? We cant group all the sentences. Akash : You cant group all sentences. But you can at least relate them to each other. VO with Text on Screen RULE 5 : Relate sentences to each other. [Anchor 9] When we speak, we not only speak the sentences in a particular order but also connect the lines. After we finish speaking a sentence, there should be a reason why we are speaking the next sentence, otherwise it begins to sound illogical right? For example, look at the following 2 sentences.
  • 6. VO with Text on Screen I had ice-cream. I got a sore throat. [Anchor 10] The sentences by themselves are not related. It is not necessary that you got a sore throat because of the ice-cream. The reader is left wondering why you mentioned that you got the sore throat. He also doesn’t know whether you got the sore throat because of the ice-cream or not. A simple conjunction could have related the two sentences and made your paragraph easier to understand. VO with Text on Screen I had ice-cream and got a sore throat. I had ice-cream and so I got a sore throat. I had ice-cream because of which I got a sore throat. I had ice-cream as a result of which I got a sore throat. [Anchor 11] Any of these sentences sounds better than what we had previously. Depending upon the conjunction that you use, the length of the sentence may vary. Try to choose the link which uses minimum words but conveys the meaning successfully. It doesn’t matter if linking sentences makes the paragraph slightly longer than what it would be with individual sentences. Just a group of sentences does not constitute a paragraph. A paragraph is a group of related sentences. So, we must relate the sentences and show the link between them. It is not only easier to understand but also sounds better when one thought arises naturally out of the previous. It looks like a single paragraph without abrupt jerks or change of track. Look at these sentences. VO with Text on Screen Lot of energy is wasted in overwork. Energy is restored by leisure. Lot of energy is wasted in overwork and this energy is restored by leisure. [Anchor 12] Thus, usage of pronouns and conjunctions makes our paragraph more sensible and logical. Well connected sentences are a sign of a good paragraph. At times, it is necessary to write the first sentence of the paragraph ourselves from the topic. The first sentence of the outline may not make sense independently. We may need a sentence before starting with developing the outline. For example: VO with Text on Screen Topic : Visit to market place Very crowded… noisy… lots of shops… banners for sale, discount… people bargaining…
  • 7. [Anchor 13] If we start off by saying the market place was very crowded, it will appear senseless. Which market place? What is the theme of the paragraph? All sorts of questions will arise in the mind of the reader. In such cases, it is useful to write an introductory sentence ourselves, so that the rest of the sentences of the outline then begin to make sense. We could write… VO with Text on Screen I went to visit the market place one day. It was very crowded and noisy. There were lots of shops and banners for sale and discount were put up outside them. I could see many people bargaining. [Anchor 14] The first line ‘I went to visit the market place one day’ clarifies the topic in the mind of the reader. The sentence not only helps us link the remaining sentences but also gives the paragraph a proper shape. [Animation] Akash : We need not write the same words as those given in the outline. To make the sentences more meaningful, we may add words or change words according to our will. Deepu : But we should not miss out any point given in the outline. Akash : Right. You can add things and modify sentences, but do not skip any point given in the outline. The outline tells you the major points which your paragraph must contain. Nikki : Now, I understand what you meant by developing the outlines beautifully. How we elaborate the sentences, what words we use and how we connect the sentences makes the difference between a good and a bad paragraph. Akash : Yes, let us modify your paragraph now. [Anchor 15] Let us see how the paragraph looks after modification. VO with Text on Screen My Colony Earlier version: Our colony has an excellent park which is very good for morning walks and exercises. It also has very good swings. There is no electricity or water problem. There is good security for the residents. The neighbours are friendly. There is a school and a hospital nearby. The colony has a very calm and peaceful environment. I think it is the best colony of the city.
  • 8. Corrected Version: Very few people know about our colony. Our colony has an excellent park which is very good for morning walks and exercises. It also has very good swings. There is no electricity or water problem here. There is good security for the residents. It is fun living here as the neighbours are friendly and helpful. The school and hospital nearby make living more secure for the children and the aged. The colony has a very calm and peaceful environment. I think it is the best colony of the city. [Anchor 16] Even if the paragraph is longer than what it was before, it is worth it. Now the paragraph sounds better and also has a better impact. We can include short proverbs or emphatic statements to make our paragraph more attractive. The paragraph is a creative piece of writing. The main aim is to write down our thoughts in an arranged manner and influence the reader. If including something in your paragraph makes it more attractive, then go ahead and do it. All paragraphs don’t look alike. There is no single way in which a given set of outlines can be developed. Different people use different words, different tools to make their paragraph unique and to have an impact on the readers. Be free to make your paragraph unique while staying withing the boundaries of the given outlines. [For MM] Show the conversation between characters Deepu : Bhaiya, does our paragraph look neat and crisp now? Akash : It looks much better. Just one last thing remains. Nikki : What is that Bhaiya? Akash : Look at the last line. VO with Text on Screen I think it is the best colony of the city. [For MM] Show the conversation between characters Akash : While writing paragraphs, we must avoid giving our own views. Nikki : But, you yourself said, we could add our own sentences. We need not write exactly what was given in the outlines. Akash : You can write your own sentences, choose your own words. But avoid voicing your thoughts and views. A paragraph is a very short piece of writing, where the reader just gets a quick idea of the topic. There is no limit to the length of a paragraph, no definite rule about the number of sentences in a paragraph. But, writing our views, thoughts and opinions in a paragraph is not very appropriate.
  • 9. Deepu : But our colony won the NSF Best residential colony award last year. Akash : Then, mention that. Don’t say that you think it’s the best colony. Say that the colony won the award. Nikki : So facts and accepted thoughts are what we should include in our paragraph. Personal opinions and views should be avoided. VO with Text on Screen RULE 6: Avoid writing personal opinions and views on the topic. [Anchor 17] It is better to state facts and thoughts as they are instead of presenting our personal opinions and views. Thus we need to be brief and to the point. But the sentences should be related to one another and the whole paragraph should collectively speak about the topic as one whole chunk and not separate sentences. Children, today we have learnt that VO with Text on Screen • We develop the outlines into complete meaningful sentences. • We should not repeat words and phrases unnecessarily. • We should be brief and to the point. • We should write the sentences in proper order. • The sentences should be related to each another. • Personal opinion and views should be avoided. Question - Answer Session Develop paragraphs on the basis of the given outlines. {Question appears and after 3 seconds the answer appears.} Topic: Rainbow Appears after rain… made of seven colours… VIBGYOR… beautiful to watch… signifies life… seven colours combine to make white… Answer: The rainbow appears when sun shines after rain. The rainbow is made of seven colours – violet, indigo, blue, green, yellow, orange and red - collectively known as VIBGYOR. It is a beautiful sight to watch. The rainbow signifies life. The way seven colours combine to make white light, different emotions join together to form life. Topic: Trees – our friends
  • 10. Trees have life… give us fruits… wood… shade… cause rainfall… clean air… we should not cut them… Answer: Trees have life too like humans. Tree give us fruits to eat and wood for making furniture. During summers, they give us shade. Trees cause rainfall and clean the air. We should not cut trees. Topic: A visit to book fair Last Sunday… with friends… many publishing houses displayed books… I bought some… had tea and snacks. Answer: Last Sunday, I visited the World Book Fair with my friends. Many publishing houses had displayed their books. I bought some books on science and technology. At the end of the day, we felt tired and had tea and snacks. [Anchor 18] Here are some outlines. Develop these into paragraphs yourselves. {Question appears and after 3 seconds the answer appears.} Topic: Education Must for every child… imparts knowledge… makes the child intelligent… tackles issues with wisdom… has information… education shapes the personality… important for country’s future… Topic: A Street Hawker A familiar figure… seen near schools, bus stands… shout in full voice… attract the customer… sell vegetables, ice-creams… sometimes stale things… life very hard… Topic: Air pollution Clean air essential for life… smoke from vehicles pollute… industrial smoke… ozone layer getting depleted… cause many health hazards… asthma, breathing problems… children most affected… Anchor 19 Children, we now come to the end of our module on Paragraph Writing. I hope this session was easy, and informative. Have a good day! End of the episode

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