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    X common error 121_for beta X common error 121_for beta Document Transcript

    • PES/ENG/X/121 • Alpha version of file. • Pl mention all reqd changes at this stage. • Word limit- 3100 A PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY PRODUCTION COMMON ERRORS Class X ANCHOR Good morning students. Today we are going to talk about some COMMON ERRORS made in English grammar by most of us. Students you will notice these errors are very common and small but very often made by most of us. SUPER But why, when and where do we make such errors? ANCHOR Students English is a borrowed language in our country but it is widely used. While talking in English, there is no one around us to rectify our mistake. So we keep on repeating them. Everyone makes an occasional spelling or grammatical mistake. But if you make them frequently enough in your writing, or even if you just make one or two obvious ones, your credibility goes way down. (write in Punjabi also) SUPER Why do we make such errors? What is the reason behind this? ANCHOR These days, we tend to communicate via the keyboard as much as we do verbally. Often, we're in a hurry, quickly dashing off e-mails with typos, grammatical shortcuts (I'm being kind here), and that breezy, e.e. cummings, no-caps look. It's expected. It's no big deal. But other times, we try to invest a little care, avoiding mistakes so that there's no confusion about what we're saying and so that we look professional and reasonably bright. (write in Punjabi also) SUPER What are the areas where these errors are made? -1-
    • PES/ENG/X/121 ANCHOR Ok before we go further let us go through our learning objectives. LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon completion of the modules, students will be able to: • Indicate the common errors. • Locate the key areas where these errors are made commonly. • Identify their mistakes. • Acquire and learn those steps which will help them in identifying areas of mistakes. • State various examples citing areas of common mistakes. ANCHOR Well students Before we begin our grammar lesson for the day, take a moment to peruse this list of types of writing that loses a reader's respect if he or she finds errors. VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN Newspapers. → Textbooks. → Magazines. → Business proposals. → Emails. → Novels. → Television ads. → Instruction manuals. → Letters of acceptance. → Catalogues. → Dictionaries. → Pill bottles. → Book jackets. → Posters. → Checks. → Clothing tags. → Envelope labels.. → Nutrition Facts. → Closed captioning. → CD cases. → Press releases. → Amazon reader reviews. → Blogs. → Classifieds. → Maps. → Calendars. → Recipes. → Campaign ads. → Captions. → Memos. → Shampoo bottles. Anything that includes words that will be read by another human being. ANCHOR Students, as we have read that these common errors are generally made in grammar portions so let us go through some basic grammar definitions. SUPER Since these are common grammar errors so let us go through our parts of speech first. ANCHOR Noun: VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN A person, place, thing, or idea. Examples: lady, beach, pen, ugliness ANCHOR Adjective: -2-
    • PES/ENG/X/121 VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN a word that describes a noun. Examples: blue, hot, smelly, sixteen, beautiful ANCHOR Verb: VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN a word that describes action or a state of being. Examples: jump, stink, cook, type, was, are, happen, have. ANCHOR Adverb: VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN a word that describes a verb or adjective. Examples: run slowly, too fast, eat now, go unwillingly, very nice ANCHOR Pronoun: VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN a word that stands in for a noun. Examples: he, it, him, they, you ANCHOR Possessive Pronoun: VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN a pronoun that indicates possession. Examples: hers, mine, yours, theirs ANCHOR Preposition: VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN a word that begins a descriptive phrase. Examples: to, of, for, as, over ANCHOR Conjunction: VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN a joining word. There are only 7 and can be remembered with the acronym FANBOYS: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so besides ANCHOR Well now we have brush up all what we require paying attention here. Let us read this anecdote. VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN Who's Counting? Napoleon was involved to conversation with a colonel of a Hungarian battalion who has been taken prisoner in Italy. The colonel mentioned he -3-
    • PES/ENG/X/121 had fought in the army of Maria Theresa. "You must had a few years under your belt!" exclaimed Napoleon. "I'm sure Ive (check it) lives sixty or seventy years," replied the colonel. You mean to say," Napoleon continued, "you have not kept track of the years you have lived?" The colonel promptly replied, "Sir, I always count my money, my shirts, and my horses - but as for my years, I knew nobody who wants to steal them, and I shall surely never loose them." ANCHOR Well students since you have read this anecdote, was there anything unusual about it? Could you see something? Ok let us read this anecdote again and pay attention to words in italics which are made bold for you. VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN Napoleon was involved in conversation with a colonel of a Hungarian battalion who had been taken prisoner in Italy. The colonel mentioned he had fought in the army of Maria Theresa. "You must have a few years under your belt!" exclaimed Napoleon. "I'm sure I’ve lived sixty or seventy years," replied the colonel. “You mean to say," Napoleon continued, "you have not kept track of the years you have lived?" The colonel promptly replied, "Sir, I always count my money, my shirts, and my horses - but as for my years, I know nobody who wants to steal them, and I shall surely never lose them." ANCHOR Students can you see those simple mistakes which have been rectified. Yes these are the common errors which are made frequently by most of us but go unattended. Well students let us now pay attention to some IMPORTANT GRAMMAR PORTIONS where we tend to go wrong in using them. SUPER Lesson 1: Homonyms ANCHOR Homonyms: are words that sound alike but are spelled differently. This is by no means a complete list, but these are some of the most commonly misused homonyms. I will demonstrate how to use them correctly. (write in Punjabi also) VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN -4-
    • PES/ENG/X/121 1) to/too/two: To: I went to the school. I am going to teach you about grammar. Too: It is too hot in here. I want to go, too! Two: I want two bottles of pickle, not three 2) There/their/they're: There: a direction. I put the box over there. There is a cat in the house. Their: a plural possessive pronoun. Where did the children put their toys? Their minds are elsewhere. They're: a contraction of the words "They are." They're getting away! 3) Who's / whose: Who's: a contraction of the words "Who is." Who's responsible for this? I gave it to the man who's in charge. Whose: possessive pronoun. Whose dog is this? We will punish the person whose fault it is. 4) write/rite/right: Write: a verb. Write down your number. Rite: a noun meaning a tradition or ritual. Growing a beard is a rite of passage. Right: three meanings ↓  Adjective meaning "correct." He has the right answer.  Adjective, the direction that's not left. You should turn right at that sign.  Noun that refers to something you are owed. Now that he is eighteen, he has the right to vote. 5) Accept/except: Accept: verb meaning to agree to take something. I accept your apology. I will not accept late papers. Except: two uses – preposition meaning "excluding. " I took everything except the kitchen sink. .conjunction also meaning "excluding." I would have taken the sink, except it was too heavy. ANCHOR Well these are some of the homonyms which are mistakenly used. -5-
    • PES/ENG/X/121 Let us see our next step SUPER Lesson 2: Punctuation ANCHOR I was going to include a capsule on punctuation. I quickly realized, however, that punctuation rules would make up an entire hub in and of itself. Perhaps this will be coming soon. I will name one error, however, that I see many people making. It is the run-on sentence caused by a comma error. VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN Example: I saw this HubPage, I looked at it to fix my grammar ANCHOR Do you see the problem? A comma is simply not a strong enough piece of punctuation to be placed in this spot. Ways to fix: • Since both sides of the sentence are complete thoughts, you could just put them into two sentences: I saw this Hub Page. I looked at it to fix my grammar.  BY USING a conjunction: I saw this Hub Page, so I looked at it to fix my grammar. OR I saw this Hub Page, and I looked at it to fix my grammar.  You could use the semicolon. I saw this Hub Page; I looked at it to fix my grammar. ANCHOR STUDENTS, THESE ARE SIMPLE AND SMALL THINGS WHICH MEANS A LOT IN THIS LANGUAGE AS WRONG USE CAN COMPLETELY CHANGE THE MEANING OF THE SENTENCE ONLY. (write in Punjabi also) SUPER Lesson 3: Plurals versus Possessive VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN This one is a big pet peeve of mine. ANCHOR There are rules for making something plural. There are rules for using to make a word possessive. LEARN THEM NOW! -6-
    • PES/ENG/X/121 Plural: when there is more than one of something. Add -s or -es, no apostrophe. i. These televisions cost a lot of money. ii. The worst kisses are sloppy ones. iii. The numerous errors on your papers indicate a lack of revisions. Possessive: when you indicate that something belongs to something else. Add ’s for singular nouns, and just add an apostrophe for plural nouns. i. The man's tie is crooked. ii. My sisters' dogs are ugly. iii. My dress's zipper caught on the fabric. (Some people prefer to just add a single apostrophe to singular nouns that end in -s. Dress' is also acceptable.) Well this tells you how plurals are used. See this I have two sisters- in - laws. I have two sisters – in- law Now which is correct? Yes the second one because the relation is not plural but the person of that relation can be plural or not. Now next SUPER Lesson 4: Agreement ANCHOR Grammatically speaking, agreement is when the identity of the noun (singular/plural, male/female) matches the identity of another part of the sentence. In English, there are a few types of agreement to watch out for: (write in Punjabi also) 1) Noun/Pronoun: Plural vs. singular is the most common error, especially in cases when talking about a person whom you don't know the gender. Incorrect: "The child was walking their dog." (Personally, I find the politically correct gender neutrality quite annoying. I would just say, "The child was walking his dog.)Child is singular, and their is plural. (write in Punjabi also) Correct: "The child was walking his or her dog. Incorrect :- Everyone wanted their share. Correct:- Everyone wanted his share. (Everyone is singular) Incorrect:- One of those boys lost their bicycle Correct:- One of those boys lost his bicycle (One is singular and there is plural- so incorrect). -7-
    • PES/ENG/X/121 Noun/Verb: Most common in very long sentences, when you've forgotten the identity of the subject. (write in Punjabi also) Incorrect: "Melville’s abundance of searches, questions, and secrets in Moby Dick potentially come from the answers he desired in his own life. " The subject is the singular "abundance," and the verb is the plural "come." (write in Punjabi also) Correct: "Melville’s abundance of searches, questions, and secrets in Moby Dick potentially comes from the answers he desired in his own life." Incorrect:- A serious problem with our democracy are the large number of political parties. Correct:- A serious problem with our democracy is the large number of political parties. Incorrect:- The most interesting part of the novel are its last chapters Correct:- The most interesting part of the novel is its last chapters SUPER Lesson 5: Common Misspellings ANCHOR So students I'm just going to make a list of words that many people mis-spell. Obviously, I can't list them all. That's what dictionaries are for. (write in Punjabi also) Definitely: I had to name this one first because it is my biggest grievance. SO many people spell it with an "A", as in "definately." This is incorrect. VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN a lot absence accommodate address argument believe business category certain collectible commitment conscience conscious dependent desperate disappoint embarrass exaggerate exercise existence fascinate foreign government grateful -8-
    • PES/ENG/X/121 independent irrelevant judgment lightning millennium mischievous misspell necessary occasionally panicky possession practically presence privilege probably receive recommend restaurant sacrilegious separate temporary until usually villain weird ANCHOR Well students did you see these are few simple and small things which we need to pay attention It’s very easy to make spelling errors as we try to be quick and productive. A basic rule should be to always spell check so that we do not make any mistake again. This means we need to do a careful proof reading job after we spell check our work. Now let us see few sentences which show some common errors. SUPER 1) Errors with nouns VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN INCORRECT CORRECT The deers are very agile. The deer are very agile No information have come. No information has come. We had a good play of hockey. We had a good game of hockey. SUPER 2) Errors with adjectives VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN She is elder than I. she is older than I. From the two he is smart. He is smarter of the two. He is pretty young man. He is a handsome young man. SUPER 3) Errors with verbs VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN He drank all the soup. He ate all the soup. -9-
    • PES/ENG/X/121 He made a lecture. He gave a lecture. I always put my money I always keep my money in this box. in this box. SUPER 4) Errors with prepositions VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN Please listen me Please listen to me The matter was put in front of them The matter was put before of them They called of the strike They called off the strike He is angry on me. He is angry with me. I met with your friend there. I met your friend there. SUPER 5) Errors with articles VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN Enclose it in a envelope. Enclose it in an envelope. Mecca is sacred to Muslims. The Mecca is sacred to Muslims. I have lot of work to do. I have a lot of work to do.. Where to use a and an. T,n,J dh initial sound Bkb P[o{ j'D tkb/ words (nouns) Bkb an bZrdk j?. pkeh ;ko/ words Bkb a bZrdk j?. Example:- An apple, An owl, An inkpot, An elephant, An operation, An orange A boy, A cat, A rat, A bat, A mat. Errors in narration and complex sentences. Incorrect:- The teacher said that Meera is late. Correct:- The teacher said that Meera was late. Incorrect:- Rahim Khan knew that his wife will leave him. Correct:- Rahim Khan knew that his wife would leave him. Note:- If the principal clause is in the past tense the subordinate clause is always followed by past tense Only exception are the sentences with universal truth. Example :- The teacher said that the earth is round. (Said is past tense but the verb is in the subordinate clause is in present in definite because it’s a universal truth). Errors related to voice Some passive voices have certain verbs such as laugh, shock believe take some prepositions which cannot be dropped. - 10 -
    • PES/ENG/X/121 A passive verb have the structure Be+V3 ; the use of preposition ‘by’ followed an agent is not enough. Example:- It’s not believed by me. It’s not believed in by me. Example:- He was laughed by all. He was laughed at by all Errors:- Verbs wrongly used Uncle Podger hanged the picture (hung) hung- hung- hung, refer to the hanging of pictures, maps, coats, etc. Hang –hanged-hanged; refers to putting a person to death by putting a rope round the neck and hanging. Example :- He lay down on the ground. He lay down on the ground. (lie-lay-lain) Example:- The hen has lain an egg in our courtyard. The hen has laid an egg in our courtyard. (lay-laid-laid-). Example:- She cutted her finger. She cut her finger. (cut-cut-cut) Nouns misunderstood Example:- Mathematics are a useful subject. Mathematics is a useful subject. Example:- Measles are an infectious disease. Measles is an infectious disease. Mathematics and Measles are singular nouns but misunderstood as plural nouns because of the S after them. Students did you see another set of common errors. Now let us see a few exercises which talk about COMMON ERRORS SUPER Below is a list of typical grammar mistakes. Correct them: VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN 1 I would like that my mother was here. ANCHOR That – not to be used (delete) 2 I asked to the doctor a question. ANCHOR To- not to be used - 11 -
    • PES/ENG/X/121 3 We're going out together for 10 years. ANCHOR For- since to be used 4 His parents want/wants that he studies economics. ANCHOR Want 5 She must to be a great tennis player. ANCHOR To – not to be used 6 Its for that I'm not going to the party. ANCHOR It’s – it is 7 It was the house of my aunt. ANCHOR It was – it’s 8 I saw Sue before to come here. ANCHOR To come - coming 9 We were 16 people in the group. ANCHOR No mistake 10 I don't used to have breakfast so early. ANCHOR Don’t – am not Note:- (1) please give reason for the answer supplied along with every answer. Now students have you ever paid attention to the fact that our small mistakes can actually change the meaning of the sentences we speak. Just listen to this. SUPER A dialogue between a countryman and a townsman , bringing out the comparative advantages of town and country life. VO WiTH TEXT ON SCREEN Smith: Good morning, Mr. Jones. It is a long time since I saw you in town. Are you still staying long in that place? Jones: good morning (with little annoying expression) no,Mr. Smith, I only came up on business for a few hours. Smith: hannn running away from city. Jones: no not, me. I don’t find much enjoyment in this smoky, noisy and crowded place. Smith: ohh, ok so what about your mother? Is she still ok? Jones: (with great anger) what do you mean by this? What kind of a person you are? How can you talk like this? Smith: (unaware of his mistake) what happened Mr. Jones why are you so annoyed? What did I say? I just asked your mother’s health. Jones: look at your words as if my mother being fine is a problem to you. Smith: oh god what are you saying? Why will I have any problem with your mother? Rather I wish best of health for her. And by the way what were my words can you kindly repeat them for me. - 12 -
    • PES/ENG/X/121 Jones: you know you said what about your mother? Is she still ok? What do you mean by still? Smith: ohhh, it’s a slip of tongue. I am extremely sorry Mr. Jones. I didn’t want to say that. It was simply slip of tongue. Jones: Mr. Smith kindly be very careful in using your words. They can put you in some deep trouble sometime in your life. Smith: Yes Mr. Jones. I’ll remember your advice. Thank you and sorry once again. . ANCHOR So students what did you notice? Just use of one single word ‘still’ had changed the atmosphere completely. Two people who were happily exchanging words got into serious argument just because of one small and simple mistake. Now you understood why we have been mentioning from the beginning that these mistakes are very small and simple but prove to be really big. Now let us read some key points how we can avoid these mistakes. VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN a) MAKE THE DICTIONARY YOUR FRIEND. Look into your dictionary for 10 minutes every day. You can use dictionary such as … An Oxford dictionary. b) EXPLORE WAYS TO IMPROVE. Please see the Resource section for guides to grammar and selected topics. If you study these guides for 30 minutes a day for one month I guarantee that you’ll be a better writer and make fewer mistakes as well. ANCHOR Yes these are points which will help you in improving your mistakes. Students I expect you to have understood the topic by now. If you have any query you can ask me in the next class. Now there is a small exercise for you to do. Q1. Write the correct sentence. 1. This is Manishs pen. Ans. This is Manish’s pen. 2. I visit them of and an. Ans. I visit them off and on 3. She live in U.S.A. Ans. She lives in U.S.A. 4. I am seeking employment. Ans. I am seeking an employment. 5. Can I come in Sir? Ans. May I come in Sir? 6. He married with a Indian lady. He married an Indian lady. 7. He is rich and generous to. Ans. He is rich and generous too. 8. He behaved cowardly. Ans. He behaved cowardly. 9. This has been happening since a long time. Ans. This had been happening since a long time 10. I and she are sisters. Ans. She and I are sisters. - 13 -
    • PES/ENG/X/121 END BETA STAGE OF SCRIPT 1 2 3 4 Submitted No. of Times: Subject: ___English__, Class: ___XI_____ Topic: ________COMMON ERRORS _________________________________________________________ Script ID: ___121/___________________________________________________________ Date of Receiving by PES: __25-11-2009______________________________________________ Date of Receiving by Subject Specialist: _____1-12-2009____ Name of Subject Specialist: ___Manjit Kaur _______ Tick (√ ) any one of the following: 1. Necessary suggestions given at Alpha Stage have been incorporated by Service Provider. The script is now approved for making Master file. - 14 -
    • PES/ENG/X/121 2. None of the recommended corrections at alpha stage have been incorporated by the Service Provider and the script is returned back to send it again for Beta stage. 3. Some of the recommended corrections have not been incorporated and the script is sent back again to return as Beta again. 4. (√ ) New suggestions are recommended for incorporation, thus the script sent back to return as Beta again. Dy. Director SISE Submitted to Service Providers Date _____________________. - 15 -