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Tp pes eng xi idioms_127-master

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  • 1. PES/ENG/XI/127 Master Word count: 2516 Subject English Class XI Topic Idioms ANCHOR 1 Hello students, you must have noticed that when your father and grand father are in conversation, they often use some words which you are unable to understand. Usually they use proverbs and idioms. Why are you unable to understand these words? The reason is that their meaning can not be guessed from the meanings of the individual words? Now look at this sentence; His mother passed away this morning. Means His mother died this morning. pZfuT, s[;hA eJh tko fJj t/fynk j't/rk fe s[jkv/ fgsk s/ s[jkv/ dkdk ih id' rZbpks eo oj/ jz[d/ jB skA eJh nfij/ Fpd tosd/ jB i' s[;hA ;wMD ftZu n;woE jz[d/ j' .nkw s"o s/ T[j proverbs ns/ idioms dh tos' eod/ jB .s[;hA fJBkQA FpdkA Bz{ ;wMD ftZu feT[I n;woE j' < fJj fJ; bJh j? feT[fe fJBkQA dk noE tZy tZy FpdkA d/ noE eZY e/ BjhA ;wfMnk ik ;edk j? .nkU fJZe tke Bz{ t/yhJ/ . So today we will try to know about idioms. Let us have a look on the learning objectives. ;', nZi n;hA idioms pko/ ikDB dh e'fFF eokAr/, go fJ; pko/ ft;Eko ftZu ikD s' gfjbkA nkU nZi d/ f;Zfynk T[d/FkA s/ Bio gkJhJ/ . VO for LO’s Learning objectives At the end of the episode you will be able to • Define Idioms • State the importance of idioms • Apply the usage of some idioms ANCHOR 2 1
  • 2. Each language has its own way of saying things. This way of saying is known as its idioms. Idioms add colour to language but not using them can not equate with poor English. We may use them, we may not. Look at its linguistic meaning Linguistics - A group of words whose meaning cannot be predicted from the meaning of the constituent words. ANCHOR 3 The age of globalization is causing panic in the United States because of crippling shortage of idioms and proverbs in speaking of English. t?FtheoD dk :[Zr United States ftZu d[Zy dk ekoD pDdk ik fojk j? feT[fe T[E/, yk; eoe/ nzrO/}h p'bD tkfbnK ftZu, w[jkto/ ns/ n]kD p'bD dh otkfJs ysw j[zdh ik ojh j? . There are some idioms which have been used in your text book. fJE/ eZ[M idioms jB fiBkQA dh tos' s[jkvh feskp ftZu ehsh rJh j? . To shoo away- ( to drive away birds etc., by signalling them with face, lips or hands) fuVhnkA nkfd Bz{ T[vkT[D tk;s/ wz{j, p[ZbQ ns/ jZEkA Bkb fJFko/ eoBk Look at the picture. So many birds are sitting on the ground. If some one tries to make them fly away or frighten them with some sound or by showing a stick or throwing a stone at them, it is appropriate to say that he has shooed away the birds. In the lesson, ‘Portrait Of A Lady’ in your Reader Book, you can find this idiom. Grandmother did not shoo away the sparrows. To turn on one’s heels that means to turn about quickly ibdh Bkb w[VBk 2
  • 3. • This idiom is used when someone turn about quickly in an excitement. It is especially used for juniors or youngsters. Take a look at this example When Mahmood gave Ali, a new kite he turned on his heels and ran away. Anchor 4 Next idiom is A turning point that means (an event or occasion that brings about a change e'Jh nfijh xNBk i' fJedw pdbkt b? nkt/ - Sometimes an event gives high exposure to one’s personality and on the bases of that occasion or event one gets a remarkable promotion hence, changing one’s life style entirely. eJh tko e'Jh xNBk ft;h ftnesh d/ o[sp/ ftZu pj[s tZvh spdhbh eo fdzdh j? .T[j ftnesh Bz{ nfijk ukA; fdzdh j? T[; dk ihT{D dk sohek fpbe[b pdb ikAdk j? . Example: Her job in Reliance was a turning point in her life. This idiom can also be used on occasion that may be sorrow stricken in which one’s life gets ruined. It may be an accident or death of a dear one or loss of property etc. fJj xNBk d[y Goh th j' ;edh j? fi; Bkb fe;h ftnesh dh fizdrh spkj j' ;edh j? .fJj n? e;hv?AN, nkgD/ fe;h yk; dh w"s ikA ikfJdkd ftZu B[e;kB th j' ;edk j? . Example: The loss of legs in an accident was a turning point in the life of the dancer, Sonal Mann. Let’s take a look at the next idiom With a sigh , that means (with sorrow) d[y d/ Bkb- This idiom expresses sorrow stricken mood of a person. For example The defeated Australian team left the ground with a sigh. 3
  • 4. Anchor 5 Next idiom is Soar into the sky which means (to rise quickly and smoothly) When something moves very easily, people use this idiom to show the excitement. We commonly say; id' e'Jh feOnk pj[s n;kBh ns/ s/}h Bkb tkgo fojk j't/ skA nkgDh excitement Gkt i'F Goh y[Fh Bz{ gqrN eoB bJh n;hA nkws"o s/ fJj efjzd/ jkA . The kite soared into the sky. or Her spirits soared into the sky. or Soon the clouds disappear and our plane soars into the sky. ANCHOR 6 Children, have you noticed how the idiomatic expressions bring an image or picture of the situation or event to your mind. When you say soar into the sky you visualize a bird or a plane soaring into the sky. If we say a plane is moving high in the sky, do you think it brings the same effect? Certainly not. The words in the first sentence are more vivid than the second. No doubt, language is a tool for communication but idioms make it more picturesque and send the message home. pZfuU, eh s[;hA ed/ fJj t/fynk j? fe idiomatic expressions fet/A s[jkv/ fdwkr ftZu fe;/ xNBk dh o{go/yk T[bhe fdzd/ jB .id' s[;h T[uZh T[vkD pko/ rZb eod/ j' skA s[;h fe;/ gzSh ikA jtkJh ijki dk fdqF nkgD/ ;kjwD/ b?e/ nkT[d/ j' .ns/ i/ s[;h fJj ej' fe jtkJh ijki nk;wkB ftZu T[v fojk j? skA eh fJj tke th T[jh gqGkt gkT[dk j? .Bjh .fiBkQA FpdkA dh tos' gfjb/ tke ftZu ehsh rJh j? T[j Fpd d{i/ tke Bkb' finkdk gqGktFkbh jB Gkt T[BkQA ftZu finkdk ikB j? .fJ; ftZu e'Jh Fe Bjh fe GkFk rZbpks ikA ftukokA d/ nkdkB gqkdkB dk n"iko j? go idioms T[; rZbpks Bz{ ;gFN eod/ jB . Next idiom is A wild goose chase, that refers to (a useless effort, a hopeless quest) fJZe nfijh e'fFF i' fe;/ ezw dh Bk j't/, fJZe fBokFkiBe e'fFF . This phrase is very old and appears to be one of the many phrases introduced to the language by Shakespeare 4
  • 5. “Wild goose chase” typically refers to a purposeless endeavour without a defined destination. People usually use this idiom to express an attempt which seems to result in failure. In fact it is said that it is very difficult if not impossible to catch a wild goose so any body in pursuit of a futile exercise brings this expression. Let’s take another idiom that is: A great deal of which means (a lot of, a large number or amount or extent) pj[s ;kok, pj[s finkdk frDsh ftZu, pj[s tZvh okFh ikA pj[s tZvk y/so . Anchor 7 Students, you must have heard this idiom a number of times. Here are some examples with which you can learn the proper use of this idiom. Today, we had a great deal of fun I have heard a great deal of this garden. I spent a great deal of time on hill stations. Next idiom is At any rate that means (at all events, whatever happens, in any event, leastwise, anyhow, anyway, come what may) ;kohnkA xNBktkA ftZu, i' th tkgfonk, fe;/ th xNBk ftZu, jo o{g ftZu, jo jkbs ftZu, fet/ th, GKt/ eZ[M th j't/. It is very commonly used. Look at these examples: I will keep my promise at any rate. At any rate, I promise to be there even if I'm a little late, Let’s take another idiom which is widely used- 5
  • 6. To be on fire (to be inspired, Getting warmer (be ready for a discussion) gq/fos j'Dk, row j'Dk Gkt nkgD/ nkg Bz{ tkoskbkg bJh fsnko eoBk Example: In the beginning no one dared to speak but when Mr. Rao kept his views every one seemed to be on fire. Next idiom is Broke out that means (appear or to begin or arise suddenly) j'Id ftZu nkUDk, F[o{ j'Dk, fJZe dw B}o nkUDk Take a look at this sentence to observe its usage Panic broke out after the explosion. Anchor 8 Pick up – This phrase has been widely used for number of situations. It is a multiple meaning phrase. You will be surprised to see its usage on the screen. fJj phrase ne;o pj[s ;kohnkA ;fEshnkA ftZu tofsnk ikAdk j? .fJj fJZe nfijk phrase j? fi;Bz{ pj[s EktkA s/ tofsnk ik ;edk j? . s[;h fJ;dh tos'A Bz{ id' god/ s/ t/y'r/ skA s[;hA j?okB j' ikt'r/ Pick up that refers (to learn something). For example • I pick up languages very quickly. • I picked up a lot of information about solar equipments from my brother. Next meaning of Pick up is (to cause something to go faster, especially music). • She picked up the tempo and got it moving faster. Pick up also refers (to lift up or raise something from a lower place). For example • Please pick these bits of paper off the floor. • You should pick up every bit of it! 6
  • 7. Pick up is also used for (going to a place in a car, bus, etc., and take on a person as a passenger). • I will come to your office and pick you up at noon. • You have to pick up both of us from the hotel. Next meaning of Pick up is (to tidy up or clean up a room or some other place). • Let's pick our room up quickly. • Do you want me to pick up the entire house? Anchor 9 Next idiom is On the verge of - (on the brink of, almost doing) feBko/ s/ , ;wkgsh d/ B/V/ This idiom is used to represent a moment just before an incident or completion of an event. These are some examples which satisfactorily show the usage of this idiom. fJ; idiom dh tos' fe;/ xNBk d/ g{o/ j'D tkb/ gb Bz{ do;kT[D bJh iK fe;/ tosko/ s' s[ozs gfjbkA ikA fe;/ t;s{ dh ;fEsh dZ;D bJh ehsh ikAdh j? .fJj eZ[M T[dkjoD jB i' fJ; idiom dh tos' dh ikDekoh s[jkBz{ ;gFN o{g ftZu d/ ;edhnK jB . For example He is on the verge of retirement. The boy in lane three is on the verge of winning the race During the war in Italy he was several times on the verge of destruction and each time was saved in an unexpected manner. Take a look at some more sentences where this idiom has been used This palace/ fort is on the verge of extinction. . This species is on the verge extinction. 7
  • 8. Next idiom is Pay homage to that refers to (to pay tribute) FoXkAibh d/Dk Example We should pay homage to the freedom fighters. Take a look at another idiom Stray from that means (to lose the path, to move away from the right ideas/right path . nkgD/ o;s/ s' jZNDk, nkgD/ ;jh ftukokA s' go/ jZN ikDk ikA ;jh o;s/ s' jZN ikDk . For example: We have often strayed from Gandhi’s message. Some shepherds lost their way and strayed into the Pakistan Border. Rahim Khan nearly killed the mare for straying into his fields. Next idiom is Hold aloft that means ( to raise high, to bring out the name) T[Zuk u[ZeDk, Bkw o"FD eoBk Anchor 10 Students you see A player is holding a torch high. But it does not give the actual meaning. If a player wins and brings a name to his country then this phrase fits well. We can say pZfuU ! s[;h t/y oj/ j' fe fJZe fybkVh B/ fwFkb u[Zeh j'Jh j? go fJZE/ fJj idiom mhe Bjh Y[Zedk go i/ e'Jh fyvkoh fiZs jk;b eodk j? sK n;h efjzd/ jK Abhinav Bindra held aloft the name of India in Olympics. or Gandhi ji held aloft the torch of freedom. Anchor 11 Next idiom is 8
  • 9. Rejoice in, that means (to celebrate) y[Fh wBkUDk We use this idiom to show happiness or celebrations of the joyful moments. Here are some examples of its usage. We rejoice in the victorious moments. I rejoice in the lap of nature. We should not rejoice in other’s misery. Anchor 12 Next idiom is Burst into that means ( to begin to produce a lot of something, break into something) To understand this idiom look at the following sentences: • The children burst into tears when they saw their broken toys. or • The bus burst into flames. • The whole situation was so ridiculous that all the children burst into laughter. Anchor 13 Children! What do you notice in these sentences? They show sudden and excess of action. In the first sentence there is sudden act of weeping, in the second sentence, lot of and sudden fire. Similarly in the third sentence sudden and lot of laughter. Therefore this idiom is being used in many ways for example: Burst into tears (to begin to cry) c[ZN c[ZN e/ o'Dk When some one starts crying bitterly all of a sudden, on hearing news of one’s tragedy or at the sight of a mishap. She burst into tears on hearing the news of his husband’s death. Take a look at another idiom Give up that refers (to leave or lose faith in or stop believing in something or some one) SZvDk, fsnkr d/Dk 9
  • 10. For example I gave up on them when I heard what they were saying about me behind my back. I advised him to give up smoking. Please give up bad company Anchor 14 Let’s see how much have you learnt? You will find some sentences with fill ups. You will have to supply suitable idioms. 1. Project Tiger has been started by the Government of India because the tiger is--------------------------------extinction. Project Tiger has been started by the Government of India because the tiger is on the verge of extinction. 2. INFOSYS PRIVATE Ltd. Visited our college and ------------------------------------the first ten students to join their company. INFOSYS PRIVATE Ltd. Visited our college and pick up the first ten students to join their company. 3. When Foot ball team of the school won the final match at the state level the principal congratulated the team and said, “I am proud of you. You have---------------------the name of the school. When Foot ball team of the school won the final match at the state level the principal congratulated the team and said, “I am proud of you. You have held aloft the name of the school. 10
  • 11. 4. After the death of his mother, he became very serious. This incident became ----------------------------of his life. After the death of his mother, he became very serious. This incident became turning point of his life 5. After reading the lesson, Escape Velocity a student of class XI very excitedly told her friends that she would also visit the moon like Ted. The friends laughed and said, “Ha! Ha! It is a------------------.” After reading the lesson, Escape Velocity a student of class XI very excitedly told her friends that she would also visit the moon like Ted. The friends laughed and said, “Ha! Ha! It is a wild goose chase” Anchor 15: Children, I hope you must have enjoyed the learning of some new idioms. You know ‘practice makes a man perfect’. So now keep on practicing idioms in your daily conversation. This will make your conversation more effective. Thanks. MASTER FILE OF SCRIPT Subject: _________________________________, Class: ________________________ Topic: _________________________________________________________________ Script ID: ______________________________________________________________ Date of Receiving by PES: ________________________________________________ Date of Receiving by Subject Specialist: ____________________________________ Name of Subject Specialist: _______________________________________________ 11
  • 12. Tick (√ ) any one of the following: 1. Script is frozen for production. 2. Script is frozen for production after minor changes done at Edusat HUB. 3. Script need to freeze for production after suggested corrections to be done by Service Provider. 4. Script returned back for needy correction. Signature of the Subject Specialist Date and Time: _______________ Countersigned by: Dy. Director SISE 12