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  • 1. PES/ENG/IX/020 Note- File for Beta Evaluation - Pl mark the portion reqd in Punjabi A PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY PRODUCTION SUBJECT - ENGLISH CLASS - IX CHAPTER - ESSAY WRITING MODULE - PARTS OF AN ESSAY (Word Count-2886) CUT TO ANCHOR: Hello friends. We had started off last time with the basics of essay writing. Let’s recall what all we had learnt. Text on screen with voice over After our last class, we now know that-  An essay is a piece of writing that deals with a particular topic.  It should be united, ordered, and concise and have a mood.  Before we start writing the essay, we should ask ourselves three questions: What is the topic of the essay? Whom are we writing the essay for? What is its purpose?  After we have answered these questions, we make a rough outline, arranging them in order and then writing the minor points. CUT TO ANCHOR: ftfdnkoEhU ,i' n;h gVQ u[e/ jkA fJj f;oc T[;dk ;ko ;h .nkU j[D n;h nkgD/ ni d/ f;fynk T[d/FkA s/ Mks gkJhJ/ . Text on screen with voice over LEARNING OBJECTIVES: After this session, you will be able to • List points for including in an essay on a given topic • Identify the three broad elements in an essay – introduction, body and conclusion • Describe the features of each element of an essay 1
  • 2. PES/ENG/IX/020 • Appreciate the impact of giving examples and facts or relating incidents to support ideas in an essay CUT TO ANCHOR: w?Bz{ T[whd j? fe s[;h feskpkA ftF/ d/ T[go o{g-o/yk pDk bJh j't/rh . fJE/ e[M B[es/ jB fiBkQA iko/ s[;h io{o ;'funk j't/rk . To read without reflecting is like Eating without digesting. Text and visual on screen with voice over. TOPIC – BOOKS 1. Yu can start with a quote on ‘Reading ’eg. ’Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body.’ 2. Introduction can be the explanation of the quote. 3. What are the different kinds of books? Which kind is your favourite? 4. A few lines on your favourite author or your favourite book.. 5. Why do some people dislike reading books? Is the computer responsible for it in any way? 6. Effects of not having the habit of reading books. 7. How to develop the habit, where can we find books to read? Note: Points 1 and2 form the Introduction; Points3,4 and5 form the body of the essay- to be written in 2 short paragraphs; points 6 and 7 form the conclusion, to be written in a short paragraph. CUT TO ANCHOR: nfijk e'Jh fB:w BjhA j? fe fejV/ B[efsnkA Bz{ Fkfwb eoBk j?.S'zNk B[esk th ftFkb ns/ tyok j' ;edk j? ns/ fJj jo ftnesh d/ ;'uD d/ Yzr s/ fBoGo eodk j? .j[D ;kBz{ fBpzX dhnkA S'NhnkA rZbkA s/ fXnkB BkA d/e/ fJj t/yDk ukjhdk j? fe @e'Fb# i' ;kv/ g/VkA dk oytkbk j? T[;B/ eh fbfynk j? . 2
  • 3. “Trees are Poems that Earth writes upon the sky, We cut them and turn them into paper, PES/ENG/IX/020 Cut to MM: So that we may record our emptiness within.” Shyam: Hi Kushal. Have you written the outline? Kushal: Yes, I have. Take a look. I would also like to start with a Kahlil Gibran short poem or quotation on saving trees. Text on screen with voice over. Please show one bullet point along with sub-points on a single screen. Wait for 3 seconds for each sub point to appear and be read by the voice-over artist.Let this image and Quotation come first on the screen. SAVE OUR TREES • Humans and trees → Trees have life too but humans don’t realize it. → Plucking leaves, crumpling plants. YO → Dirtying parks. O → Industrial wastes kill plants TS TO U T U S O → Chopping trees for our luxury. F F GI RU GI I V I I V I PLEASE E E DON’T CUT ME! HUG ME PLEAS I GIVE YOU TO SAVE E SIT MEDIC UNDE I -NES A LIFE R MY SHADE E VE S I G GE IV TA E BL YO I CLEAN U THE AIR (NEXT SCREEN) • Uses of trees → Wood → Shade 3
  • 4. PES/ENG/IX/020 → Fruits → Clean the air → Cause rains → Home of birds (NEXT SCREEN) • Why people want to cut them → To construct hotels, markets etc for business → To build more houses → To make objects out of wood (NEXT SCREEN) • Effects of cutting trees → Ecological balance affected → Food for animals and plants reduced → Pollution more dominant → Less rainfall, high temperature (NEXT SCREEN) • What we can do to save our trees → Avoid harming them, plucking leaves etc. → Protest against chopping them, complain to authorities, tell media → Plant more trees → Make it a ‘Mantra’—‘If I cut one tree, I will plant seeds for three trees’. Cut to MM: Shyam: This looks really nice. It covers many points. Kushal: I have written the points but don’t know how to compile them. Is there a pattern to write these points? CUT TO ANCHOR: don;b fJE/ fJj dZ;D dh io{os j? fe fBpzX dk ftFk e'Jh th j' ;edk j? ,T[;d/ B[es/ fezB/ jh j' ;ed/ jB go fszB wZ[y GkrkA Bz{ n;h fJ; s'A d{o BjhA oy ;ed/ . Text on screen with voice over I. Introduction II. Body III. Conclusion 4
  • 5. PES/ENG/IX/020 CUT TO ANCHOR: Introduction is the first paragraph of your essay. It should be Text on screen with voice over INTRODUCTION • Short • Catchy • Should contain the purpose / topic of the essay • Could start with a quotation. CUT TO ANCHOR: ;'u' fe s[;h fJe f;B/wk t/y oj/ j'.i/eo gfjb/ d/ gzi fwzBN wi/dko Bk j'D,T[; ftZu ezw eoB tkb/ BkfJe- BkfJek uzr/ BkA j'D skA T[; ub-fuZso bJh ;kvh fdbu;gh ysw j' ikAdh j? ns/ n;h fco T[;d/ ysw j'D dk fJzsiko ehs/ fpBkQA jh T[m ikAd/ jkA . fBpzX dh G{fwek fi;Bz{ fe ;G s'A gfjbkA gfVnk ikAdk j? fdbu;g j'Dh ukjhdh j? .j[D n;h fco s'A ub-fuZso pko/ rb eod/ jkA .;'u' fe gfjb/ 15 fwzBNkA ftZu d' d';skA dh rb j' ojh j? ns/ pkd d/ YkJh xzfNnkA ftZu wko XkV j' ojh j? .eh s[;h nihp wfj;{; Bjh eo'r/ < gfjb/ 15 fwzNkA ftZu ub-fuZso d/ wip{B ns/ feqnk-Gkt pko/ rb j'Dh ukjhdh j? ,E'Vk ngokX th fdykfJnk ikDk ukjhdk j? skA i' doFekA Bz{ gsk oj/ fe nr/ eh j'D tkbk j?. fJjh rb s[jkv/ fBpzX s/ th Y[edh j?.gq;sktBk ftZu s[jkv/ ;ko/ fBpzX pko/ df;nk j'Dk ukjhdk j?.aA Imagine you are watching a movie. If the first 5 minutes of the movie are not interesting, actors are not good enough; we will lose interest and will not sit through the whole movie. Introduction to your essay is the first thing the reader will read. So, it should be attractive. It should also contain the basic idea, the theme of the essay. Go back to the movie. Imagine the first 15 minutes of the movie talk about two friends, but after that, the remaining 21/2 hours deal with violence and crime. Won’t you feel duped? The first 15 minutes should have represented the movie, its mood, its theme. They should have shown some crime, violence etc. so that the audience knew what to expect. Same goes for your essay. The introduction represents the rest of your essay. Next comes the body. It should Text on screen with voice over BODY • Contain all the points you want to include in your essay • Be clear and to the point • Continuity should be maintained, so that there is linkage between the sentences and the paragraphs. CUT TO ANCHOR: 5
  • 6. PES/ENG/IX/020 ub-fuso dk YkAuk jh w[y ejkDh dh sokQ jz[dk j? . T[;d/ eJh gfjb{ j'D/ ukjhd/ jB .pko-pko fJe rb Bz{ d[jokfJnk BjhA ikDk ukjhdk .;ko/ w[y B[es/ fiBkQ dh o{g-o/yk n;h fsnko ehsh j?,Bz{ YkAu/ ftZu fbfynk ikDk ukjhdk j? .jo T[j rb i' s[;h efjDk ukjz[d/ j' ;kc ns/ ;gFN j'Dh ukjhdh j? . The body is like the main story of the movie. It should have many different aspects. Do not talk about the same thing again and again. All the major points that you had made in the outline are written in the body. Be very clear about what you want to say. The last part is the conclusion. It should be Text on screen with voice over CONCLUSION • Short • Attractive • In the mood in which you want the readers to be • Should contain the message of the essay,if possible. CUT TO ANCHOR: fJe tko c/o ub-fuso pko/ ;'ud/ jkA .wko-XkV ns/ ngokX fdykT[D s'A pkd fJ;dk nzs ed/ th wy'bhnk Bjh j' ;edk . fJ;dk nzs d[ykAs ikA gq/oe j't/rk nro fBod/Fe dk T[d/F ngokX dk d[ykAs fdykT[Dk j? skA T[j fdykJ/rk fe BkfJe wkfonk frnk .i/eo T[j iBsk Bz{ ngokX d/ fybkc yVk eoBk ukjz[dk j? skA T[j fdykJ/rk fe ngokXhnkA Bz{ g[fb; geV e/ b? rJh .s[jkv/ fBpzX dk f;ZNk nfijk j'Dk ukjhdk j? fi; Bkb s[jkvk T[d/F th jZb j' ikt/ .T[j gVQB tkfbnkA Bz{ T[fus fwiki ftZu jh Sv/ .l t’s go back to the movie we were watching in our imagination. After showing all the crime and violence throughout the movie, the movie cannot possibly have a comic ending. Its ending can be tragic or motivating. If the aim of the director is to show the sad part of crime, he may show the hero being killed in the end. But if he wants to encourage the public to fight against crime, he will show the hero fighting for what is right and getting the bad guys caught by the police. The conclusion to your essay should also serve the purpose of the essay. It should leave the readers in the desired mood. Cut to MM: Shyam: Lets start with the introduction of our essay. Shall we start by saying, “Trees have life too” ? Kushal: It sounds very boring. We need something catchy. Shyam: How about, “Did you know trees have life too?” ? Kushal: Hey, that sounds so much better. What did you do? Shyam: I just changed the sentence to a question. CUT TO ANCHOR: It is very easy to ignore a person if he is speaking in general. But when he asks you a question, it becomes difficult to avoid it. There are many such techniques which we can use to make our introduction attractive. Here are a few examples of how your introduction can be. 6
  • 7. PES/ENG/IX/020 Text on screen with voice over EXAMPLES OF INTRODUCTIONS 1) Starting with a question CUT TO ANCHOR: We’ve already seen why it is useful to start with a question. Here’s another example. Text on screen with voice over Topic Life of Celebrities Introduction How do you feel when you write an exam? You do not know how much you have scored, whether your teacher is going to praise you or scold you. Do you think Shahrukh Khan feels the same way after doing a movie? CUT TO ANCHOR: Children, notice how the question gives us an idea of what the essay is going to be about. We must choose our questions cleverly. Another method is by narrating an incident – imaginary or real, which brings out the heart of the matter. For example: Text on screen with voice over 2) Narrating an incident Text on screen with voice over Topic Negligence of Police Introduction 8:30 A.M on Lal Road, a truck hits a bus, 3 dead and 12 injured. The police arrives three hours later only to find the truck driver missing and 2 more dead. CUT TO ANCHOR: Did you realize how a lot of things were said through a single incident? Saying the same in normal sentences would not have created the same impact. If the topic does not give us freedom to quote an incident, we can start with an example. Text on screen with voice over 3) Quoting an example Text on screen with voice over Topic SMS, the latest craze among youngsters 7
  • 8. PES/ENG/IX/020 Introduction “Hi. Hw r u? Plz msg me 2day. Don’t 4get” Looks like English with horrible spellings right? Well, this is a new language, a language which the young generation is most familiar with - the SMS language. CUT TO ANCHOR: Giving an example is very useful when some of your readers are not aware of what you are talking about. In the example topic, some elderly people may not be familiar with SMS. Giving an example conveys the point without the use of heavy definitions and long sentences. Cut to MM: Kushal: So we have the first line. Lets look at the outline. Can we include the first point in the introduction itself? Shyam: Of course we can. Its our essay. Kushal: Here, I have written it. Take a look. Text on screen with voice over Did you know trees have life too? Every time you pluck a leaf or crumple a plant under your foot, you cause them pain. The industrial wastes are poisonous for these plants. We leave no park, no garden litter free. We may not tend to them, but do we have to stoop as low as heartlessly cutting them down? All that, after trees do so much for us ? CUT TO ANCHOR: Kushal’s introduction does three things simultaneously - one it carries the spirit of the essay, two it sensitizes the reader towards the issue, and three it provides a link to what they are going to talk about in the body. Recall children, their first major point was uses of trees and the last line of the introduction hints at that. Now when they start with the body, it will appear to be in continuation of the introduction and not a separate entity. SUMMARY: So friends, today we learnt  An essay consists of three segments – introduction, body and conclusion.  The introduction should be short, attractive and should contain the purpose of the essay.  The body should contain all the points we had made in the outline and should have clarity.  The conclusion should be short, attractive and in the right mood.  Introduction can start with a question, incident or example,a relevant quotation. Question – Answer Session Following are some introductions. Find out what is wrong in each of the introduction. Text on screen with voice over Topic – My first Cricket match 8
  • 9. PES/ENG/IX/020 Introduction - I enjoy sports a lot. I am the captain of my school football team. There was tough competition between four of us, but the selectors chose me. I feel sports is also necessary for a child.(an interesting quotation on ‘sports’ could be added.) {After 2 seconds} Flaw - The introduction does not introduce us to the topic at all. No mention of the word ‘cricket’ or ‘first’ Improved - I enjoy sports a lot and am the captain of my school football team. But people seem to know only one sport – cricket. When my cousins realized I had not ever held a bat, they decided to teach me. It was all planned. This Sunday, I would have to play in front of everyone ‘My first Cricket match’. Text on screen with voice over Topic - The importance of newspapers Introduction - Do you read the newspaper every morning? It is a part of our daily routine. Going through the headlines, sports pages and even the horoscope prediction for the day is essential along with a cup of coffee. {After 2 seconds} Flaw - The introduction assumes that everyone reads newspapers. That too in the morning with a cup of coffee. May not be true. Further, since the essay is about importance of newspapers, it should be directed at those people who do not read them, not those who regularly read the newspaper. Improved - Have you ever seen newspapers containing tele shopping ads between the news? Imagine how frustrating it is, when you are in a hurry in the morning and the commercial break doesn’t end. The solution lies at your doorstep – the newspaper. It comes in every morning containing all the news that you need to know but allowing you to choose what to read and in how much detail to read. CUT TO ANCHOR: So children. Let’s work on our essay while Kushal works on his. Before we meet next, think of an attractive introduction for your essay ‘Books’. Then make minor points for each of the major point you wrote in the outline that you had made. Add examples and more points as you write. Before we close down,let’s put down a few points which can make your essay more interesting:- • Try to start your sentences in different ways, as this will improve the quality of your writing- a.Begin with a place. Eg.In the shop, there were many sweets to choose from. b.Begin with a time. Eg.Yesterday we went to visit my aunt. c. Begin with an adverb Eg. Quickly, we ran for the bus. 9
  • 10. PES/ENG/IX/020 d.Begin with a question Eg.Can we go for a horse-ride, down the grass fields? • Try to vary the lengths of your sentences. a .For descriptions, calmness, or linking, long sentences are more effective. Eg.When Geeta first saw the house,she noticed the chipped tiles on the roof,the paint on the walls,quite faded, the cracks in the door and the broken slabs on the doorway. b. Short sentences to express danger, panic, tension or to make something stand out. Eg.Bang! The door closed and I walked in. Do keep these points in mind, while writing.This brings us to the end of our episode. Thank You! End of the episode The script has been reviewed by - ------------------------------- Signature - ------------------------------------------------------------- Date - ------------------------------------------------------------------ 10