1. Edusat module
A JILIT PRODUCTION
SUBJECT - ENGLISH
CLASS - IX
CHAPTER - ADJECTIVES
MODULE - ADJECTIVES
We cut to MM 1:
A boy named Kapil, aged 10 years old goes up to his father, who is sitting and
reading a newspaper. His elder sister Preeti aged 13 is sitting in a corner and
reading a book.
Kapil – “Papa, will you allow me to go for the school trip to the Jim Corbett park?”
Papa – “No, Kapil. Sit at home and study. All the time, you only want to have fun.”
Kapil – “Please, papa.. all my friends are going too!”
Papa- “ I have not seen Corbett myself! What’s the fuss about? Now go and study
and let me do my work”
Kapil goes back to his room. His sister joins him.
Preeti – “Kapil, don’t be so upset. You could have asked papa in a better way”
Kapil – “In a better way? How? “
Preeti- “Did you not hear what he said? He has never been to Corbett.”
Kapil – “So?”
Preeti- “He does not know that it will be a good learning experience for you to go.
Now come along with me. I’ll talk to him myself”
Kapil and Preeti go back to their father’s room.
Preeti – “Papa, can I take a minute with you?”
Papa (puts away his newspaper) – “Sure, tell me”
Preeti – “Papa, my friends have been to Corbett. They told me so many things about
the place which I did not know”
Papa – “Is it?”
Preeti – “Yes papa. The Corbett Park is named after a famous hunter -Jim Corbett. It
is the oldest national park of India. Children ride on open jeeps and are made to
explore some fascinating animals and learn about precious flowers and plants. Its a
thrilling adventure! Its educational too.”
Papa – “Interesting, indeed! Kapil, I think its a good idea to join your friends for this
CUT TO ANCHOR1:
Good morning friends! Did you see how Preeti was able to convince her father to
send Kapil for a trip to the Corbett National Park? Its amazing how describing
something can help others understand what you want to say in a better way. This is
where adjectives work for us. Let us first begin with our learning objectives-
VO1 with text on screen
• Define an adjective and give examples
• Correctly order multiple adjectives in a sentence
• Name the two main types of adjectives
• List the types of determiners
• Give examples of each type of determiners
• Correctly use determiners in a sentence
• List the degrees of comparisons of an adjective
• Use correct degree of comparison in any given sentence
CUT TO ANCHOR2:
An adjective is a word that describes a noun. An adjective can tell what kind or how
many. Here are some examples-
big – a big elephant (show picture of an elephant),
hot – a hot cup of tea (show a cup of tea with smoke coming out)
five – five rupees (show a 5-rupee note)
many- Many oranges (show 7-8 oranges)
On Board Activity- Refer Image7 along with VO2
Have a look at this picture. (show the picture of a pet dog)
Let us use a few describing words for it.
3. Noun – Dog
=> faithful => sweet => fast => good => pet
CUT TO MM2:
(The character Preeti recites the following rhyme – in the way we recite
‘twinkle twinkle little star. The lyrics appear on right hand side of the screen. (4
lines in one go) )
Adjectives are here for you
They describe a noun or pronoun, too
A Big brown dog, a cute, little cat Refer Image1, Image2
Look at the man's tall black hat Refer Image3
That Shiny bike, that bright new toy Refer Image4
Can you see the small, dark boy? Refer Image5
Pretty girl, with many curls Refer Image6
A necklace made of big white pearls Refer Image7
CUT TO ANCHOR3:
Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. Sometimes, adjectives appear before the
noun they modify. For example- when I say “This is a beautiful rose”, the adjective
‘beautiful’ comes before the noun ‘rose’. We do not say “This is a rose beautiful”
Sometimes, they can also come after the noun. In that case, a form of the verb ‘be’
or a substitute verb such as ‘seems’ or ‘feels’ joins the noun to the adjective. For
example- This rose is beautiful. Here, ‘is’ connects the noun ‘rose’ to the adjective
‘beautiful’. Or we can also say “This rose looks beautiful”. Now you understand –
Adjectives describe nouns by answering one of these three
questions: What kind is it? How many are there? How many are there?
Which one is it? An adjective can be a single word, a phrase, or a
clause. Check out these examples:
What kind is it?
4. A friend with a fat wallet will never want for weekend shopping
What kind of friend? One with money to spend. A towel that is still warm
from the dryer is more comforting than a hot fudge sundae.
What kind of towel? One right out of the dryer.
How many are there?
Seven hungry space aliens slithered into the diner and ordered
two dozen vanilla milkshakes.
How many hungry space aliens? Seven!
Which one is it?
The unhealthiest item from the cafeteria is the steak sub, which
will slime your hands with grease.
Which item from the cafeteria? Certainly not the one that will lower your
The cockroach eyeing your cookie has started to crawl this way.
Which cockroach? Not the one crawling up your leg but the one who
wants your cookies!
Know how to punctuate a series of adjectives.
To describe a noun fully, you might need to use two or more adjectives.
Sometimes a series of adjectives requires commas, but sometimes it
doesn't. What makes the difference?
If the adjectives are coordinate you must use commas between them. If,
on the other hand, the adjectives are non coordinate, no commas are
necessary. How do you tell the difference?
5. Coordinate adjectives can pass one of two tests. When you rearrange
their location in the series or when you insert and between them, they
still make sense. Look at the following example:
The tall, creamy, delicious milkshake melted on the counter
while the inattentive waiter flirted with the pretty cashier.
Now read this revision:
The delicious, tall, creamy milkshake melted on the counter
while the inattentive waiter flirted with the pretty cashier.
The series of adjectives still makes sense even though the order has
changed. And if you insert and between the adjectives, you still have a
The tall and creamy and delicious milkshake melted on the
counter while the inattentive waiter flirted with the pretty
Noncoordinate adjectives do not make sense when you rearrange their
location in the series or when you insert and between them. Check out
Arum’s two fat Siamese cats hog the electric blanket on cold
If you switch the order of the adjectives, the sentence becomes
Fat Siamese two Ramu’s cats hog the electric blanket on cold
Logic will also evaporate if you insert and between the adjectives.
Jeanne's and two and fat and Siamese cats hog the electric
blanket on cold winter evenings.
BASIC TYPES OF ADJECTIVES
In English, it is common to use more than one adjective before a noun - for example,
"He's a silly young fool," or "she's a smart, energetic woman." When we use more
than one adjective, we need to put them in the right order, according to their type.
VO3 WITH VISUAL DISPLAY OF THIS TABLE ON SCREEN. (Show first 4 rows,
then after 2 seconds, the next four rows.)
One way of classifying adjectives is on the basis of what they describe. These
include- adjectives of opinion, size, age, shape, colour, origin, material and purpose.
An opinion adjective explains what you think about something (other people may not
agree with you). Examples: silly, beautiful, horrible, difficult
A size adjective, of course, tells you how big or small something is. Examples: large, tiny,
An age adjective tells you how young or old something or someone is. Examples:
ancient, new, young, old
A shape adjective describes the shape of something. Examples: square, round, flat,
A colour adjective, of course, describes the colour of something. Examples: blue, pink,
An origin adjective describes where something comes from. Examples: French, lunar,
American, eastern, Greek
A material adjective describes what something is made from. Examples: wooden, metal,
A purpose adjective describes what something is used for. These adjectives often end
with "-ing". Examples: sleeping (as in "sleeping bag"), roasting (as in "roasting tin")
CUT TO ANCHOR4:
While that was a simple classification, today, we shall learn about two more types of
adjectives - Determiners and Participial Adjectives.
7. Cut to MM2: (Show any cartoon character with the word “Determiner” written
on his clothes. Show his lip movements with the following VO. Show the
highlighted words as a banner on screen when they are spoken as voice over)
Hi! I come from the family of adjectives. My name is Determiner. I am a special
adjective that can identify the noun being described or that specifies the quantity of
the noun. I love changing forms. Sometimes I become a demonstrative adjective,
sometime I become a possessive adjective. Sometimes a quantifier and sometimes
an article! Interesting isn’t it? Would you like to see my new forms? OK, I will ask
your teacher to tell you more!
SUPER: (with voice over)
CUT TO ANCHOR5:
They are special adjectives or determiners used to identify or express the relative
position of a noun in time or space. A demonstrative adjective comes before all other
adjectives in the noun phrase. Some common demonstrative adjectives are this,
that, these, and those. Use this/that with singular nouns and these/those with plural
VO5 with highlighted text on screen
Examples of demonstrative adjectives are:
1. The results of research done with broadband antennas indicate a need for
these antennas in certain applications.
2. Furthermore, this research revealed that these antennas have unlimited
potential for use in future telecommunication systems.
Possessive Adjectives (Pronouns)
CUT TO ANCHOR5:
Possessive adjectives are special adjectives or determiners used to express
possession of a noun. They precede all other elements in a noun phrase. If you use
possessive adjectives, then you do not need articles.
VO6 with highlighted text on screen
My dishwasher has a problem.
8. The dishwasher has a problem.
Choose a possessive adjective that agrees in person, number, and gender with the
possessor noun, not the noun being possessed.
Jai Arora, son of Jaspreet Arora, was born on September 11, 1971, in Ludhiana. His
mother was from Ambala.
Please note, that here, the possessive adjective ‘his’ agrees with the gender of the
possessor, Jai Arora.
CUT TO ANCHOR6:
Quantifiers are determiners used to express the quantity of the noun being
described. Like possessive adjectives, quantifiers usually precede all other elements
in a noun phrase.
All the undergraduate students in electrical engineering are required to use
VO7 with highlighted text on screen
Some common quantifiers are most, much, any, no, some, and few.
Most people have a hard time understanding the specifics of Maxwell’s equations.
Choose a quantifier that is appropriate for the Noun. In general, do not use articles
before quantifiers. However, articles and demonstrative adjectives can be used
before the quantifiers few and little.
A few problems in optics can only be solved numerically.
This little mistake in measuring the current can have devastating results.
Using a, an, and the.
VO8 with highlighted text on screen
•Use ‘a’ before a singular noun that begins with a consonant sound.
Refer image 12
• Use ‘an’ before a singular noun that begins with a vowel sound.
Refer image 13
9. • Use ‘the’ before all plural nouns.
Refer image 14
• Use ‘the’ before any singular noun.
Refer image 15
CUT TO ANCHOR7:
A participial adjective is formed by adding to the base form of the verb either the
present participial ending –ing or, unless the verb is irregular, the past participial
ending –ed. For example-
VO9 with highlighted text on screen
Examples of Pariticipial Adjectives
1. In quantum electronics, a tunneling electron is one that overcomes a potential
2. When two electrons come close to each other, the resulting electrical force
causes them to repel.
Passive Participial Adjectives
VO10 with highlighted text on screen
Passive participial adjectives are formed from the past participles of verbs. They
describe nouns that are receiving the effects of an action.
The information theory being unknown to them, electrical engineers in the mid-
twentieth century were astonished by Shannon’s research.
Comparative and Superlative Adjectives
CUT TO ANCHOR8:
A comparative or superlative adjective is used to compare the degree of some
quality of one item with the degree of the same quality in another item [comparative]
or in multiple others [superlative]
10. Form comparative and superlative adjectives correctly.
To make comparisons, you will often need comparative or superlative
adjectives. You use comparative adjectives if you are discussing two
people, places, or things. You use superlative adjectives if you have
three or more people, places, or things. Look at these two examples:
Stevie, a suck up who sits in the front row, has a thicker
notebook than Nina, who never comes to class.
The thinnest notebook belongs to Mike, a computer geek who
scans all notes and handouts and saves them on the hard drive
of his laptop.
You can form comparative adjectives two ways. You can add er to the
end of the adjective, or you can use more or less before it. Do not,
however, do both! You violate the rules of grammar if you claim that you
aremore taller, more smarter, or less father than your older brother Fred.
One-syllable words generally take er at the end, as in these examples:
Because Fuzz is a smaller cat than Buster, she loses the fights
for tuna fish.
For dinner, we ordered a bigger pizza than usual so that we
would have cold leftovers for breakfast.
Two-syllable words vary. Check out these examples:
Kelly is lazier than an old dog; he is perfectly happy spending
an entire Saturday on the couch, watching old movies and
The new suit makes Marvin more handsome than a movie star.
Use more or less before adjectives with three or more syllables:
11. Movies on our new flat-screen television are, thankfully, less
colorful; we no longer have to tolerate the electric greens and
nuclear pinks of the old unit.
Heather is more compassionate than anyone I know; she
watches where she steps to avoid squashing a poor bug by
You can form superlative adjectives two ways as well. You can add est
to the end of the adjective, or you can use most or least before it. Do
not, however, do both! You violate another grammatical rule if you claim
that you are the brightest, happiest, or least angriest member of your
family. One-syllable words generally take est at the end, as in these
These are the tartest lemon-roasted squid tentacles that I have
Nigel, the tallest member of the class, has to sit in the front
row because he has bad eyes; the rest of us crane around him
for a glimpse of the board.
Two-syllable words vary. Check out these examples:
Because Hector refuses to read directions, he made the crispiest
mashed potatoes ever in the history of instant food.
Because Ram has a crush on Ms.Rita, his English teacher, he
believes that she is the most gorgeous creature to walk the
Use most or least before adjectives with three or more syllables:
The most frustrating experience of Desiree's day was arriving
home to discover that the onion rings were missing from her
12. The least believable detail of the story was that the space aliens
had offered Ali a slice of pizza before his release.
Degrees of Adjectives
VO11 with highlighted text on screen
Adjectives can appear in the positive, comparative, or superlative degree.
Examples of degree in adjectives:
Strong [positive] – base form – robust
Stronger [comparative] – used to compare two items – more robust
Strongest [superlative] – used to compare more than two items – most robust
VO12 with highlighted text on screen
The comparative is usually formed with an – er ending or the word more or less.
Here are some examples-
We need to find a better solution to this problem.
They used a smaller resistance for this part of the circuit.
We need to give a more appropriate explanation of the terms we used in the formula.
He will have to provide a less hypothetical approach to describe his views.
VO13 with highlighted text on screen
The superlative is usually formed with an – est ending or the word most or least. For
We used the fastest computer we could find to solve the equation.
Unfortunately, it was not the least expensive machine.
These are his most prized scientific readings information theory.
VO14 with highlighted text on screen
Dear students, it will be a good idea to quickly summarise everything we have
covered so far. We have learnt that-
• An adjective describes a noun.
• Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns.
• An adjective can follow the word it describes. It usually follows a form of the
• Two important types of adjectives are- Determiners and Participial adjectives
• Determiners are a group of four types of adjectives – demonstrative
adjectives, possessive adjectives, quantifiers and articles.
• Demonstratives specify the noun’s position in time or space. Eg- There, this,
• Possessives show the noun’s possession. Eg- My, their, etc
• Quantifiers tell the quantity of the nouns. Examples are- some, many, few, all,
• A participial adjective is formed by adding to the base form of the verb either
the present participial ending –ing or, unless the verb is irregular, the past
participial ending –ed.
• A comparative or superlative adjective is used to compare the degree of some
quality of one item with the degree of the same quality in another item
[comparative] or in multiple others [superlative]
Question answer Session (Will be presented by anchor, answer will be spoken
as well as displayed)
1. Which is the correct order?
a. beautiful blue sailing boat
b. blue beautiful sailing boat
c. sailing beautiful blue boat
d. blue sailing beautiful boat
2. Which is the correct order?
a. an old wooden square table
b. a square wooden old table
c. an old square wooden table
d. a wooden old square table
14. Ans. c
3. Which is the correct order?
a. an new French exciting band
b. a French new exciting band
c. an exciting French new band
d. an exciting new French band
4. Which is the correct order?
a. red big plastic hat
b. big red plastic hat
c. plastic big red hat
d. bit plastic red hat
5. Which is the correct order?
a. small Japanese serving bowl
b. Japanese small serving bowl
c. small serving Japanese bowl
d. serving small Japanese bowl
6. Which is the correct order?
a. a cotton dirty old tie
b. a dirty cotton old tie
c. an old cotton dirty tie
d. a dirty old cotton tie
15. 7. Which is the correct order?
a. small Canadian thin lady
b. Canadian small thin lady
c. small thin Canadian lady
d. thin small Canadian lady
8. Which is the correct order?
a. carving steel new knife
b. new steel carving knife
c. steel new carving knife
d. new carving steel knife
End of the episode (To be declared by the anchor with a pleasant note)
That should be all on Adjectives for today. I hope this session was easy, and
informative. Have a good day!