Ix english adjectives_final
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Ix english adjectives_final Document Transcript

  • 1. Edusat module Jaypee Group A JILIT PRODUCTION SUPERS SUBJECT - ENGLISH CLASS - IX CHAPTER - ADJECTIVES MODULE - ADJECTIVES We cut to MM 1: A boy named Kapil, aged 10 years old goes up to his father, who is sitting and reading a newspaper. His elder sister Preeti aged 13 is sitting in a corner and reading a book. Kapil – “Papa, will you allow me to go for the school trip to the Jim Corbett park?” Papa – “No, Kapil. Sit at home and study. All the time, you only want to have fun.” Kapil – “Please, papa.. all my friends are going too!” Papa- “ I have not seen Corbett myself! What’s the fuss about? Now go and study and let me do my work” Kapil goes back to his room. His sister joins him. Preeti – “Kapil, don’t be so upset. You could have asked papa in a better way” Kapil – “In a better way? How? “ Preeti- “Did you not hear what he said? He has never been to Corbett.” Kapil – “So?” Preeti- “He does not know that it will be a good learning experience for you to go. Now come along with me. I’ll talk to him myself” Kapil and Preeti go back to their father’s room. Preeti – “Papa, can I take a minute with you?” Papa (puts away his newspaper) – “Sure, tell me” Preeti – “Papa, my friends have been to Corbett. They told me so many things about the place which I did not know” Papa – “Is it?” Preeti – “Yes papa. The Corbett Park is named after a famous hunter -Jim Corbett. It is the oldest national park of India. Children ride on open jeeps and are made to explore some fascinating animals and learn about precious flowers and plants. Its a thrilling adventure! Its educational too.” Papa – “Interesting, indeed! Kapil, I think its a good idea to join your friends for this awesome trip!” CUT TO ANCHOR1: Good morning friends! Did you see how Preeti was able to convince her father to send Kapil for a trip to the Corbett National Park? Its amazing how describing something can help others understand what you want to say in a better way. This is where adjectives work for us. Let us first begin with our learning objectives- 1
  • 2. SUPER: LEARNING OBJECTIVES VO1 with text on screen • Define an adjective and give examples • Correctly order multiple adjectives in a sentence • Name the two main types of adjectives • List the types of determiners • Give examples of each type of determiners • Correctly use determiners in a sentence • List the degrees of comparisons of an adjective • Use correct degree of comparison in any given sentence SUPER: INTRODUCTION CUT TO ANCHOR2: An adjective is a word that describes a noun. An adjective can tell what kind or how many. Here are some examples- big – a big elephant (show picture of an elephant), hot – a hot cup of tea (show a cup of tea with smoke coming out) five – five rupees (show a 5-rupee note) many- Many oranges (show 7-8 oranges) On Board Activity- Refer Image7 along with VO2 Have a look at this picture. (show the picture of a pet dog) Let us use a few describing words for it. 2
  • 3. Noun – Dog Adjectives- => faithful => sweet => fast => good => pet CUT TO MM2: (The character Preeti recites the following rhyme – in the way we recite ‘twinkle twinkle little star. The lyrics appear on right hand side of the screen. (4 lines in one go) ) Adjectives are here for you They describe a noun or pronoun, too A Big brown dog, a cute, little cat Refer Image1, Image2 Look at the man's tall black hat Refer Image3 That Shiny bike, that bright new toy Refer Image4 Can you see the small, dark boy? Refer Image5 Pretty girl, with many curls Refer Image6 A necklace made of big white pearls Refer Image7 CUT TO ANCHOR3: Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. Sometimes, adjectives appear before the noun they modify. For example- when I say “This is a beautiful rose”, the adjective ‘beautiful’ comes before the noun ‘rose’. We do not say “This is a rose beautiful” Sometimes, they can also come after the noun. In that case, a form of the verb ‘be’ or a substitute verb such as ‘seems’ or ‘feels’ joins the noun to the adjective. For example- This rose is beautiful. Here, ‘is’ connects the noun ‘rose’ to the adjective ‘beautiful’. Or we can also say “This rose looks beautiful”. Now you understand – don’t you? Adjectives describe nouns by answering one of these three questions: What kind is it? How many are there? How many are there? Which one is it? An adjective can be a single word, a phrase, or a clause. Check out these examples: What kind is it? 3
  • 4. A friend with a fat wallet will never want for weekend shopping partners. What kind of friend? One with money to spend. A towel that is still warm from the dryer is more comforting than a hot fudge sundae. What kind of towel? One right out of the dryer. How many are there? Seven hungry space aliens slithered into the diner and ordered two dozen vanilla milkshakes. How many hungry space aliens? Seven! Which one is it? The unhealthiest item from the cafeteria is the steak sub, which will slime your hands with grease. Which item from the cafeteria? Certainly not the one that will lower your cholesterol! The cockroach eyeing your cookie has started to crawl this way. Which cockroach? Not the one crawling up your leg but the one who wants your cookies! Know how to punctuate a series of adjectives. To describe a noun fully, you might need to use two or more adjectives. Sometimes a series of adjectives requires commas, but sometimes it doesn't. What makes the difference? If the adjectives are coordinate you must use commas between them. If, on the other hand, the adjectives are non coordinate, no commas are necessary. How do you tell the difference? 4
  • 5. Coordinate adjectives can pass one of two tests. When you rearrange their location in the series or when you insert and between them, they still make sense. Look at the following example: The tall, creamy, delicious milkshake melted on the counter while the inattentive waiter flirted with the pretty cashier. Now read this revision: The delicious, tall, creamy milkshake melted on the counter while the inattentive waiter flirted with the pretty cashier. The series of adjectives still makes sense even though the order has changed. And if you insert and between the adjectives, you still have a logical sentence: The tall and creamy and delicious milkshake melted on the counter while the inattentive waiter flirted with the pretty cashier. Noncoordinate adjectives do not make sense when you rearrange their location in the series or when you insert and between them. Check out this example: Arum’s two fat Siamese cats hog the electric blanket on cold winter evenings. If you switch the order of the adjectives, the sentence becomes gibberish: Fat Siamese two Ramu’s cats hog the electric blanket on cold winter evenings. Logic will also evaporate if you insert and between the adjectives. Jeanne's and two and fat and Siamese cats hog the electric blanket on cold winter evenings. 5
  • 6. SUPER: BASIC TYPES OF ADJECTIVES In English, it is common to use more than one adjective before a noun - for example, "He's a silly young fool," or "she's a smart, energetic woman." When we use more than one adjective, we need to put them in the right order, according to their type. VO3 WITH VISUAL DISPLAY OF THIS TABLE ON SCREEN. (Show first 4 rows, then after 2 seconds, the next four rows.) One way of classifying adjectives is on the basis of what they describe. These include- adjectives of opinion, size, age, shape, colour, origin, material and purpose. An opinion adjective explains what you think about something (other people may not agree with you). Examples: silly, beautiful, horrible, difficult Opinion A size adjective, of course, tells you how big or small something is. Examples: large, tiny, enormous, little Size An age adjective tells you how young or old something or someone is. Examples: ancient, new, young, old Age A shape adjective describes the shape of something. Examples: square, round, flat, rectangular Shape A colour adjective, of course, describes the colour of something. Examples: blue, pink, reddish, grey Colour An origin adjective describes where something comes from. Examples: French, lunar, American, eastern, Greek Origin A material adjective describes what something is made from. Examples: wooden, metal, cotton, paper Material A purpose adjective describes what something is used for. These adjectives often end with "-ing". Examples: sleeping (as in "sleeping bag"), roasting (as in "roasting tin") Purpose CUT TO ANCHOR4: While that was a simple classification, today, we shall learn about two more types of adjectives - Determiners and Participial Adjectives. SUPER: Determiners 6
  • 7. Cut to MM2: (Show any cartoon character with the word “Determiner” written on his clothes. Show his lip movements with the following VO. Show the highlighted words as a banner on screen when they are spoken as voice over) VO4: Hi! I come from the family of adjectives. My name is Determiner. I am a special adjective that can identify the noun being described or that specifies the quantity of the noun. I love changing forms. Sometimes I become a demonstrative adjective, sometime I become a possessive adjective. Sometimes a quantifier and sometimes an article! Interesting isn’t it? Would you like to see my new forms? OK, I will ask your teacher to tell you more! SUPER: (with voice over) Demonstrative Adjectives CUT TO ANCHOR5: They are special adjectives or determiners used to identify or express the relative position of a noun in time or space. A demonstrative adjective comes before all other adjectives in the noun phrase. Some common demonstrative adjectives are this, that, these, and those. Use this/that with singular nouns and these/those with plural nouns. VO5 with highlighted text on screen Examples of demonstrative adjectives are: 1. The results of research done with broadband antennas indicate a need for these antennas in certain applications. 2. Furthermore, this research revealed that these antennas have unlimited potential for use in future telecommunication systems. SUPER: Possessive Adjectives (Pronouns) CUT TO ANCHOR5: Possessive adjectives are special adjectives or determiners used to express possession of a noun. They precede all other elements in a noun phrase. If you use possessive adjectives, then you do not need articles. VO6 with highlighted text on screen My dishwasher has a problem. 7
  • 8. The dishwasher has a problem. Choose a possessive adjective that agrees in person, number, and gender with the possessor noun, not the noun being possessed. Jai Arora, son of Jaspreet Arora, was born on September 11, 1971, in Ludhiana. His mother was from Ambala. Please note, that here, the possessive adjective ‘his’ agrees with the gender of the possessor, Jai Arora. SUPER: Quantifiers CUT TO ANCHOR6: Quantifiers are determiners used to express the quantity of the noun being described. Like possessive adjectives, quantifiers usually precede all other elements in a noun phrase. All the undergraduate students in electrical engineering are required to use computers. VO7 with highlighted text on screen Some common quantifiers are most, much, any, no, some, and few. For example- Most people have a hard time understanding the specifics of Maxwell’s equations. Choose a quantifier that is appropriate for the Noun. In general, do not use articles before quantifiers. However, articles and demonstrative adjectives can be used before the quantifiers few and little. For example- A few problems in optics can only be solved numerically. This little mistake in measuring the current can have devastating results. SUPER: Articles Using a, an, and the. VO8 with highlighted text on screen •Use ‘a’ before a singular noun that begins with a consonant sound. Refer image 12 • Use ‘an’ before a singular noun that begins with a vowel sound. Refer image 13 8
  • 9. • Use ‘the’ before all plural nouns. Refer image 14 • Use ‘the’ before any singular noun. Refer image 15 SUPER: Participial Adjectives CUT TO ANCHOR7: A participial adjective is formed by adding to the base form of the verb either the present participial ending –ing or, unless the verb is irregular, the past participial ending –ed. For example- VO9 with highlighted text on screen Examples of Pariticipial Adjectives 1. In quantum electronics, a tunneling electron is one that overcomes a potential energy barrier. 2. When two electrons come close to each other, the resulting electrical force causes them to repel. SUPER: Passive Participial Adjectives VO10 with highlighted text on screen Passive participial adjectives are formed from the past participles of verbs. They describe nouns that are receiving the effects of an action. Example The information theory being unknown to them, electrical engineers in the mid- twentieth century were astonished by Shannon’s research. SUPER: Comparative and Superlative Adjectives CUT TO ANCHOR8: A comparative or superlative adjective is used to compare the degree of some quality of one item with the degree of the same quality in another item [comparative] or in multiple others [superlative] 9
  • 10. Form comparative and superlative adjectives correctly. To make comparisons, you will often need comparative or superlative adjectives. You use comparative adjectives if you are discussing two people, places, or things. You use superlative adjectives if you have three or more people, places, or things. Look at these two examples: Stevie, a suck up who sits in the front row, has a thicker notebook than Nina, who never comes to class. The thinnest notebook belongs to Mike, a computer geek who scans all notes and handouts and saves them on the hard drive of his laptop. You can form comparative adjectives two ways. You can add er to the end of the adjective, or you can use more or less before it. Do not, however, do both! You violate the rules of grammar if you claim that you aremore taller, more smarter, or less father than your older brother Fred. One-syllable words generally take er at the end, as in these examples: Because Fuzz is a smaller cat than Buster, she loses the fights for tuna fish. For dinner, we ordered a bigger pizza than usual so that we would have cold leftovers for breakfast. Two-syllable words vary. Check out these examples: Kelly is lazier than an old dog; he is perfectly happy spending an entire Saturday on the couch, watching old movies and napping. The new suit makes Marvin more handsome than a movie star. Use more or less before adjectives with three or more syllables: 10
  • 11. Movies on our new flat-screen television are, thankfully, less colorful; we no longer have to tolerate the electric greens and nuclear pinks of the old unit. Heather is more compassionate than anyone I know; she watches where she steps to avoid squashing a poor bug by accident. You can form superlative adjectives two ways as well. You can add est to the end of the adjective, or you can use most or least before it. Do not, however, do both! You violate another grammatical rule if you claim that you are the brightest, happiest, or least angriest member of your family. One-syllable words generally take est at the end, as in these examples: These are the tartest lemon-roasted squid tentacles that I have ever eaten! Nigel, the tallest member of the class, has to sit in the front row because he has bad eyes; the rest of us crane around him for a glimpse of the board. Two-syllable words vary. Check out these examples: Because Hector refuses to read directions, he made the crispiest mashed potatoes ever in the history of instant food. Because Ram has a crush on Ms.Rita, his English teacher, he believes that she is the most gorgeous creature to walk the planet. Use most or least before adjectives with three or more syllables: The most frustrating experience of Desiree's day was arriving home to discover that the onion rings were missing from her drive-thru order. 11
  • 12. The least believable detail of the story was that the space aliens had offered Ali a slice of pizza before his release. SUPER: Degrees of Adjectives VO11 with highlighted text on screen Adjectives can appear in the positive, comparative, or superlative degree. Examples of degree in adjectives: Strong [positive] – base form – robust Stronger [comparative] – used to compare two items – more robust Strongest [superlative] – used to compare more than two items – most robust SUPER: Comparative Adjectives VO12 with highlighted text on screen The comparative is usually formed with an – er ending or the word more or less. Here are some examples- We need to find a better solution to this problem. They used a smaller resistance for this part of the circuit. We need to give a more appropriate explanation of the terms we used in the formula. He will have to provide a less hypothetical approach to describe his views. SUPER: Superlative Adjectives VO13 with highlighted text on screen The superlative is usually formed with an – est ending or the word most or least. For example- We used the fastest computer we could find to solve the equation. Unfortunately, it was not the least expensive machine. These are his most prized scientific readings information theory. SUPER: 12
  • 13. Summary VO14 with highlighted text on screen Dear students, it will be a good idea to quickly summarise everything we have covered so far. We have learnt that- • An adjective describes a noun. • Adjectives modify nouns and pronouns. • An adjective can follow the word it describes. It usually follows a form of the verb be. • Two important types of adjectives are- Determiners and Participial adjectives • Determiners are a group of four types of adjectives – demonstrative adjectives, possessive adjectives, quantifiers and articles. • Demonstratives specify the noun’s position in time or space. Eg- There, this, they, etc • Possessives show the noun’s possession. Eg- My, their, etc • Quantifiers tell the quantity of the nouns. Examples are- some, many, few, all, most, etc • A participial adjective is formed by adding to the base form of the verb either the present participial ending –ing or, unless the verb is irregular, the past participial ending –ed. • A comparative or superlative adjective is used to compare the degree of some quality of one item with the degree of the same quality in another item [comparative] or in multiple others [superlative] Question answer Session (Will be presented by anchor, answer will be spoken as well as displayed) 1. Which is the correct order? a. beautiful blue sailing boat b. blue beautiful sailing boat c. sailing beautiful blue boat d. blue sailing beautiful boat Ans. a 2. Which is the correct order? a. an old wooden square table b. a square wooden old table c. an old square wooden table d. a wooden old square table 13
  • 14. Ans. c 3. Which is the correct order? a. an new French exciting band b. a French new exciting band c. an exciting French new band d. an exciting new French band Ans. d 4. Which is the correct order? a. red big plastic hat b. big red plastic hat c. plastic big red hat d. bit plastic red hat Ans. b 5. Which is the correct order? a. small Japanese serving bowl b. Japanese small serving bowl c. small serving Japanese bowl d. serving small Japanese bowl Ans. a 6. Which is the correct order? a. a cotton dirty old tie b. a dirty cotton old tie c. an old cotton dirty tie d. a dirty old cotton tie Ans. d 14
  • 15. 7. Which is the correct order? a. small Canadian thin lady b. Canadian small thin lady c. small thin Canadian lady d. thin small Canadian lady Ans. c 8. Which is the correct order? a. carving steel new knife b. new steel carving knife c. steel new carving knife d. new carving steel knife Ans. b End of the episode (To be declared by the anchor with a pleasant note) That should be all on Adjectives for today. I hope this session was easy, and informative. Have a good day! 15