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  • PES/ENGIX/003 Note- Master after Beta Evaluation Word count- 3417 A PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY PRODUCTION SUPERS: SUBJECT - ENGLISH CLASS - IX MODULE - ARTICLES (Animated village characters are to be depicted) VO1(Start with the animated picture of a village boy, Rohit, with half pant and t shirt The highlighted words to be blinked.) I want to eat a Parantha and an egg for breakfast.(blink the highlighted parts along with the dialogue in the bubble) Image given for reference. I want to eat a Parantha and an egg for Breakfast. Rohit The egg was hot and delicious but the parantha was stale.(blink the highlighted words as they are spoken in the dialogue in the bubble) The egg was hot and delicious but the Parantha was stale. 1
  • PES/ENGIX/003 Cut to the ANCHOR 1: Hello children did you listen, Rohit says an egg, a parantha, because he is talking about them for the first time. Later on, he says ‘the egg’; ‘the parantha’ because he now refers to those particular things he had for breakfast. ‘A’, ‘An’ and ‘The’ are called articles, and if their correct usage has been a confusing issue for you, fret not, because that is exactly what you will learn in this module! Cut to our hi-tech board on which the following SUPER appears: LEARNING OBJECTIVES Voice-over with Text on screen (Please blink the highlighted parts, as they are spoken) After the completion of this module, students will be able to- • Learn the basic rules of using the articles 'a', 'an' and 'the'. • Differentiate between definite and indefinite articles. • Select the correct article based upon the count and initial pronunciation of the following noun. • Use of articles with countable and uncountable nouns. • Be able to find errors in the use of articles a, an and the. Cut to our hi-tech board on which the following SUPER appears: What is an Article? Cut to ANCHOR 2: (The highlighted words to be shown on the screen, as the anchor speaks. Pictures given for reference.) There are three articles in English – ‘a’, ‘an’ and ‘the’(to be shown one by one with blink, as the anchor speaks). An article is always placed before a noun.(the word ‘noun’ to be blinked as spoken) For example 2
  • PES/ENGIX/003 – Mira has a cat(Image of a girl for reference, patting a fluffy white cat to be shown boldly on the screen, animated,as the anchor speaks about the artcle’A’ )– Here, the article ‘a’ is used immediately before the noun ‘cat’. However, it’s important to note that all articles are used with nouns, but all nouns may not be used with articles. It becomes important to understand which noun requires an article and which doesn’t. Also, we need to know which article should be used when required. nkoNheb jw/FK BkT[B s'I gfjbK brkfJnk iKdk j?. T[dkjoD d/ s"o s/ @whok# j?} J/ e?N#, fJE/ nkoNheb @J/# BkT[B e?N s'I fJedzw gfjbK tofsnk frnk j?. go fJE/ fJj fXnkB oZyDk wjZstg{oB j? fe ;ko/ nkoNheb BkT[B Bkb jh tos/ iKd/ jB go ;ko/ BkT[BK d/ Bkb }o{oh BjhI nkoNheb br/. fJj rZb ;wMD bJh wjZstg{oB j' iKdh j? fe fejV/ BkT[B s'I gfjbK nkoNheb br/rk ns/ fejV/ BkT[B s'I gfjbK BjhI bZr/rk. ns/ ;k~ fJj ikBDk th }o{oh j? fe fejVk nkoNheb ed'I s/ fe; irQk tofsnk ikDk j?. Of the three, ‘a’ and ‘an’ are called indefinite articles. They do not point to any specific, unique noun. We use indefinite articles with singular and countable nouns. ‘A’, ‘An’ mean’ One’---- ‘a’ cat, meaning one cat. ‘the’ cat, meaning a specific or particular cat. Consider these examples- (Show these examples as text on screen, along with their animated pictures, one line at a time, while the anchor talks)Pictures given for reference. 3
  • PES/ENGIX/003 Rahul is reading a book.(animated picture of a boy opening a book and reading) M y aunt bought me a dress.(Animated image of a lady giving a dress to a teen aged girl) A mouse lives in a hole. (Show a cute picture of a mouse hole, near a big tree.) I can hear a cuckoo bird singing . (Animated picture of a colourful bird opening and closing its beak,with a bird’s sound) 4
  • PES/ENGIX/003 There is a banyan tree near my house.(Show a bold picture of a banyan tree near a house.) I had a banana for breakfast today.(Show the picture of a banana on a plate) Bees live in a beehive .( show animated picture of bees hovering around a bee-hive in a big tree.) 5
  • PES/ENGIX/003 We use ‘a’ before nouns that begin with consonant sounds. We use ‘an’ before nouns that begin with a vowel.sound But We already know that vowels are- a, e, i, o, and u. All the remaining letters in the alphabet are called consonants. n;hI T[BQK BkT[BK s'I gfjbK @J/# tosd/ jK fijV/ ftnziBK (ekB;'B?IN) Bkb F[o{ j[zd/ jB. n;hI T[BQK BkT[BK s'I gfjbK @n?B# tosd/ jK fijV/ ;PoK tkbh nktk} (tktb) jB - J/, Jh, nkJh, U ns/ :{ . pkeh ;ko/ nZyo n?bckp/N ftu ftnziB (ekB;'b?IN) nytKd/ jB. SUPER: (Show the alphabets, blink and drag out the vowel sounds at right hand side and show that the remaining letters are the consonant sounds) A, B, C ,D, E, F, G, A, E, I, O, U --- Vowel sounds. H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z . --- Remaining are the Consonant sounds. . SUPER: Use of ‘An’ Cut to Anchor3: We use ‘an’ before a countable noun which is singular and begins with a vowel sound. (Each word with the article should be shown with a bold colourful image.eg. the image of an apple with’An Apple’) An apple an egg an axe • (Show these examples one at a time,along with the animated image, while the anchor is talking) • Look at the picture of an egg.(underlined words should beep with the image of an egg on a plate.) • Would you like to have an ice cream?(Show the animated picture of a teenaged girl offering ice-cream) 6
  • PES/ENGIX/003 • An elephant is a huge animal(Show the colourful picture of a wild elephant. walking in a jungle.) • An honest servant is a blessing.(Show the image of a man with a duster and some plates in his hand, near a table.cleaning the plates) • Mr. John is an honourable man. (Show the image of a man wearing trousers and a shirt, waving his hand) • I read an encyclopaedia in my free time.(Show the image of an open encyclopaedia,being read by a boy, turning the pages) • She is an M.A. student in my college.(Show the animated image of a college girl with books in her hand entering a college gate) • That is the house of an M.L.A.(Show the image of a good house,with the image of an M.L.A. speaking to some people) • He was asked to go in for an X-Ray.(Image of a person being X-Rayed by a doctor). SUPER: Use of ‘The’ Cut to Anchor4 (The word ‘The’ should blink when the anchor speaks.) ‘The’ is a definite article. We use ‘the’ before a noun when we are talking about something or someone in particular. It is important for the other person to know who or what we are talking about. @dh# fJe fB;u/tkue nkoNheb j?. n;hI @dh# dk gq:'r nfij/ BkT[B s'I gfjbK eod/ jK id'I fe;/ uh} iK fe;/ ftnesh pko/ yk; s"o s/ nky oj/ j'JhJ/. fJj d{i/ ftnesh bJh ikBDk }o{oh j't/ fe n;hI fe; pko/ iK eh efj oj/ jK. • Here are some examples- (Show these examples, with colourful images, one at a time, while the anchor speaks about them)Highlight the words given in bold. • The street where I live is in central Delhi.(because we are talking about a particular, specific street) • Peter has won the race.(because we are talking about a particular Race) • Where is the car?(We are talking about a specific car) • My mother is laying the table for the guests(because mother is laying a particular table.) • The cow feeds on grass.(Because here we are talking about a particular animal) • The dress you gave me was beautiful!( Because we are talking about a particular dress) 7
  • PES/ENGIX/003 We also use ‘the’ with superlatives – which is the highest degree of comparison. ( Blink the word ‘the’ and ‘superlatives’) • Show the sentences with animated Images, blinking the underlined words. • Snow White was the fairest of them all. • He is the most intelligent student of the class. • We also use ‘the’ with words like first, last, only, next, etc • Aman is sitting on the last seat. • I am the only child of my parents. ‘The’ is not used with proper nouns. We never say- The Amit is a good boy. However, as an exception, ‘the’ is used with names of rivers, mountains, holy books, well known buildings, famous families, etc. @dh# gq'go BkT{B d/ Bkb BjhI tos/ iKd/. n;hI ed/ BjhI efjzd/ @dh nfws fJ} J/ r[v ptkJ/#. jkbKfe fJe ngtkd d/ s"o s/ dh BdhnK, gjkV, gftZso g[;seK, ikDhnK gSkDhnK fJwkosK wFj{o gfotkoK d/ BktK Bkb @dh# tofsnk iKdk j?. Here are some examples- (Show these examples as text and images on screen with only anchor’s voice audible) • The Himalayas lie in the north of India. • The Narmada River joins the Arabian Sea. • The Bachhans received a warm welcome in London. • My visit to the Taj Mahal was the most memorable event of my life. • I am learning to play the guitar. pj[s ;ko/ nouns, abstract ns/ nDfrDs ftukoK Bkb ;zpzXs jB. nkw s"o s/ fJBKQ nouns s'I gfjbk ed/ th article (‘a’, ‘an’ or ’ the’) BjhI nkT[Id/ . go fJBKQ e'b jw/Fk exceptions jz[dhnk jB. (see Exceptions below). • It takes courage to climb the tallest mountain on the continent. 8
  • PES/ENGIX/003 • The editor we hire needs to have enthusiasm( T[s;[esk ), dedication( brB ), and knowledge( frnkB ). • Is love the most important emotion? • As a child she lived in poverty, but now she has great wealth. • Many people feel that happiness is the most important thing in life. Some nouns are used both as abstract and concrete nouns. That is, they need no articles in some situations. e[M BkT[B d't/I soQK tos/ iKd/ jBL nw{osB ns/ ;w{osB BkT[B. fi;dk Gkt j? fe e[M jkbksK ftu T[BQK Bkb e'Jh nkoNheb BjhI bZr/rk. • Life ( or death): We can ask what the most important thing in life is, and we can worry about death. However, we can also talk about a life or a death, the life or death of one person. • n;h fJj g[ZS ;ed/ jk fe f}zdrh bJh ;g s'I }o{oh uh} eh j?. ns/ w"s bJh fuzsk th eo ;ed/ jK. fco n;h f}zdrh iK w"s d'jK dh rZb eo ;ed/ jK, fJZe pzd/ dh fizdrh ns/ w"s pko/. • Discipline: To succeed in life, you need discipline. When we talk about a discipline, we are referring to a career or field of study such as architecture or biology. • f}zdrh ftZu ;cbsk bJh nB[Fk;B dh b'V j?. id'I n;h nB[Fk;B dh rZb eod/ jK sK e?ohno iK chbv nkc ;NZvh ~ o?co eod/ jK. fit/ fe nkoehN?euo ns/ pkfJUb'ih . • Time: Time seems to move faster as we get older. Think of a time when you were young,when a day seemed to lost forever. • fit/ n;hI p[ZY/ j[zd/ iKd/ jK sk ;wk th s/}h Bkb nZr/ tZXdk ikdk j?. T[; ;w/I pko/ ;'u' id'I s[;h itkB ;h. id'I fe fJj fdB j[D n;h jw/Fk bJh r[nk fdZs/ jB. • Cut to MM2 • Show the animated picture of two policemen-Inspector Karan and Inspector Yadav. The following dialogue takes place between two policemen, Inspector Karan and Inspector Yadav ,sitting inside a jeep, while they are chasing a car full of thieves.(Characters to be animated,) Also, highlight the portions shown in the dialogues, to be shown in bubbles.. 9
  • PES/ENGIX/003 Inspector Karan- Hurry up, Inspector Yadav!. There is a thief in that car. Inspector Yadav drives faster. Then he takes out his revolver and shoots the driver of the car. Inspector Karan- Oh no Inspector Yadav! You killed the driver by mistake. What have you done! Inspector Yadav (looking shocked) – But you said, “There is a thief in that car”. So I thought there is only one person! Both together- “Oh no!” Cut to ANCHOR 4: PROPER USE OF AN ARTICLE Dear children, did you see what happened in the video clipping? We must note that the use of an article can change the meaning of a sentence! In the clipping that you just saw, you can see the mishap that took place, because the instruction given by Inspector Khan saying, ”There is a thief in that car” was incorrect and led to the killing of the driver. ”A” meant that there was only one person in the car, whereas there were two. • nkU n;hI e[ZM j'o T[dkjoDk okjh fJ; ~ ;gZFN eohJ I saw a black and white cow sleeping under a tree. This indicates only one cow.(blink’a’) I saw a black and a white cow sleeping under a tree. This indicates two cows.(blink both the ‘a’s.) Anil is sitting in the front of the car. This indicates that Anil is sitting in the front seat inside the car.(Show the animated image) Anil is sitting in front of the car. This indicates that Anil is sitting outside the car, near its front.(Show the animated image) Super: Summary (Anchor continues) Let us quickly recapitulate the main points once again- • A, AN and THE are known as ARTICLES. A and AN are INDEFINITE ARTICLES while THE is a DEFINITE ARTICLE nkU S/sh Bkb w[Zy fpzd{nK s/ fJe tko c/o fgSb Sks wko bJhJ/. -J/, n?B ns/ @dh# nkoNheb; eoe/ ikD/ iKd/ jB. J/ ns/ n?B fJBv?chB/N (nfB;u/tkue) nkoNheb; id fe dh v?chB/N (fB;u/tkue) nkoNheb j?. • ‘A’ is used with words that start with consonant sounds(eg. A bat; A shop, A house., shown with pictures .’A’ and’consonant sounds’ to blink.) 10
  • PES/ENGIX/003 • ‘An’ is used o Before vowel sounds (eg – an umbrella, an axe an M.L.A., an honest man, shown with pictures and’An’ and’vowel sounds’ to blink..) • ‘The’ is used o When a singular noun represents a whole class (eg- The dog is a man’s best friendShow with image and the word’The’ to blink.) id'I fe fJZe fJeZbk noun ;kfonk ~ do;kT[Idk j?. fit/ (fe e[Zsk nkdwh dk ;G s'I uzrk d';s j?) o However in the use of MAN and WOMAN as the whole class, THE is NOT USED. (eg- Man is the most intelligent of all living creatures show with image and the highlighted words blinking.) o go MAN ns/ WOMAN ~ th g{oh iwks ti'I tofsnk ikdk j?. fJE/ THE ~ Bjh tofsnk ikdk. fit/ wB[Zy ;ko/ ;ihtk ftZu'I p[ZXhwkB gqkDh j?. o To denote a particular person or thing that has already been mentioned. (eg- I asked the man if he wanted to drink water) fe;// ]k; ftnesh ik fe;/ t;s{ pko/ ;{fus eoBk fi; pko/ gfjbK jh dZf;nk frnk j't/. fit/ w? nkdwh ~ g[fSnk fe eh T[j gkDh ghDk ukj[zdk j?. o With superlatives (eg- This is the best song I ever heard!the word’superlatives to blink.) o ;otFq/msk fit/I fJj pj[s tXhnk rkDk j? fi; ~ w? ed/ Bjh ;[fDnk. o When we refer to classical books. (eg-The Gitanjali,The Ramayana, The Gita, The Bible,and other religious books etc. The highlighted words to blink.) o When we refer to newspapers, magazines etc. (eg- The Tribune’, The Times,The Illustrated Weekly of India, The Frontline) . The highlighted words to blink.) o When referring to names of specific geographical bodies means ftF/F G{r'fbe t;s{nK (eg- The Ganga, The Himalayas, The Great Wall of China, etc) The highlighted words to blink.) o Before nouns that are unique (eg- the sun, the earth, etc) The highlighted words to blink.) 11
  • PES/ENGIX/003 i' nkgDh T[dkjoD nkg j?. fit/ the sun, the earth, etc o With cardinal numbers (eg- Refer to the first, second and third chapter of this book) The highlighted words to blink.) o With the names of musical instruments means ;zrhs d/ :zso. (eg- the Harmonium, the Tabla etc) The highlighted words to blink.) • Articles are omitted or not used under certain conditions- o Before the two common nouns ‘man’ and ‘woman’ when these nouns are used to represent mankind or womankind as a whole(eg ,Man is a human being; Today’s woman is brave.) o Before a proper noun (eg- Mumbai is a big city) o Before material nouns (eg- Aluminium is a cool metal.) o Before abstract nouns (eg- Speech is silver but Silence is gold) o Before languages (eg – Children should speak English in school.) Question answer Session EXERCISES Rewrite the following sentences by putting the appropriate animated images, and the article blinking at the right place while showing the answers.- Please give a pause of 2 seconds before showing the answer. Would you like apple? Ans. Would you like an apple? Have you seen Principal today? 12
  • PES/ENGIX/003 Ans. Have you seen the Principal today? Anju is youngest daughter in family. Ans. Anju is the youngest daughter in the family. We live in small flat near City Centre. Ans. We live in a small flat near the City Centre. My sister is doctor. Ans. My sister is a doctor. I must go to bank to get some money. Ans. I must go to the bank to get some money. Seema bought newspaper and magazine this morning. Ans. Seema bought a newspaper and a magazine this morning. We stayed in expensive hotel in Goa. Ans. We stayed in an expensive hotel in Goa. My sister has got job in Florida. Ans. My sister has got a job in Florida. What bright day it is! Ans. What a bright day it is! Given below are a set of sentences. Which of these do you think are correct- the first or the second? Please flash the answer after a second, for each pair of sentences. • I have headache. • I have a headache. Ans. Second • What a shame! He does not obey his parents. • What shame! He does not obey his parents. Ans. First • Man is a social animal. • The man is social animal. Ans. First • His uncle is florist. • His uncle is a florist. Ans. Second 13
  • PES/ENGIX/003 • I go to the dentist once a month. • I go to dentist once a month. Ans. First • Cloth is sold by a meter. • The cloth is sold by a meter. • Cloth is sold by the meter. Ans. Third • Raj is always in hurry. • Raj is always in a hurry. Ans. Second 1. English are honest by nature. 2. The English are honest by nature. Ans. Second • Can I talk to manager please? • Can I talk to the manager please? Ans. Second • A man and a woman were sitting in front of me. • A man and woman were sitting in front of me. Ans. First The following sentences have errors in them. Try to find and correct them. • More we get, more we want. Ans. The more we get, the more we want. • Amit is most intelligent student in the class. Ans. Amit is the most intelligent student in the class. • Mr. Iyer is excellent guitar player. Ans. Mr. Iyer is an excellent guitar player. • Ritu has bad cold today. Ans. Ritu has a bad cold today. • This is interesting book from experienced writer. Ans. This is an interesting book from an experienced writer. • Good breakfast will give you energy you need. Ans. A good breakfast will give you the energy you need. • The brave men do not lose the heart even when they do not succeed. Ans. Brave men do not lose heart even when they do not succeed. • Next week we are shifting to the new house. Ans. Next week we are shifting to a new house. • Andaman and Nicobar islands is union territory with the Port Blair as capital. 14
  • PES/ENGIX/003 Ans. Andaman and Nicobar islands is a union territory with Port Blair as the capital. • I hate going to a dentist. Ans. I hate going to the dentist. Cut to ANCHOR: Dear children, I hope you are now clear with what articles are, their proper usage, and also the exceptional cases where articles must be omitted. Script to be shown on the screen, as the anchor speaks. Now friends, let’s suggest a game to you, so that you can find out for yourselves how well you have understood the articles and their usage. This is to be played in your classroom with the help of your teacher. Things required: Four placards with ‘A’, ‘ An’ and ‘The’ and ’No Articles’ boldly written on them, respectively. A pack of picture cards, equal to the number of students in your class. The pictures should be colourful bold images of persons, places, things and different expressions like happiness, excitement, anger etc. They can be made by collecting pictures and pasting them on cards, made of simple chart paper10inches by 10 inches.each. How to play: Divide the class into 4 groups and let each one get a picture card. Let the four groups hold the ‘article’ placards, one each. Now each student sees his own picture card and sees whether he/she belongs to the group he/she is standing in .If not, the student quickly runs to the group he/she belongs to. Whichever group settles down first, without any mistake, wins the game. Learning outcomes of the card game:. ( Blink the words highlighted in yellow) • The students are able to evaluate their own understanding of ‘Articles’ • They gain confidence in conducting the game on their own, with the teacher as the facilitator. • They learn to interact and learn from each other’s fault. • The teacher can instantly assess the initial understanding of the students and focus on her teaching methods accordingly. ,while filling up the gaps in her instructional strategies. fgnko/ pZfuU, w?~ T[whd j? fe s[jk~ ;gZFN j' frnk j't/rk fe nkoNheb eh j[zd/ jB, T[BQK d/ tosD dk mhe Yzr eh j? ns/ ngtkd fejV/ jB fiE/ nkoNheb tosD s'I r[o/} eoBk b'V 15