Punjab Edusat Society Production

                            SUBJECT      : GEOGRAPHY
                            CLASS  ...
of the earth is based upon indirect scientific evidences. These sources may be
classified into three groups:



Cut to Anc...
o;kfJfDe feqnktK ns/ j'o eJh ekoDK Bkb Xosh dk nzdobk fjZ;k row ofjzdk j?.
fJ; soQK skgwkB dh do ftu fJe' fijk tkXk BjhI j...
Apart from Tidal and Planetesimal hypothesis, there is one more hypothesis that
became very popular during the 18th centur...
G{ukb dh ouBk pko/ ikDd/ j't'r/. Xosh d/ nzdo fi; EK G[ukb F[o{ j[zdk j? T[;~
c'e; efjzd/ jB ns/ G{ukbh sozrk Xosh dh ;sj ...
them. It is L waves that produce the most violent shocks. The Richter scale is
used to measure the magnitude of earthquake...
j[D n;hI j?o'bv i?coh (Harold Jeffrey) d/ ftukoK tZb Mks wkohJ/, fi;B/ G{ukbh
sozrk d/ nkXko s/ Xosh d/ nzdo{Bh fjZ;/ ftu ...
So finally we have completed our today’s module-Interior of the Earth. But before
I assess you all I will give a brief rec...
I am confident that you have all scored well. I hope you enjoyed the lesson as
much as I did and are looking forward to th...
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Geo interior of the earth anchor

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Geo interior of the earth anchor

  1. 1. Punjab Edusat Society Production SUBJECT : GEOGRAPHY CLASS : BA PART I CHAPTER : EARTH TOPIC : INTERIOR OF THE EARTH Cut to ANCHOR 1: Hello Students! Welcome to today’s module-Interior of the Earth. You all must have got a fair idea after seeing the visuals that the elementary knowledge of constitution of the Earth is necessary to understand the nature of changes taking place on the Earth’s surface. Could you ponder over the thought that what constitutes the interior of the earth? What is the nature of the surface of the earth? Or why is it that when Volcano erupts it emits hot, molten lava? We are going to unfold reasons to all these queries. But first of all, let me share with you the learning objectives for today’s lesson. Cut to Anchor 2 ftfdnkoEhU eh s[;hI ikDd/ j' fe Xosh d/ roG ftZu eh j?< fJj ftFk G{r'b ftfrnkBh ns/ ftfrnkBhnK bJh F{o[ s'I jh fyZu dk e/Ido pfDnk fojk j?. id''I i{b; toB/ B/ 1864 s'I @Xosh d/ roG tb :ksok# (Journey to the centre of the Earth) fbyh U[d''I Xosh d/ roG dh gqfeqsh fej' fijh j? fJ; pko/ eJh fto'Xh f;XKs gquZbs ;B. e[M G{ftfrnkBh ;'ud/ ;B fe Xosh pj[s f}nkdk dZphnK j'JhnK r?;K dk r'bk j? id fe eJh j'o nfijk nB[wkB bkT[Id/ ;B fe fJ; ftu tyo'-tZyo/ gdkoEK dhnK gosK jB. j[D brgr fJe ;dh pknd th ;kv/ e'b e'Jh f;ZXk ;p{s BjhI, fi; okjhI d; ;ehJ/ fe Xosh fe; uh} dh pDh j'Jh j?. Xosh d/ roG pko/ ;kvh ikDekoh ngosy ftfrnkBe gqwkDK s/ nkXkfos j?. fJ;s'I gfjbK fe n;hI tZyo/-tZyo/ ;p{sK s/ ftuko eohJ/, nkU gfjbK Xosh dh ouBk pko/ gqkgs ikDekoh s/ T[gobh B}o wkfoJ/ . The Earth is divided into different layers like a giant onion, each with its own particular characteristics. Take a look at the slides to see the visual on structure of the Earth. Cut to Anchor 3: There are few direct as well as some indirect evidences about the structure of the Earth. As regards physical conditions, direct evidence is available from mines, which do not extend beyond a depth of 4km. So our knowledge about the interior 1
  2. 2. of the earth is based upon indirect scientific evidences. These sources may be classified into three groups: Cut to Anchor4 id'I n;hI Xosh dhnK tZyohnK gosK dh ;zxDsk pko/ ftuko efoJ/ sK fJ; dk nkXko G{s f;XKs , s?oB dk f;XKs j?. i/ s/b, gkDh ns/ rfb;ohB ~ fJe pheo ftZu gkU sK T[j fszB s?jK ftZu nk iKd/ jB. ;G s'I jbek sob s/b ;G s'I T[go nk ikt/rk ns/ T[;s'I EZb/ gkDh s/ nyho ftZu rfb;ohB. fJ; soQK Xosh fizBQK gdkoEK dh pDh j'Jh j?, fJj gdkoE th fJe d{i/ d/ T[go s?od/ jB jkbKfe fJBQK ftu'I e[M nzF m'; jB. fszB ;dhnK gfjbK nzro/} ftfrnkBh fJ;ke fBT{NB (Isaac Newton) B/ rq?jK ns/ r[o{st nkeoFB pb d/ nfXn?B d/ nkXko s/ fJj rDBk ehsh fe Xosh dh n";sB ;zxDsk ,fJ;dh ;sj s/ gkJhnK iKdhnK uNkBK s'I d[rDh j? ns/ fJT[I Xosh dk roG pj[s ;zxD/ gdkoEK dk pfDnk j'fJnk j?. jkbKfe fBT{NB d/ ;w/I s'I b? e/ j[D sZe Xosh d/ nzdob/ fjZ;/ pko/ ;kv/ frnkB ftZu ekch tkXk j'fJnk j? go fBT{NB dh rDBk dk nzdk}k fBFu/ s"o s/ pdfbnk BjhI j?. nkU Xosh dhnK ty'-tZyohnK s?jK dh ;zxDsk pko/ ikDhJ/. Cut to Anchor 5 fit/I fJ; fuZso ftu n;hI t/fynk j? fe Xosh d/ e'o (Core) dh ;zxDsk ;G s'I tZX j? ns/ fJ;dk Xosh nzdob/ dpk Bkb f;ZXk ;zpzX j?. fJBQK ;bkfJvK(slides) okjhI Xosh d/ nzdob/ dpk dh ;fEsh dk ikfJ}k bt'. Cut to Anchor 6 fJ; soQK fJj nzdk}k j? fe Xosh d/ roG (e/Ido) ftZubk dpk tk:{wzvbh: dpk s'I 30-40 bZy r[DK f}nkdk j[zdk j?. Xosh d/ nzdob/ T[^u dpk ekoB jh itkbkw[yh cNd/ jB ns/ G[ukb nkT[Id/ jB. s[;hI ;ko/ itkbkw[yh ns/ row uFfwnK(hot springs) d// pko/ ikDd/ j'. fJj Xosh d/ nzdob/ T[^u skg d/ gOwkD jB. G{-roG ftu id'I v{zxhnK ykBK y'dhnK iKdhnK jB sK Xosh dh ;sj s'I brksko skgwkB tZXdk iKdk j?. fiT[I Xosh d/ EZb/ iKd/ ikU sK jo 100 whNo dh v{zxkJh s/ 2 s'I 3 doik (Celsius)skgwkB tZXdk j?. skgwkB dk tXDk nzdo{Bh FeshnK d/ ekoD j?, o/fvUn?efNt gdkoEK dk ftxNB j'Dk, 2
  3. 3. o;kfJfDe feqnktK ns/ j'o eJh ekoDK Bkb Xosh dk nzdobk fjZ;k row ofjzdk j?. fJ; soQK skgwkB dh do ftu fJe' fijk tkXk BjhI j[zdk .n;hI Xosh dh ;sj s'I EZb/ iKd/ jK sK skgwkB ;wkB o{g ftZu BjhI tZXdk. . Cut to Anchor 7 r?o e[dosh ;o'sK( fiBQK dk f}eo n;hI gfjbK jh eo u{e/ jK) s'I fJbktk Xosh dh T[sgsh pko/ tZy'-tZyo/ f;XKs Gh Xosh d/ rop pko/ gqwkD fdzd/ jB. Cut to Anchor 8 Various scholars of different fields have put forward different hypothesis and theories related to the origin of the Earth. They have assumed the original form of the Earth to be in solid or liquid or gaseous state. According to the Planetesimal hypothesis proposed by Thomas Chamberlin and Forest Moulton in 1905, the planets of the Solar System have emerged from an encounter between the Sun and another star. In this scenario, the gravity of the passing star tears a series of bolts from the solar surface. Bolts coming from the side nearer the star are thrown out to distances while those from the far side of the Sun are ejected less violently. The outer part is expanded and cooled into a huge cloud of solid particles spread out in a disk rotating about the Sun in a plane determined by the motion of the passing star. Thus, the views of Planetesimals can be summarised as Cut to Anchor 9 Now, according to James Jeans and Harold Jeffreys, the propounder of Tidal hypothesis, the origin of the solar system is a result of a close encounter between the Sun and a second star. However, they differed significantly from the planetesimal hypothesis. As a result of a detailed mathematical analysis, Jeans concluded in 1916 that the tidal interaction between the Sun and a passing star would raise tides on the Sun resulting in the loss of a single cigar-shaped filament of hot gas, rather than separate streams of gas as in the Chamberlin and Moulton scenario. This hot gas would then condense directly into the planets instead of going through a planetesimal stage. The central section of the "cigar" would give rise to the largest planets – Jupiter and Saturn – while the tapering ends would provide the substance for the smaller worlds. Thus, the views of Tidal hypothesis can be summarised as: Cut to Anchor 10 3
  4. 4. Apart from Tidal and Planetesimal hypothesis, there is one more hypothesis that became very popular during the 18th century called as Nebular hypothesis proposed by Kant and Laplace. According to Kant, great cloud of gas and dust, called as nebula, begins to collapse because the gravitational force overcomes the forces associated with gas pressure that would like to expand it. Thus, the views of Tidal hypothesis can be summarised as: Cut to Anchor 11 Based on the different hypothesis, it can be presumed that the Earth, along with the other planets, is believed to have been born 4.5 billion years ago as a solidified cloud of dust and gases left over from the creation of the Sun. For perhaps 500 million years, the interior of Earth stayed solid and relatively cool. The main ingredients, according to the best available evidence, were iron and silicates, with small amounts of other elements, some of them being radioactive. As millions of years passed, energy released by radioactive decay—mostly of uranium, thorium, and potassium—gradually heated Earth, melting some of its constituents. The iron melted before the silicates, and, being heavier, sank towards the centre. Now we move on to the natural sources of interior earth. Cut to Anchor 12 Xosh dh ouBk ~ ;wMD bJh itkbk w[yhnK dh e[dosh gqfefonk ftfrnkBh bJh nfXn?B dk w[y ;o's ojh j?. e[M ftfrnkBh ftFtk; eod/ jB fe id'I row s/ sob bktk itkbk w[yh d/ cND Bkb Xosh dh ;sj s/ c?bdk j? sK fJj ;wfMnk ik ;edk j? fe Xosh dh ;sj d/ EZb/ fJe gos nfijh th j? i' sob o{g ftu j?. fJ; sob ;sj ~ w?rwk u?Ipo fejk iKdk j? i' fe itkbk w[yh d/ cND s/ w?rwk (T[bpdk sob) s/ bktk eZYdh j?. fJ; nzdk}/ nB[;ko fJj Bshik eZfYnk ik ;edk j? fe Xosh dk e[ZM fjZ;k sob j?. d{i/ gk;/ dpk d/ tZXD Bkb uNkBK dk melting point tZX iKdk j?. fJ; soQK Xosh nzdo pj[s f}nkdk skgwkB j'D d/ pkti{d th Xosh dk nzdo{Bh fjZ;k sob BjhI j? fJ; dk ekoD U[gobh gosK dk Gko s/ dpkt j? . go g/gVh d/ pko pko N[ZND ekoB nzdo{Bh uZNkBK dk melting point xZN iKdk j? fi; ekoD uZNkBK fgxb iKfdnK jB fit/I fe n;h ikDd/ jK fe U[ZE/ b'VhIdk T[^u skgwkB gfjbK jh w"i{d j?. fJT[I itkbk w[yh dh eko}Fhbsk Xosh d/ roG d/ nfXn?B dk :'r ;p{s BjhI g/F eo ;edh. eh s[jk~ gsk j? fe Seismology (;hf}wkb'ih- G{ukb-ftfrnkB) dk eh noE j?< fJj G{ukbh sozrK s/ ;[Gkt ~ ;wMD dk ftfrnkB j?. fJBQK G[ukbh sozrK ~ ;hf}w'rqkc Bkwe :zso okjhI wkfgnk iKdk j?. fJj ftFtkF ehsk iKdk j? fe ;hf}wkb'ih jh nfijk ;o's j? i' Xosh d/ roG dh ;zouBk pko/ mhe ikDekoh d/ ;edk j?. s[;hI ;ko/ 4
  5. 5. G{ukb dh ouBk pko/ ikDd/ j't'r/. Xosh d/ nzdo fi; EK G[ukb F[o{ j[zdk j? T[;~ c'e; efjzd/ jB ns/ G{ukbh sozrk Xosh dh ;sj wfj;{; ehshnK ikdhnK jB. ftfrnkBe nfXn?B s'I fJ; rb dk gsk bZfrnk j? fe id'I fJj G{ukbh sozrK Xosh d/ nzdob/ tZy- tZy GkrK EkDhI bzxdh jB sK fJBQK sozrK d/ t/r ns/ fdFk ftu pdbkU nkT[Idk j?. fJBQK dk behaviour (toskok) fJe wkfXnw s'I d{i/ wkfXnw ftu nkT[D s/ pdb iKdk j?. Gkt m'; ftZu fJj j'o soQK behave eo dhnK jB ns/ sob ftu j'o soQK. fJj G{ukbh sozrk fszB soQK dhnK jB L w{b iK bzpdko sozrk(Primary or Longitudinal waves), r"D sozrk(Secondary waves) ns/ bzphnK sozrk iK ;sjh sozrk (Long waves or Surface waves) Slide t/y' ns/ jo fJe d/ r[DK dh ikBekoh bU[ - Cut to Anchor 13 Take a look at the slides to observe the characteristics of each: Cut to Anchor 14 fJBQK fuZsoK okjhI s[;hI t/y ;ed/ fe id'I fJj G[ukb sozrkI Xosh d/ nzdo ubdhnK jB sK fJBQK d/ ;[Gkn ftZu eh coe nKU[Idk j?. ;bkfJvk (slide) ~ fXnkB bk e/ ty'. Cut to Anchor 15 As you saw the behaviour of seismic waves in the visuals, it is apparent that earthquake waves are bent, like light passing through a piece of glass, when they traverse rock boundaries with different densities. If the waves hit the boundary at a low angle, they are reflected instead. Waves from distant earthquakes emerge steeply through the crust while those from earthquakes nearby emerge at shallow angles. By knowing these angles, the velocities at which the waves emerge, their times of arrival and distances travelled, geophysicist have been able to compute the positions and densities of the earth’s different shells. On the above bases, it can be summed up that compressional or P waves cause the rock particles through which they pass to shake back and forth in the direction of the wave. While Shear waves or Secondary waves make the particles vibrate at right angles to the direction of their passage. Neither types of seismic waves physically move the particles; instead it merely travels through 5
  6. 6. them. It is L waves that produce the most violent shocks. The Richter scale is used to measure the magnitude of earthquakes. The scale of magnitudes is so arranged that each unit on the scale is equivalent to 30 times the energy released by the previous unit. A magnitude of 2 is hardly felt, while a magnitude of 7 is the lower limit of an earthquake that has a devastating effect over a large area. It is thus obvious that seismology is the only source, which provides us authentic information about the composition of the Earth’s interior. In the light of this, the nature and properties of the composition of the interior of the earth may be successfully obtained on the basis of the study of various aspects of seismic waves. Cut to Anchor 16 ;' fJj ;G e[M frnkB d/ ;o's ;h i' Xosh d/ roG Bkb ;zpzfXs jB. fJBQK ;p{sK ~ fXnkB ftZu oZyfdnK n;hI Xosh dh ouBk pko/ e[M nkw fBu'V eZY ;ed/ jK. fit/I n;hI gsk ehsk j? fe Xosh dk nzdobk skg s/ dpkn, G[ukb sozrk dk t/r s/ okj, ;k~ Xosh dh nzdo{Bh ouBk d/ fGzB- fGzB G'fse r[DK, xDsk ns/ ;zxNeK pko/ ikDekoh d/Idk j?. ;sj s/ gkJhnK iKdhnK uNkBK dh xDsk nzdobh ;sj s'I pj[s xZN j?. o;kfJfDe pDso nB{;ko g/gVh jbehnK XksK d/ f;bhe/N s'I pDh j'Jh j? ns/ w?INb f}nkdkso b'j/ ns/ fwFo XksK d/ f;bhe/N jB. ftfGzB G{-ftfrnkfBeK ns/ G{r'b ftfrnkBhnK fit/I fe n?vtov ;[n?; (Edward Suess), nkoHJ/H vkbh (R.A.Daly), i?coh (Jeffrey)ns/ j'w; (Holmes) B/ o;kfJfDe ;zxDsk d/ nkXko #s/ Xosh dh nzdo{Bh ouBk pko/ nB{wkB bkJ/ jB. ;' nkU Xosh dh nzdo{Bh ouBk d/ ;zxDe pko/ ;[n?; (Suess) d/ ftukoK s'I rb F[o{ eohJ/L Cut to ANCHOR 17: j[D se n;hI fJj ikfDnk fe Xosh dh ;sj s/ e'o ~ tZyohnK gosK iK fjZf;nK ftZu tzfvnk ik ;edk j? 1940 ftZu nkoHJ/Hvkb/ B/ Xosh d/ nzdo{Bh fjZ;/ ~ uko gosK ftZu tzfvnk. nkU fJ; G{-ftfrnkBh d/ fynkbK ~ tkuhJ/. Cut to ANCHOR 18: 6
  7. 7. j[D n;hI j?o'bv i?coh (Harold Jeffrey) d/ ftukoK tZb Mks wkohJ/, fi;B/ G{ukbh sozrk d/ nkXko s/ Xosh d/ nzdo{Bh fjZ;/ ftu uko gosk ~ gSkfDnk. nkU fJ; fuZso okjhI fJ;~ ;wMD dk :sB eohJ/. Cut to Anchor 19: fJe j'o gf;ZX G{-ftfrnkBh nkoEo j'w} (Arthur Holmes) B/ Xosh dh pDso d/ nkXko s/ fJ; d/ nzdo{Bh fjZ;/ dhnK d' tZvhnK gosk ~ ouBk dk nkXko wzfBnk. nkU fJBQK ~ gSkBD dk :sB eohJ/. Cut to ANCHOR 20: ;',n;hI tZyo- tZyo// G{-ftfrnkBhnK iK ftfrnkBhnK d/ Xosh dh nzdo{Bh ;zouBk ns/ gosk pko/ ftukoK pko/ ikDekoh bJh. fJBQK ftuko s'I fJj gqshs j[zdk j? fe Xosh dhnK gosk dh frDsh, w'NkJh ns/ T[;d/ r[DK pko/ wsG/d jB. fJ; confusion ekoB T[go fdZs/ ftuko oZd j' iKd/ jB. e[dosh s/ r?o e[dosh G{ukbh sozrk d/ tZy-tZy gZyK dk ftFb/FD ns/ ftfrnkBe nfXn?B B/ ftfrnkfBeK ~ Xosh d/ nzdo{Bh fjZ;/ d/ ojZ; ~ y'bQD :'r pDkfJnk j? ns/ Bt/I ftuko fdZs/ jB. G{ukbh sozrK d/ t/r ftu nkT[Id/ pdbkU d/ nkXko s/ n;hI Xosh d/ nzdo{Bh Gkr ~ fszB fjZf;nK ftZu tzv ;ed/ jK fiBQK d/ ty'-tZyo/ r[D jB fJj fjZ;/ jb -g/gVh, w?INb ns/ e'o. nkU fJBQK d/ r[DK ~ y'ihJ/L Cut to Anchor 21: w?INb g/gVh d/ fBubh gos j?. w?INb ftZu b'jk, w?rBhFhnw s/ e?bFhnw g/gVh s'I fes/ f}nkdk fwbdk j?. fJj f}nkdk row ns/ ;zxDh j? feT[Ife Xosh dh rfjokJh Bkb skgwkB ns/ dpk tZX iKd/ jB. i/ s[bBk eohJ/ sK w?INb ~ T[pb/ nzv/ dh ;/dh dh fBnKJh ;wfMnk ik ;edk j?. nkU fJ;d/ bZSDK dk nfXn?B eohJ/L Cut to Anchor 22: nzv/ dh }odh s'I jZN e/, Xosh dk e'o d' w[y fjZf;nK dk pfDnk j'fJnk j?. fJe 2,200 feb'whNo w'Nk sob e'o ns/ 1250 feb'whNo w'Nk m'; e'o. e'o d/ bZSDK ~ tkuD ykso fJ; fuZso tZb t/y'. Cut to Anchor 23: 7
  8. 8. So finally we have completed our today’s module-Interior of the Earth. But before I assess you all I will give a brief recapitulation of the whole content. Let’s see what we have learnt so far. Cut to Anchor 24: Xosh rqfj fszB w[Zy gosk dk pfDnk j'fJnk j?. fJe gsbh g/gVh, w?INb ns/ e'o. Xosh d/ nzdo{Bh fjZ;/ d[nkb/ gsbh uNkB ~ g/gVh efjzd/ jB. T[gobh g/gVh i' fe wjKdhgK T[go j[zdh j?, T[;~ f;n?b(Sial) efjzd/ jB. idfe wjKdhgk dh f;n?b d/ EZb/ ns/ ;w[zdo dh sbh T[go f;w?( Sima) j[zdh j?. w?INb dh gos, g/gVh d/ EZb/ j[zdh j?. w?INb dh ;zxDsk g/gVh s'I pj[s f}nkdk j[zdh j? fi; ekoB fJj G{ukbh sozrk bJh gfotofss ;sj pD iKdh j?. fJ; ;sj ~ w'jo'ftf;; Gzrsk(Mohorovicic discontinuity) eoe/ ikfDnk iKdk j?. Xosh d/ e/Ido ftu e'o j[zdk j? fi; dh xDsk w?INb s'I d[rDh j[zdh j?. feT[fe fJ; d/ ;zxNB Xks{ (b'jk-fBeb fwFo Xks{) jB. Xosh dk e'o d' fBFfus fjZf;nK ftZu j?. pkjobk sob (fgxfbnk) e'o ns/ nzdobk m'; e'o. Xosh dh nzdo{Bh fjZf;nK dh ;kvh ikDekoh ngos] ftfrnkBe gqwkDk s/ nkXkfos j?. fi;~ fszB fjZf;nK ftZu tzfvnk ik ;edk j?. @r?o e[dosh ;o's, Xosh dh T[sgsh pko/ f;XKsK ftu'I gqwkD ns/ e[dosh ;o's fi; soQK fe itkbk w[yh ns/ ;hf}wkb'ih. ;hf}wkb'ih jh fJe nfijk ;o's j? i' ;k~ Xosh d/ nzdo d/ ;zxNeK dh mhe o{g ftZu ikDekoh d/Idk j?. G{ukbh sozrk fszB torK ftZu oZyhnK rJhnK jB, w{b, r"D ns/ ;sjh sozrk. fJj sozrK xDe pdbkU dh EK s/ ngtofss j' iKdhnK jB ns/ fJT[I Xosh d/ nzdo N/vk o;sk ngBkT[IdhnK jB. ftfGzB G{-ftfrnkBh fit/I ;[n?;, vkbh, i? coh ns/ j'bw} B/ Xosh dhnK gosK dh ouBk pko/ ftuko fdZs/ jB. n?vtov ;[n?; (Edward Suess) B/ Xosh d/ nzdo dh o;kfJfDe ;zxNBk pko/ ukBDk gkfJnk j?. nkoHJ/HvkbhH(R A Daly) B/ rfjokJh s/ xDsk d/ nkXko s/ Xosh dhnK uko gosK wzBhnK. G{-ftfrnkBh nkoEo j'bw} (Arthur Holmes) B/ w[y d' gosk wzBhnk, g/gVh ns/ ;p;Nq/NZw (Crust and Substratum). G{ukbh sozrk d/ n?fXn?B s'I pknd fJBQK ftukoK ~ oZd ehsk frnk j? ns/ j[D nk]o ;hf}wkb'ih (Seismology) Xosh dh nzdo{Bh ikDekoh bJh ;G s'I uzrk ;o's wzBh iKdh j?. Cut to ANCHOR 25 So we have explored in detail about the inside Earth. Here’s a quick fire round test for you to find out how much you have learnt. Let’s begin: keep your thinking caps on! Cut to Anchor 26: 8
  9. 9. I am confident that you have all scored well. I hope you enjoyed the lesson as much as I did and are looking forward to the next class. Thank you for your attention and see you next time. 9

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