Eng xii transformation of sentences part i_128 master frozen
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Eng xii transformation of sentences part i_128 master frozen Eng xii transformation of sentences part i_128 master frozen Document Transcript

  • PES/XII/128/Transformation of Sentences Part I A PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY PRODUCTION Master Words: 4329 SUBJECT - ENGLISH CLASS - XII MODULE - TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES PART I TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES ANCHOR 1 Good morning students. How are you doing today? I expect you all to be ready for your class. Well today we are going to start a new topic but one which at times will appear to be somewhat similar to what you have done in your previous classes, though some concepts will be completely new. So let us proceed further to see what we are going to learn in today’s class. Over to our Learning Objectives for the session. pZfuU, nZi d/ gkm ftZu s[jkvk ;kfonkA dk ;[nkrs j? .s[;h nZi eh eo oj/ j' <w?Bz{ T[whd j? fe s[;hA nkgDh nrbh ebk; bJh fsnko j' .pZfuU, nZi n;hA fJZe Bt/ ftF/ dh F[o{nks eo oj/ jkA go fJj ftFk T[BkQA ftfFnkA Bkb fwbdk i[bdk j? fiBkQA Bz{ s[;hA gfjbkA gVQ uZ[e/ j' .go fJ; ftZu eZ[M XkoDktkA tZy j'DrhnkA .nkU fJ; ftF/ pko/ ikDB bJh nr/ tXhJ/ go fJ; F[o{nks s' gfjbkA nkU nZi d/ f;fynk T[d/F ;kAM/ eo bJhJ/ . VO for LO’s LEARNING OBJECTIVES Upon the completion of the module students will be able to • Define a sentence. • Define a clause and a phrase. • Explain about sentence connectors and their usage.
  • • Identify a clause and a phrase in a sentence. • Identify simple sentence • Identify compound sentence And lastly • Identify complex sentence. ANCHOR 2 I believe the learning objectives have made it clear that we must first begin to understand the meaning of “Transformation of Sentences” SUPER Well actually transformation of sentences means changing of one type of sentence into another type i.e. identifying a simple sentence and then changing it into a compound sentence or to a complex sentence or vice-versa. n;b ftZu fJ;dk noE j? fe fJZe sohe/ d/ tke Bz{ d{ih sokQA d/ tke ftZu spdhb eoBk fit/ fe fJe ;kXkoB tke Bz{ gfjukD e/ T[;Bz{ compound tke ftZu spdhb eoBk ikA complex tke ftZu ikA fJ; d/ T[bN . Why then, do we need to know what is a clause or a phrase? Leave that to the rest of the module, by the end of which you shall surely understand the reasons for the same! So let us begin our learning with definition of a simple sentence. Clause ns/ fJZe phrase s[jkv/ ftF/ dk fJZe fjZ;k j? fi;Bz{ s[;hA skA ;wM'r/ id' T[; pko/ dZf;nk ikJ/rk .nkU fco n;hA nkgD/ nZi d/ gkm Bz{ F[o{ eohJ/ ns/ fJ; s' pknd s[jkv/ T[BkQA ;kfonk gqFBkA dk T[Zso fdsk ikJ/rk i' s[jkv/ fdwkr ftZu jB .n;hA nkgDh nZi dh ebk; ftZu ;G s' gfjbkA simple sentence pko/ gVkQAr/ . SUPER Now what is a sentence? Anchor 3 This must be easy and all of you must know it too. Well let us see. Oh who is this on the screen? For MM: Show all the conversation text in bubbles. MM – Show a rabbit walking with a name plate Mr. Sentence and a man staring at him. VO1 Man : Who are you?
  • Rabbit: Hey you don’t know me. I am Mr. Sentence I am most crucial part of English grammar. I am group of words that makes complete sense. (show this definition in a cloud) Now you know me who I am? Man: Yes but is this all about you? Rabbit : No, o My words are always in a proper order. o I begin with a capital letter. o I end with a (.) full stop, (?) a question mark or , (!) an exclamation mark. Man: Yes now I know you. Well I think A sentence must have a verb and a subject. The subject of a sentence tells who has done or what is the action? fJZe tke ftZu fefonk ns/ eosk/subject dk j'Dk io{oh j? .tke dk eosk jh fJj fpnkB eodk j? fe fe;B/ ehsk ikA fefonk eh j't/rh . Rabbit: Yes. Ok now you tell me whether this is a sentence or not. Her mother’s favourite dress. Man: No, it is incomplete. Rabbit: Ok right next Carnations were her favourite flowers. Man: Oh yes it is a complete sentence. Rabbit : Very good so you basically know what is a sentence. Man: Yes dear I know it because it is base of our ENGLISH language. Rabbit: So give me examples of sentences. Man : Well very simple. See I am standing in the forest. This forest is very beautiful. It has amazing natural beauty. I met a wonderful and friendly person in this forest. There are many coniferous trees in this forest. Rabbit : Ok ok I accept you know it. Man: Thank you. ANCHOR 4 Well students now you all must have understood what a sentence is. You all need to know that a sentence has two parts • A Subject and • a Predicate SUPER DID YOU KNOW The important word in A (subject) is a noun. The important word in B (predicate) is a verb.
  • ANCHOR 5 Observe the table coming up on the screen. Now make correct sentences by joining each beginning to a suitable ending. The left hand column in the table contains the part of the subject and the right hand column contains parts of the predicate. VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN BEGINNING ENDING SUBJECT PREDICATE 1. My mother is a doctor 2. My father comforts me when I am sad. 3. My brother am a student of class 1V 4. I live with us. 5. My grandparents have a little pup. 6. We studies in a hostel. The correct answers are 1. My mother comforts me when I am sad. 2. My father is a doctor. 3. My brother studies in a hostel. 4. I am a student of class 1V. 5. My grandparents live with us. 6. We have a little pup. Here are a few jumbled sentences. Try to rearrange them in proper order. VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN 1. Teacher/my/is/wise/very Ans. My teacher is very wise. Subject – My teacher Predicate - is very wise. 2. the/sore/has/throat/child/a Ans The child has a sore throat Subject – The child Predicate-has a sore throat 3. coming/is/postman/the The postman is coming. Subject –The postman Predicate- is coming 4. plays/David/and/cricket/tennis David plays cricket and tennis Subject –David plays Predicate-cricket and tennis
  • 5. boy/the/brave/dog/saved/drowning/the The brave boy saved the drowning dogs. Subject –The brave boy….. Predicate-saved the drowning dogs ANCHOR 6 Dear students now here is one more interesting exercise for you. Use your imagination! For each sentence write an ending i.e. a predicate that tells what is happening in the picture MM (Show animated pictures as given below) VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN 1. The mother ___________ (pic of mother giving gift to her boy.) The mother is giving gift to her boy 2. Rahul and his mother _____________ (show both of them playing tennis.) Rahul and his mother are playing tennis. 3. The kohli family__________ (show the family going in a car.) The Kohli family are going in a car. 4. Mr.kohli _______________ (show him flying kite with his daughter.) Mr. Kohli is flying kite with his daughter. 5. Gauri __________________ (show her crying and sitting near her broken toys.) Gauri is crying and sitting near her broken toys. ANCHOR 7 Well students we will do one more exercise to practice further. You will be shown a sentence. You should be able to identify the subject and the predicate separately. The first three have been done for you as examples, wherein the subject has been underlined. pj[s uzrk pZfuU, j[D n;hA fJZe j'o nfGnk; eokAr/ .fJBkQA tkekA ftZu eosk Bz{ ns/ Predicate Bz{ tZy eo' .gfjb/ fszB T[dkjoBkA Bz{ s[jkv/ bJh jZb ehsk frnk j? . 1. The boy stood on the burning deck. Subject is:The boy Predicate is the other half of the sentence, that is stood on the burning deck. 2. The singing of the birds delights us. Subject is:The singing Predicate is the other half of the sentence, that is
  • of the birds delights us 3. Miss Kitty was rude at the table one day. Subject is: Miss Kitty Predicate is the other half of the sentence, that is was rude at the table one day 4. He has a good memory. Subject is: He Predicate is the other half of the sentence, that is has a good memory. 5. Bad habits grow unconsciously. Subject is: Bad habits Predicate is the other half of the sentence, that is grow unconsciously. 6. The earth revolves around the sun. Subject is: The earth Predicate is the other half of the sentence, that is revolves around the sun. 7. Nature is the best physician. Subject is: Nature Predicate is the other half of the sentence, that is is the best physician. 8. Edison invented the phonograph. Subject is: Edison Predicate is the other half of the sentence, that is invented the phonograph. 9. Borrowed garments never fit well. Subject is: Borrowed garments Predicate is the other half of the sentence, that is never fit well 10. The early bird catches the worm. Subject is: The early bird Predicate is the other half of the sentence, that is catches the worm. 11. All matter is indestructible. Subject is: All matter Predicate is the other half of the sentence, that is is indestructible 12. Islamabad is the capital of Pakistan. Subject is: Islamabad 13. Predicate is the other half of the sentence, that is, is the capital of Pakistan. 14. All road leads to Rome. Subject is: All road Predicate is the other half of the sentence,that is leads to Rome 15. The beautiful rainbow soon faded away. Subject is: The beautiful rainbow 16. Predicate is the other half of the sentence that is soon faded away. 17. No man can serve two masters. Subject is: No man 18. Predicate is the other half of the sentence, that is can serve two masters. 19. A sick room should be well aired.
  • Subject is: A sick room Predicate is the other half of the sentence, that is should be well aired. 20. The dew drops glitter in the sunshine. Subject is: The dew drops Predicate is the other half of the sentence, that is glitter in the sunshine. 21. I shot an arrow into the air. Subject is: I Predicate is the other half of the sentence, that is shot an arrow into the air 22.Stone walls do not make a prison. Subject is: Stone walls Predicate is the other half of the sentence, that is do not make a prison. ANCHOR 8 Hopefully by now you must have understood what a sentence is. Next we are going to study clause and a phrase. Well students let us get back to our Mr. Rabbit. What is he saying now? pZfuU, j[D sZe s[;hA ;wM rJ/ j't'r/ fe tke eh jz[dk j? .j[D n;hA clause ns/ fJZe phrase pko/ ikDkr/ .pZfuU, j[D w[V nkgD/ Mr. Rabbit e'b uZbhJ/ fe j[D T[j eh efj oj/ jB . (MM Show this dialogue conversation in animated form. Jungle scene with four characters. Mr. Rabbit Man Mr. clause as little bear Mr phrase again a bear.) VO2 Man: Hey Mr. Rabbit who are these two little fellows sitting there in sad mood. Rabbit: Oh they are my two friends Mr. Clause and Mr. Phrase. But why are they so sad? Man: Come on let us see. Rabbit: Hey Clause and Phrase, what happened? Mr. Clause: We are sad because nobody loves us. Mr. Phrase: Yes that is why nobody identifies us that who are we? Rabbit: But in this jungle everyone knows you. Mr. Clause: They only know us as bears but our true identity of being a clause or phrase is lost somewhere. Mr. Phrase: Today we went to a nearby town and hardly few people know us. Man: Oh in town you must have met some students. Right Mr. Phrase: Yes. Man: Well see some students study seriously and some of them not. So you need not worry about your identity. Mr. Clause: How shall we trust you?
  • Mr. Phrase: Ok you tell us who are we? Man: Ok I will (Show these definitions in the shape of a cloud and flash them on screen.) Group of words which makes sense but not complete sense, is called a phrase. and Group of words which forms a part of a sentence, and contains a subject and a predicate of its own, is called a clause. Well happy now. Mr. Clause and: yes, very happy. Mr. Phrase ANCHOR 9 Students, this clipping has shown you the definition but let me explain to you as to what is a clause and a phrase. Look at this group of words. fJj fdqF s[jkBz{ gfoGkFk Bz{ fpnkB eoB bJh fdykfJnk frnk ;h, go w?Bz{ th ft;Eko g{ote s[jkBz{ fJj dZ; b?D fdU fe clause and a phrase eh jz[d/ jB .fJBkQA FpdkA d/ ;w{j Bz{ t/y' . VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN Made of gold of greatest length from this very moment In his proper colours with perfect truthfulness early to bed To win a prize etc Well these groups of words individually do they make any sense? No they do not. But when these words are used in a sentence, they become part of it and give meaning to that sentence. FOR EXAMPLE 1. A crown made of gold. 2. The day of greatest length. 3. Let us start work from this very moment. 4. He has been painted in his proper colours. 5. The child replied with perfect truthfulness. 6. Early to bed is a good maxim. 7. To win a prize is my ambition. ANCHOR 10 So did you see students how phrases are used. Now let us go through its definition. Phrases- you must have heard this word earlier, • They are group of words, • They are part of a sentence but • They do not make any sense (when you see them individually.)
  • pZfuU, s[;hA t/fynk fe phrases dh tos' fet/ ehsh ikAdh j? .nkU j[D fJ;dh gfoGkFk pko/ ikDhJ/ . s[;hA fJ; Fpd Bz{ gfjbkA th ;[fDnk j't/rk . fJj FpdkA dk ;w{j j? .fJ; tke dk fjZ;k jz[d/ jB go i/ s[;hA fJBkAQ Bz{ fJeZfbnkA t/y'r/ skA fJBkQA dk e'Jh noE Bjh fBebdk . ANCHOR 11 Now that we have understood what a phrase is, let us learn about clauses. Well students look at these groups of words. VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN When evening came Whose eyes were blue that I shall get a prize that I shall fail Where I could find him Anchor 12 Well these groups of words are somewhat different from the earlier groups of words. Let us see those differences. 1. Each group of words has its own meaning. 2. Each group of words stand in itself as a sentence. fJj FpdkA dk ;w{j gfjb/ tkb/ FpdkA d/ ;w{j s' tZy j?, nkU t/yhJ/ fet/A . jo fJZe FpdkA d/ ;w{j dk nkgDk noE j? .jo fJZe FpdkA dk ;w{j tke ftZu nkgD/ pbp{s/ s/ yVk j? . eh fJj nzso wi/dko Bjh < nkU j[D fJZe tko c/o fJ;dh gfoGkFk Bz{ t/yhJ/ . VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN Group of words which form a part of a sentence, and contains a subject and a predicate of its own, is called a clause. ANCHOR 13 FOR EXAMPLE 1. They rested at sunset. 2. They rested when evening came 3. The umbrella with a broken handle is mine. 4. He met a girl whose eyes were blue. 5. He says that I shall get a prize.
  • 6. I fear that I shall fail. 7. I do not know where I could find him. Now let us see our definition. So did you see The two main characteristics of a clause are- • It is part of a sentence • It contains a subject and a predicate of its own nkU j[D nkgDh gfoGkFk Bz{ t/yhJ/ . tke dk fJZe fjZ;k, fi; ftZu nkgDk fJZe eosk j? ns/ nkgDk predicate j? . clause d/ fJjh d' ftF/ F r[D jB Students you have understood what a clause is. Now look at these two sentences. pZfuU, j[D s[;hA clause pko/ ikD uZ[e/ j' nkU j[D fJBkQA d' tkekA Bz{ t/yhJ/ . SUPER 1. Ram came here and he told me the whole story. 2. Sudha told them that Rita would not come and she would not take part in any activity. ANCHOR 14 Have you noticed that this particular sentence is connected by a sentence connector AND. This kind of a clause is called a Co-ordinate Clause. So now what are sentence connectors? Sentence connectors (Show this definition in the shape of a cloud and flash them on screen.) Is a word used to connect words or groups of words For example And but or also either___or neither___ nor for So Etc Let us look at some example sentences that use sentence connectors. VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN EXAMPLES ( show these examples in animated form) 1. I do not know him and I do not know his brother 2. I will go to play outside but my brother will sit at home. 3. Either I will buy a new jeans or I will buy a new bicycle.
  • 4. She is dressed in her very best, for it is her birthday. 5. Anil washed the car, and Sunil polished it. 6. I may consider your plan, or I may disregard it. 7. I did not seek position, nor do I want it. 8. Rakesh likes tennis, but he prefers to play football. 9. Their team was untrained, while ours was highly trained. 10. Shilpa went to bed early, for she was very tired. ANCHOR 15 Well students I hope you have understood what sentence connectors are. But here we are talking about only those sentences which have clauses and are connected by a sentence connector.We are not talking about examples like Ram and Sita are dancing. This will be a simple sentence. pZfuU, w?ABz{ T[whd j? fe s[;hA fJj ikD uZ[e/ j' fe sentence connectors eh jz[d/ jB .go fJE/ n;hA T[BkQA tkekA dh rZb eo oj/ jkA fiBkQA ftZu clauses jz[d/ jB ns/ T[j fJZe d{i/ d/ Bkb sentence connectors d/ okjhA jh i[V/ jz[d/ jB .n;hA fJ; sokQA d/ T[dkjoDk dh rZb BjhA eo oj/ fit/ Ram and Sita are dancing. fJj fJZe simple sentence j? . Ok SUPER Well Mr. Phrase and Mr. Clause you both are little confusing. No students they are not. Let us do this exercise to put our confusion to rest. Before we begin it let us recall our definition of phrase once. VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN PHRASE Group of words which makes sense but not complete sense, is called a phrase EXERCISE 1 Pick out the phrases in the following sentences. VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN 1. He speaks like a born orator. Ans like a born orator. 2. Beyond a doubt this man is honest. Ans Beyond a doubt.
  • 3. He failed in spite of his best efforts. Ans inspite of his best efforts. 4. I do not expect such treatment at your hands. Ans at your hands. 5. He succeeded in the long run. Ans in the long run. 6. She is a woman of wonderful patience. Ans of wonderful patience. 7. Tubal Cain was a man of might. Ans man of might. 8. I have no time to waste on trifles. Ans to waste on trifles. 9. I enjoy walking in the fields. Ans walking in the fields. 10. He keeps the necklace under lock and key. Ans under lock and key. MM Show the bear speaking in one corner VO3 Voice of bear DEFINITION Thus, Group of words which makes sense but not complete sense, is called a Phrase ANCHOR 16 So students now we will do exercise on clauses. EXERCISE 2 Pick out the clauses from the following sentences. Let us recall our definition of clause once. VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN DEFINITION
  • Group of words which forms a part of a sentence, and contains a subject and a predicate of its own, is called a Clause. VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN 1. I know the man who is here. Ans who is here. 2. I was reading a book which I had read before. Ans which I had read before. 3. Can a man live whose soul is dead? Ans whose soul is dead? 4. He made a vow that he would fast for a week Ans that he would fast for a week. 5. That he will do it, I have no doubt. Ans That he will do it, 6. He behaved as a brave man should do. Ans as a brave man should do. 7.They live where the climate is good. Ans where the climate is good. 8.He spoke of a time when wars should cease. Ans when wars should cease. 9 I will wait until the next train comes. Ans until the next train comes. 10Since he has been in hospital he has improves greatly. Ans Since he has been in hospital. ANCHOR 17 So students now I think all your confusion and queries must have been solved. Right. See we have gone through each topic which we would require while doing transformation of sentences. Now let us begin with our main lesson. pZfuU, w?Bz{ T[whd j? fe s[jkvhnkA ;kohnkA FAzektkA d{o j' rJhnkA j'DrhnkA .n;hA ;kfonkA T[g ftfFnkA sftuko ehsk j? fi;dh b'V ;kB{z transformation of sentences eoB t/b/ j't/ rh .nkU j[D n;hA nZi d/ wZ[y ftF/ Bz{ F[o{ eohJ/ . SUPER TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES ANCHOR 18
  • Well this is yet another way of categorizing sentences. This classification is based upon the internal; structure of the sentence or the way in which it is built up. This type of classification of sentences is based upon the number and clauses. According to this classification, sentences are divided as a. Simple sentence b. Compound sentence c. Complex sentence In this class we will only study SIMPLE SENTENCE fJj fJZe j'o sohek j? fi; Bkb tkekA Bz{ fjZf;nkA ftZu tzfvnk ik ;edk j? .fJj tzv tke dh nzdo{Bh pDso ns/ fi; sohe/ Bkb T[j pDdk j?, s/ fBoGo eodh j?.fJ; sohe/ d/ tkekA d/ r[D number and clauses d/ nkXkfos jz[d/ jB .fJBkQA r[DkA d/ nkXko s/ tkekA Bz{ fJ; sokQA tzfvnk ik ;edk j? . • Simple sentence • Compound sentence • Complex sentence nkgDh fJ; ebk; ftZu n;hA f;oc SIMPLE SENTENCE pko/ gVkQAr/ . SUPER What is a simple sentence? ANCHOR 19 A simple sentence is a Sentence having one subject and one predicate, either or both of which may be compound. fJZe ;kXkoB tke T[j jz[dk j? fi; ftZu fJZe eosk j't/ ns/ predicate fJZe j't/, fJZe ikA d't/ i' fe compound j' ;ed/ jB . A simple sentence has one and only one clause. fJZe ;kXkoB tke ftZu f;oc ns/ f;oc fJZe clause jz[dk j? VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN FOR EXAMPLE 1. Anita and Rita ate the ice-cream. 2. Our teacher did the sums and explained them to us. 3. His courage won him honour. 4. By her pleasant manners, she gained everyone’s support. 5. They had not reached by sunset. 6. Being dissatisfied, she resigned her job. SUPER
  • COMPOUND does not mean two subjects. It means subject is made of two nouns or pronouns or predicate is made up of two or more verbs or verb phrases. For example 1. Uday and Rajiv joined the army. 2. Seema sang and danced at the concert. 3. Seema and Prabha sang and danced at the concert. ANCHOR 20 Now let us do one exercise. All sentences are simple sentences. EXERCISE 1 Rewrite the following sentences. Draw a line under the subject and highlight the predicate. VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN 1. The girls swept the floor and washed the clothes. 2. Ajay and Ajit went to town. 3. Sheila wrote the letters and mailed them. 4. Our Principal and the Supervisor watched part of the match. 5. Either Ram or Rahim will conduct the meeting. 6. Joe and Vipul are playing in the garden. 7. Seema sat and waited for the train. 8. The girl saw the shadow and screamed. 9. The bride and the bridegroom arrived late. 10. The money and jewellery were taken out of safe. ANCHOR 21 Let us solve the exercise now. VO ITH TEXT ON SCREEN ANSWERS 1. The girls swept the floor and washed the clothes. 2. Ajay and Ajit went to town. 3. Sheila wrote the letters and mailed them. 4. Our Principal and the Supervisor watched part of the match. 5. Either Ram or Rahim will conduct the meeting. 6. Joe and Vipul are playing in the garden. 7. Seema sat and waited for the train. 8. The girl saw the shadow and screamed. 9. The bride and the bridegroom arrived late. 10. The money and jewellery were taken out of safe. ANCHOR 22 So students it was quite easy. In our next class we will study about
  • Compound and Complex sentence. For now let us go through in nut shell what have we learned today. SUMMARY VO WITH TEXT ON SCREEN We have learned 1. Transformation of sentences means changing of one type of sentence into another type. i.e. Identifying a simple sentence and then changing it into a compound sentence or to a complex sentence or vice-versa etc. 2. Sentence is a group of words that makes sense. 3. Group of words which makes sense but not complete sense, is called a phrase. 4. Group pf words which forms a part of a sentence, and contains a subject and a predicate of its own, is called a clause. 5. Sentence connector Is a word used to connect words or groups of words 6. A simple sentence is a sentence having one subject and one predicate, either or both of which may be compound. Anchor 23 So children, now we have come to the end of today’s episode. Bye for now. See you in the next episode, with some new learning objectives. Thank you. END