Eng xii transformation of sentences part 2 master_129


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Eng xii transformation of sentences part 2 master_129

  1. 1. PES/XII/129/Transformation of Sentences Part II A PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY PRODUCTION Master -Frozen Subject - English Class - XII Module - Transformation of Sentences Part II TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES ANCHOR 1 Good morning students! How are you all feeling today? Toady we have to continue our class on the topic TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES. I hope all of you remember what we learned in the previous class. If yes then very good and if no then there will be recapitulation of what we have learned in the previous class. But before that let us see our learning objectives. pZfuU, nZi dh ebk; ftZu s[jkvk ;kfonkA dk ;[nkrs j? .nZi n;hA nkgDh ebk; TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES ftF/ Bkb F[o{ eokAr/ . VO for LO’s LEARNING OBJECTIVES In the following class you are going to have recapitulation of previous class. Besides, on completion of this module you will be able to- • Define compound sentences. • Define complex sentence. • Identify different types of sentences. • Differentiate between the three types of sentences. ANCHOR 2 Now we can begin our class.
  2. 2. Let us hear one story. VO 1 For MM Create a magnificent court with three noblemen of around 50 years. Let each of them have a tag on their stomach…Mr. Simple sentence, Mr. Compound sentence and Mr. Complex sentence. Their outfit should be that of kurta/ pyjama/ dhoti/ stole and turban. 2. Create a man of 60 yrs in kingly outfit with a tag on the stomach as English Grammar. 3. Show them all together inside the court. 4. Create a man, a foreigner (Italian) of around 50-55 yrs old walking inside the court, let the king stand and welcome him. THREE FRIENDS Once there were three friends called simple sentence, compound sentence and complex sentence. All three of them were true friends of each other. They used to live together, eat together, and play together. Everything was done in tandem with each other. Three of them worked in the court of the king, ENGLISH GRAMMAR. They were sincere and dedicated courtiers. They always used to finish their work on time. The king also loved them and appreciated them for their work. Once, an Italian professor came to the English court. The king wants his best man to talk and deal with the professor. After lot of thinking the king decided that his three best men will deal with the professor. The professor wanted to check the ability of English Court. He was welcomed with a large heart. No stones were left unturned for his hospitality. The professor was very happy. He started meeting different courtiers of the court. He met Mr. noun, Mr. adjective etc. later in the afternoon he met three best men of the king. The professor had heard about these three men that they always work in tandem with each other. So he decided to test them. The professor called all three of them together. He asked all three to introduce themselves. fJZe tko dh rZb j?, fszB d';s ;B .T[j jw/FkA fJeZm/ ofjzd/ ;B .T[BkQA dk BkA simple sentence, compound sentence ns/ complex sentence ;h .fJj fszB'A jw/Fk Bkb ofjzd/, Bkb ykAd/ ns/ Bkb y/vd/ ;B .fJj fszB'A d';s ENGLISH GRAMMAR okik dh e'oN ftZu ezw eod/ ;B .fJj nkgD/ ezw Bz{ pj[s fXnkB Bkb ns/ ;w/A f;o eod/ ;B .okik fJBkQA s' pj[s jh y[F ;h . fJZe tko fJZe JhN/bhnB gq'c/;o nzrq/ih e'oN ftZu nkfJnk .T[j ;kfonkA s' tZX uzr/ nkdwh Bkb rZb eoBk ukjz[dk ;h .okik B/ fJBkQA fszBk Bz{ ;G s' uzrk wzB e/ fJBkQA Bkb rZb eoB bJh fejk .gq'c/;o dh uzrh ykso ehsh rJh fi; ekoB T[j pj[s y[F j'fJnk .T[;B/ j'o
  3. 3. dopkohnkA Bkb rZb ehsh fi; ftZu Mr. noun, Mr. adjective Fkfwb ;B .pknd ftZu T[j fJBkQA fszBk Bz{ fwfbnk .T[;B/ fJBkQA pko/ pj[s ;[fDnk ;h .fJ; bJh T[j fJBkQA Bz{ N?;N eoBk ukjz[dk ;h .gq'c/;o B/ fszBkA Bz{ p[bkfJnk ns/ fJZe fJZe eoe/ nkgDh ikD-gSkD eotkT[D bJh fejk . Mr. Sentence said, “I am called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and expresses a complete thought.” Mr. Compound said, “I contain two independent clauses joined by a coordinator.” Mr. Complex said, “I always have an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses.” The professor was happy to listen to this introduction. Then he said to Mr. sentence that you are an ordinary part of English Grammar, so I will not waste my time on you. Rather I would like to talk more about compound and complex sentence. They are quite important and different too. This annoyed all three of them. Mr. Compound and Complex got furious and said to the professor, “See Mr. Professor, we do not believe in this concept of ordinary or extraordinary. And for your information Mr. Sentence is not just ordinary, he holds the most crucial position in our court. He is actually the base of our court. If he would not have been there then I and Mr. Compound would not have been formed. After all at the end we too are sentences only, just having different names.” The professor was stunned to see this kind of friendship. He appreciated all three of them and was full of respect for them. He told the king that these three are actually the best men and best friends too. The king rewarded his three men and had applause for them in the court too. Three of them were very happy to receive this honour and promised each other to be together forever. ANCHOR 3 Well students how was the story. Wasn’t it interesting? SUPER What was the purpose of narrating this story? Well this story not only introduced all three types of sentences but it also told you that all three are equally important and all three of them had their own purpose and function in English grammar. In the previous class we have learned few things let us recall them once before we go further. pZfuU, fJ; ejkDh dk wzst f;oc fJBkQA fszBK sokQA d/ tkekA d/ Bkb ikD gSkD eotkT[Dk jh Bjh ;h pbfe fJj th dZ;Dk ;h fe fJj fsZB' jh pokpo wjZstg{oB jB, fJBkQA dk English grammar ftZu nkgDk wzst ns/ nkgDk ekoi j? .nkgDh fgSbh ebk; ftZu n;hA eZ[M uhikA pko/ gfVQnk j? nkU T[BkqA Bz{ fJZe tko d[jok bJhJ/ .
  4. 4. RECAPITULATION We have learned 1. Transformation of sentences means changing of one type of sentence into another type .i.e. Identifying a simple sentence and then changing it into a compound sentence or to a complex sentence or vice-versa etc. 2. Sentence is a group of words that makes sense. 3. Group of words which makes sense but not complete sense, is called a phrase. 4. Group pf words which forms a part of a sentence, and contains a subject and a predicate of its own, is called a clause. 5. Sentence connector Is a word used to connect words or groups of words 6. A simple sentence is a sentence having one subject and one predicate, either or both of which may be compound. ANCHOR 4 Now I think we can continue further. Well today we have to begin with COMPOUND sentences. Let us concentrate on the forest scene. j[D ;'u', n;hA eZ[M d/o pknd nZr/ ubkAr/ . pZfuU, nZi n;hA COMPOUND sentence Bkb F[o{nks eokAr/ . nkU nkgD/ izrb d/ fdqF s/ tkg; ubhJ/ . (MM :SHOW A FOREST AND ONE MAN SEARCHING FOR SOMEONE.) VO 2 MAN: Well Mr. Sentence had told me those Mr. Compound lives somewhere nearby only. Where is he? Who is that standing there? Man: Hello, sir. May I know your name? A bear; Well hello I am Mr. Compound Man; Oh hello sir, I had come to meet you only. Mr. Sentence has sent me to you. Bear; Well have a seat. How can I help you? Man; Mr. Compound I want to know everything about you and Mr. Complex. Bear; Well I will be grateful to you to talk about myself and my friend. But what do you want to know? Man; I want to know who are you? What do you do? Etc. Bear: See I am A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. And Mr. Complex is A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such
  5. 5. as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which. Man; Sir can you give me some more details. Bear ; Well sir this was our key function. We hold a good position in English grammar world. Both of us have their own identity. We re just another form of classifying sentences after the category of Assertive Negative Interrogative Imperative Exclamatory sentences Man; Well thank you sir. I had come to the forest to take interview of few people out of which you were one of them. Thank you for giving your valuable time and support. Bear; Oh you are welcome. ANCHOR 5 Students see this conversation even tells you how we should talk to people. Well let us begin our class. You have seen definition of a Compound sentence. pZfuU, fJj rZbpks th s[jkBz{ fJj dZ;dh j? fe ;kBz{ b'ekA Bkb fet/ rZb eoBh ukjhdh j? .ub' j[D nkgDh ebk; F[o{ eohJ/ .s[;hA COMPOUND sentence dh gfoGkFk Bz{ j[D/ t/fynk j? . DEFINITION A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. COMPOUND sentence ftZu d' ;[szso clauses jz[d/ jB i' coordinator Bkb i[V/ jz[d/ jB . for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so, coordinators jz[d/ jB . FOR EXAMPLE A. I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English. B. Alejandro played football, so Maria went shopping. C. Alejandro played football, for Maria went shopping. In simple sentence there was a single clause Here you have two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. That is why you were taught coordinators in previous class. See In example A, two clauses are Simple sentence ftZu fJZe clause jz[dk j? .fJE/ s[jkv/ e'b d' ;[szso clause jB i' coordinator Bkb i[V/ j'J/ jB . fJ;/ eoe/ fgSbh ebk; ftZu s[jkBz{ coordinator pko/ gVQkfJnk frnk ;h . d/y', T[dkjoB ftZu d' clauses jB . Can we have definition of clause once again?
  6. 6. Yes a clause is Group of words which forms a part of a sentence, and contains a subject and a predicate of its own, is called a clause. Ok now in example A two clauses are 1. I tried to speak Spanish 2. my friend tried to speak English And both these two sentences are joined by the word AND. Let us see some more examples first. Clause nfij/ FpdkA dk ;w{j j? i' tke dk fJZe fjZ;k pDkT[d/ jB ns/ fJBkQA ftZu nkgDk eosk ns/ predicate jz[dk j? .T[dkjoB d/ s"o s/ • I tried to speak Spanish • my friend tried to speak English fJj d't/A tke AND Fpd Bkb i[V/ j'J/ jB .nkU j[D eZ[M j'o T[dkjoBkA Bz{ t/yhJ/ . EXAMPLES 1) Jack fell from the tree but broke his hand. 2) I bought a new computer but it wasn’t working 3) Joe waited for the train, but the train was late 4) Mary and Samantha left on the bus before I arrived, so I did not see them at the bus station. 5) The little girl agreed that they should eat more pizza, but her friend disagreed. 6) Jenny hid under the bed, while Lenny hid in the cabinet. 7) Sam went shopping, so Shelby played tennis. 8) I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak French. 9) Meg brought the food, so Kate set the table. 10) I went hiking, but my friend went jogging. ANCHOR 6 So did you notice that all the examples had o Two independent clauses o A coordinator o A comma eh s[;hA fJj t/fynk j? fe ;ko/ T[dkjoBkA ftZu d' ;[szso clause, fJZe coordinator ns/ fJZe e"wkA jz[dk j? . It is quite clear from the above examples that the independent clauses of a compound sentence may be connected in one of the three ways: 1. By using a comma before a conjunction. 2. By using a semicolon without a conjunction ( as in first example) 3. By using a conjunction without a comma.
  7. 7. fJj rZb T[dkjoBkA s' ;kfps j' rJh j? fe compound sentence dk ;[szso clause fsZB sohfenkA Bkb i[fVnk j' ;edk j? , conjunction d/ gfjbkA e"wkA tos e/, conjunction s' fpBkQA semicolon tos e/, comma d/ fpBQAk conjunction dh tos' eoe/ . ALWAYS REMEMBER The point to keep in mind is that the compound sentence must be the equivalent of at least two complete simple sentences. pZfuU, fJj rZb fdwkr ftZu oyZD tkbh j? fe compound sentence, d' g{o/ simple sentences d/ pokpo j'Dk ukjhdk j? . For example T[dkjoD d/ s"o s/ A. A good mother today cooks, earns and runs the home selflessly. B. A good mother today cooks and earns, and runs the home selflessly. Sentence B is compound sentence. Yes true. I hope students you must have understood what a compound sentence is? Let us now do an exercise. Each sentence below is followed by a coordinating conjunction. Add an independent clause that would make sense, keeping in mind the relationship between clauses. Complete the sentences. 1. My dog likes to eat grass, even though she's not allowed. 2. The dog likes to play fetch, while the cat likes to roll in the grass. 3. Samuel seldom thinks for himself, so he is always not presentable 4. My mother follows her horoscope, but my father does not. 5. The media often exaggerates events and promote sales. The teacher is not always right, nor is she always wrong 6. I didn’t like the first class, yet it hold a special place in my memory. 7. My family is very caring, even though they may get on my nerves sometimes. Let’s do another exercise Indicate whether the following sentences are SIMPLE or COMPOUND sentences. 1. His courage won him honour. 2. She came here and she saw me. 3. Soldiers in uniform marched down the road. 4. The boy was disobedient and so the teacher punished him.
  8. 8. 5. Inspite of his hard work, the boy didn’t succeed. 6. Night came on and rain heavily. And we all got very wet. 7. Tom went to the shop, bought a pen, and then he went to school. 8. He confessed his crime. 9. During his boyhood, Lincoln did not go to school. 10. He worked hard to pass the examinations. Let’s place the answers against each sentences. ANSWERS 1. Simple 2. Compound 3. Simple 4. Compound 5. Simple 6. Compound 7. Compound 8. Simple 9. Simple 10. Simple Well now a compound sentence must be clear to you. VO 3 MM . SHOW A BEAR AS Mr. complex sentence walking on the screen. 2. Show him entering into the class. 3. He questions the teacher and says Bear: teacher, when will you teach about me? Teacher : Mr. bear have some patience. Just now I have finished talking about your friend Mr. compound. Now it is your turn. Bear: oh well fine. I am sorry to disturb your class. (Mr. bear gives naughty expression, blinks his eye and moves out of the class.) ANCHOR 7 A smart bear. Right students. Well now we will study about complex sentences. SUPER DEFINITION A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which. FOR EXAMPLE 1. I will be in school when you arrive. 2. I shall not go to the park if it rains.
  9. 9. 3. This is the man whose car was stolen. In simple sentence there was a single clause In compound sentence you have two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. But in complex sentence 1. There is one independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses. 2. A subordinate clause does not express a complete thought. Though it has a subject and a predicate. 3. It should never be punctuated. simple sentence ftZu fJZe clause jz[dk j? . COMPOUND sentence ftZu d' independent clause jz[d/ jB i' coordinator Bkb i[V/ jz[d/ jB .go complex sentence ftZu fJZe independent ns/ fJZe dependent or subordinate clause jz[dk j? . dependent or subordinate clause ftukokA Bz{ ;gFN o{g ftZu fpnkB BjhA eo ;edk j? fJ; bJh T[; e'b eosk/subject ns/ predicate jz[dk j? . Like in the above examples if you will notice: T[gob/ tkekA dh sokQA , i/ s[;hA note ehsk j't/ . INDEPENDENT clause SUBORDINATE clause 1. I will be in school when you arrive. 2. I shall not go to the park if it rains. 3. This is the man whose car was stolen. ANCHOR 8 In these three sentences SUBORDINATE clause has a subject and predicate but individually it seems to be incomplete. fJBkQA fszB tkekA ftZu SUBORDINATE clause e'b eosk ns/ predicate j? go fJeZb/ s"o s/ i/ d/fynk ikt/ skA fJj nX{ok j? . 1. when you arrive 2. if it rains. 3. whose car was stolen. When you read these sentences one feels something has happened in relation to this action. I hope it is clear to you now. Let us see some more examples.
  10. 10. id'A s[;hA fJBkQA tkekA Bz{ gVQ'r/ skA wfj;{; j't/rk fe fJ; action d/ Bkb ;pzXs eZ[M tkgfonk j? .w?Bz{ T[whd j? fe s[jkBz{ fJ; pko/ uzrh sokQA ikDekoh j' rJh j't/rh .nkU j[D eZ[M T[dkjoBkA Bz{ t/yhJ/ . EXAMPLES 1. When the bell rang the children quickly lined up. 2. When the breeze blew Mehul flew his new kite. 3. Although it was cold she went outside in a t-shirt. 4. Snow started to fall after the wind stopped. 5. We will win the match if we play our best. 6. The runner sprinted over the line though he was tired. 7. David, who had a sore throat, sang beautifully. 8. Mr. G, who teaches at my school, likes to play football. 9. Mary, singing to herself, skipped down the road. 10. The puppy, tired of walking, started to bark. ANCHOR 9 The part of a sentence in red is a subordinate clause. It can come anywhere in the sentence. Well let us do some exercise to solve our queries. Convert the following simple sentences to complex sentences. Convert the following simple sentences to complex sentences. Q She hoped to win the prize. Ans Giving best shot in the competition she hoped to win the prize. Q They admitted stealing the money. Ans After a lot of persuasion, they admitted stealing the money Q She overheard all his remarks. Ans She overheard all his remarks after she finished her work. Q They confessed their fault. Ans They, having felt guilty, confessed their fault. Q Ram is said to be millionaire. Ans Ram, who used to be a salesman, is said to be a millionaire. Q Their hiding place is still unknown. Ans Their hiding place, which they used for more than a decade, is still unknown. Q They cannot understand our ideas.
  11. 11. Ans They cannot understand our ideas which stem from positive and creative thinking. Q We expect to meet the chief minister. Ans We expect to meet the chief minister who had promised some charity. Q Tell the truth. Ans Tell the truth that will change the verdict of this case. Q He requests for help. Ans He, who is in trouble, requests for help. ANCHOR 10 The above exercise was to judge your overall understanding of the topic. Even this exercise solves the same purpose. This is a sentence identification quiz. Please indicate whether each of the following sentences is simple, compound, or complex. First four are done for you, This is a sentence identification quiz. Please indicate whether each of the following .sentences is simple, compound, or complex. First four are done for you, 1: Helen Keller was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama, in 1880 and died in 1968. • Simple • Compound • Complex 2: Until she was 19 months of age, her sight and hearing were normal. • Simple • Compound • Complex 3: At the age of 19 months, a severe illness left her deaf and blind. • Simple • Compound • Complex 4: When she was seven, she began her education in reading and writing with Anne Sullivan of the Perkins Institute for the Blind. • Simple • Compound • Complex 5: Through persistence and stubbornness, Anne breaks through Helen's walls of silence and darkness and teaches her to communicate. • Simple • Compound
  12. 12. • Complex 6: Helen Keller learned to read by the Braille system, and she learned to write by using a specially constructed typewriter. • Simple • Compound • Complex 7: Later, she entered Radcliffe College and graduated with honors in 1904. • Simple • Compound • Complex 8: Helen Keller's story needed to be told, so in 1962, a beautiful movie was made about her life. • Simple • Compound • Complex 9: "If there were only joy in the world, we could never learn to be brave and patient." -- Helen Keller • Simple • Compound • Complex 10: "Life is either a daring adventure, or it is nothing." -- Helen Keller • Simple • Compound • Complex • ANCHOR 11 Well students now we expect you to have understood the topic completely and properly. I have given you simplified explanation with good number of examples and enough exercises. Now it is your duty to go through the topic surely. If there will be any query we can take that up in the next class. But do revise your work otherwise everything will be confusing for you.