Common errors in english usage xi beta_117_eng_27.10.09
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Common errors in english usage xi beta_117_eng_27.10.09 Common errors in english usage xi beta_117_eng_27.10.09 Document Transcript

  • PES/ENG/XI/117 • Beta version of file. • Pl mention all reqd changes at this stage. • Word limit- 3500 A PUNJAB EDUSAT SOCIETY PRODUCTION Subject : English Class : XI Topic : Common Errors MM1: (Create the scene and show the conversation between mother and Raghu) Mother and son with books and notebooks on the table. Mother: What’s this? Your notebook is full with dots and dashes? Mother’s voice is strained with worry. wksk- fJj eh j? < ox{ s/oh ;koh ekgh dots ns/ dashes Bkb Goh j'Jh j? . Raghu: But I don’t know why this happens? ox{ - go w?Bz{ Bjh gsk fe fJj feT[ jz[dk j? < Mother: I can notice here that when you write short sentences you are okay but when it comes to longer ones you start making mistakes. wksk- w? fJj t/y ojh jkA fe s/o/ ;ko/ S'N/ tke skA ;jh jB go fiE/ eZ{M bzp/ tke nk ikD T[E/---- Raghu: I can’t always do with shorter sentences. ox{-fJj w/o/ Bkb S'N/ tkekA ftZu Bjh jz[dk . Mother: But you are confused if the sentence is little longer. wksk-go T[d' sz{ w[Ffeb ftZu g? ikAdk j? fiE/ fe tke E'Vk fiBkA tZvk nk ikJ/ . Raghu: But I don’t know why this happens. go w?Bz{ gsk Bjh fe fJj feT[ jz[dk j? . Mother: Ask Aunt Shally. She lives just next door; and she is an English teacher in a reputed school. wksk- F?bh nkZNh e'b' g[S i' xo d/ Bkb ofjzd/ jB ns/ i' fJZe uzr/ ;e{b ftZu nzrq/ih d/ nfXnkge th jB Raghu: OK mom, I’ll do that. ox{ - mhe j? wkA Raghu knocks on the door. Aunt Shally opens the door. Raghu: Hello, aunty! -1-
  • PES/ENG/XI/117 Shally: Hi Raghu, come in. Raghu: I am a little confused about some English usages. Could you help me out? Shally: Of course. What’s that? Raghu: I want to write something impressive but my sentences go all wrong when I try to write some bigger ones. Shally: I can understand your problem. In longer sentences you lose track of the subject. Is that right? That’s a kind of common error that many people commit. To overcome that problem, you need to know what exactly the subject is in a sentence. Don’t worry about the length of a sentence. Subject is just a small thing in a sentence to be sure about. Voice Over: Look at these sentences. (Sentences appear one by one.) The little boy with chubby cheeks was/ were catching all eyes in the fair. You simply have to go to the verb and ask the question: s[jkBz{ f;ZXk verb s/ ikDk j? ns/ gqFB g[SDk j? . Who or what was catching all eyes? It’s the little boy who was catching all eyes. Therefore, the subject is ‘the little boy’ and the verb should be was. ‘Chubby cheeks just tell about the appearance of the boy. e"'D ikA eh ;kohnkA eyes Bz{ catch eo fojk ;h < eh T[j S'Nk pZuk ;h i' ;kohnkA eyes Bz{ catch eo fojk ;h <fJ; bJh subject j't/rk the little boy’ns/ verb j't/rk was . Chubby cheeks Bz{ f;oc pZu/ dh fdZy Gkt looks pko/ dZ;D bJh fJ;s/wkb ehsk frnk j? . 1. My friend has lived in the USA since 1974. 2. My friend lived in the USA The first sentence shows that my friend is still in the USA. The second sentence shows that my friend is not in the USA. -2-
  • PES/ENG/XI/117 Pay Attention: In active voice, the second form of the verb deg. Educated, won, lived, constructed etc. is always used. In passive voice, be (was, were) and third form of the verbs is used. How generous was/ were the congratulations of Sweety, and how sweet was/ were the admiring tribute of Lovely! What were generous? The congratulations. Therefore, the verb should be ‘were’, a plural verb. Generous eh ;B < The congratulations. fJ; bJh verb j't/rk were .fJZe plural verb. The idea of belittling and defeating the neighbouring nations have/ has been a part of a nation’s pride for centuries. What has been the pride of a nation? The idea or the neighbouring nations? It’s the idea, the idea of belittling neighbouring nations that is the pride. Therefore the singular verb – has – is the correct choice. okFNo bJh r"ot dh eh rZb j?< ftuko ikA r[nkAYh d/F < It’s the idea, the idea of belittling neighbouring nations that is the pride. fJ;bJh singular verb has dh u'D fpbe[b mhe u'D j? . Anchor 1: Hello friends! Disagreement of the verb with the subject is the most common error that people usually commit. You must be sure about the subject and its number. Look at these sentences. -3-
  • PES/ENG/XI/117 Voice Over Text on Screen: 1 The number of people living in this city have/ has grown many fold over last ten years. What has grown – the number or the people? Their number, their count has grown. 2 A number of nations is/ are waiting for their turn to be bogged by the powerful nation. Who are waiting – a number or nations? A number can’t wait. It’s the people or nations that can wait. 3 This is how, finally, before the tired and disappointed people appear/ appears the minister. Who appears – people or minister? The minister appears. Before we proceed with this topic, let’s set our learning objectives. Voice Over Text on Screen: Learning Objective Upon completion of the module the learner will be able to • Explain the importance of correct usages • Identify the kinds of errors commonly committed related to subject, noun, verb, pronoun, adjective, preposition and punctuation • Describe the minute differences in the usages • Use the rules correctly Anchor 2: Some nouns don’t change from singular to plural but remain as they are. Such nouns are used either plural or singular and sometimes both but without any change in their form. Look at them. -4-
  • PES/ENG/XI/117 Voice Over Text on Screen: People are waiting. Police are investigating. Poultry are reared. Gentry are fond of visiting this place. Cattle are grazing. These nouns are always used plural without taking ‘s’ or ‘es’. Now see this sentence. fJj BktkA jw/FkA fpBkQA ‘s’ ikA ‘es’ d/ pj{tuB dk fJ;s/wkb eodhnkA jB .nkU j[D fJ; tke Bz{ t/yhJ/ . Where are my scissors/ binoculars/ spectacles/ trousers/ jeans? These nouns never take a singular form. There are nouns which are used singular as well as plural without changing them. fJj BktkA jw/FkA fJZe tuB ns/ pj{tuB d/ s"o s/ fpBkQA fJBkQA Bz{ pdb/, tos/ ikAd/ jB . A sheep and many sheep A deer and two deer -5-
  • PES/ENG/XI/117 A fish and many fish, also many fishes but it means groups or species of fishes fJZe wZSh ns/ pj[s ;kohnkA wZSh ns/ Bkb jh pj[s ;kohnkA wZShnkA , go fJBkQA s' fJZe jh Gkt j? fe wZSh iksh dk ;w{j . A spacecraft and many spacecraft An aircraft and many aircraft. One chinaware and many chinaware. Some other nouns look plural but actually are singular. -6-
  • PES/ENG/XI/117 Is/ are mathematics more interesting than economics? Rickets is/ are a deficiency disease. Measles is/ are prevented by using vaccines. Mongrel is/ are a specy/ species of dog. In all these sentences ‘is’ is the correct choice. fJBkQA ;kfonkA tkekA ftZu is ;G s' mhe u'D j? . Now choose a noun in these sentences carefully. Remember these nouns have no plural forms. 1. What are these apparatus/ apparatuses that you are using for performing the experiment? 2. The two hundred/ hundreds of hens lay about thirty dozen/ dozens of eggs each weak. 3. The scenery/ sceneries of the Himalayas keep beckoning us. 4. These pieces of jewellery/ jewelleries are designed by a highly acclaimed expert. 5. All kinds of stationery/ stationeries are sold here. 6. We get a lot of information/ informations from the internet. The answers are 1 apparatus 2 hundred, dozen 3 scenery 4 jewellery 5 stationery 6 information Some singular nouns talk about the entire class or group and so are used plural with the article ‘the’. eZ[M fJZe tuB BAkt g{oh ebk; ikA ;w{j dh rZb eod/ jB fJ; bJh pj{tuB dh sokQA nkoNheb ‘the’ d/ Bkb tos/ ikAd/ jB . The poor/ the blind/ the unemployed/ the deaf/ the ugly/ the disabled/ the injured/ the old are the people who need the care of the society. What are those grounds/ premises/ irons/ colours/ customs/ quarters that you are referring to? -7-
  • PES/ENG/XI/117 The French/ the British have fought long battles in the past. Some decision-taking bodies – committee, jury or government – are used a) singular if they take one and unanimous decision and b) plural if they behave differently or take different decisions eZ[M fBoD/ b?D tkbhnkA ;z;EktkA- ew/NhnkA, i{oh ikA ;oeko, fJZe tuB nro fJZe ns/ ;op-;zwsh tkbk c?;bk ns/ pj{tuB nro T[j tZy tZy eokQA dk tshok ikA tZy tZy sokQA dk fBoDk b?Ad/ jB , dh tos' eod/ jB . Some pronouns make the subject singular. Choose the correct verb in the given sentences. eZ[M gVQBktkA ftF/ Bz{ fJZe tuB pDkT[d/ jB .nkU j[D tkek ftZu' fefonk dh ;jh u'D eo' Each of the men was/ were appreciated for his contribution. Was. Every man was/ were appreciated for his/ their contribution. Was. Either of the books is/ are ready for a reprint. Is. Neither of the stories is/are true. Is. One of the best educational institutions is/ are at the top of the list. Is. Anchor 3: Sometimes a careless use of nouns and pronouns may lead to disastrous results. Look at the note hurriedly written by a hotel manager for his assistant. Message 15 July, 09 Praveen Anu and Shuchi stayed in room no. 111 and forgot her necklace on the bed. Please despatch it immediately. Manager -8-
  • PES/ENG/XI/117 Soon after the assistant despatched the necklace, Shuchi, realizing the loss, came to fetch it. To her horror she came to know that the assistant had despatched it to Anu, who had to stay with her as there were no rooms available in the hotel. ‘Her’ does not make it clear whose necklace it was. The manager should have written the name instead of ‘her’. See another sentence which is ambiguous because of the use of pronoun when there should have been a noun. Ruchi and Neeti went to buy her bridal dress. The listener may not know who the bride is – Ruchi or Neeti. The speaker should be clear whom he talks about by using a pronoun. Some of the correct forms of pronouns: Do you know your responsibility? Do the travellers know their destination? Go there where you came from. I will take my book back. She loves her pet. The dog wags its tail. If two persons are talking we should say They are talking with each other. -9-
  • PES/ENG/XI/117 If more than two are talking we should say They are talking with one another. What will you use in these sentences – each other or one anther? 1 The two friend talked with ____________________ for hours. 2 Almost eight patients had been waiting and talking with __________________ before finally the dentist appeared. 3The students and the teachers, after discussing with __________________, decided to go to a nearest location for picnic. Answers 1 each other 2 one another 3 one another Do you know about the good manners in the use of pronoun? The basic rules of good manners – 1. We should not be boastful; so never keep ‘I’ before ‘you’ and ‘he’ in all good things. 2. We should not blame others for our faults; so keep ‘I’ first and ‘you’ and ‘he’ after that. Check the order of pronoun in these sentences. 1. I, you and he should be credited for the success of the party. 2. He, I and you failed to invite all the guests. 3. He and you irritate me a lot. Answers 1 you, he and I 2 I, you and he 3 you and he - 10 -
  • PES/ENG/XI/117 Anchor 3: Who, whom, whose, which, that should follow the noun they refer to. Otherwise they may be confusing as it happened in case of the father-son scientist duo. MM2: Father is sitting and Son is standing with an envelope in his hand in their rest room. Son: Father, we have got an invitation from the President. Father: But it says ‘he’ is requested to be present. Who? While the father reads the invitation aloud, the text appears on the screen. Charles is the son of the famous scientist who has won the prestigious Talent Award this year. He has written three important books on the subject also. Therefore, he is requested to be present when the President confers the award on him in the main hall on 14 August at 5 p.m. Father: Who has won the prestigious Talent Award? And who has to collect it? Son: It’s obviously you, father! Father: But you too have done extraordinary work in science and written three important books. I think it is you. You deserve an award more than me. Son: No, I think the committee considers you too old to move and so has asked me to collect it. The father was too old to move, so Charles went to collect it. If the award was conferred on Charles, then one correction was needed in the invitation. It should have been: Charles who is the son of the famous scientist has won the prestigious Talent Award this year. Instead of Charles is the son of the famous scientist who has won the prestigious Talent Award this year. - 11 -
  • PES/ENG/XI/117 However, when his father’s name was announced and Charles took the award on his behalf, the president in his speech remarked, “It would have pleased him more if the scientist himself were present on the occasion”. A poorly drafted invitation caused inconvenience and humiliation to the scientists. It should have been Charles is the son of the famous scientist who has won the prestigious Talent Award this year and who has written three important books on the subject also. Therefore, he is requested to be present when the President confers the award on his father in the main hall on 14 August at 5 p.m. Only two slight changes – ‘and who’ instead of ‘he’ and ‘his father’ instead of ‘him’ – made all the difference. It means Charles was expected to be present when the award was conferred on his father. The relative pronouns – who, whom, whose, which, that – are supposed to be used just after the noun or the pronoun about whom they are used. Replace the relative pronoun in the following sentences at their appropriate places. 1 A man informed me about illness of my friend who came to me five minutes ago. 2 I have returned the book to the library which I lost yesterday. 3 The poor girl has come to meet my mother whom she gave some money last week. 4 Anyone can collect it from the principal whose book is lost. Answers 1 A man who came to me five minutes age 2 I have returned the book which I lost yesterday 3 The poor girl whom my mother gave some money last week 4 Anyone whose book is lost Anchor 4: Some verbs are quite confusing. You must know their correct usages to avoid confusion. - 12 -
  • PES/ENG/XI/117 The verbs ‘lie’ and ‘lay’ Don’t lie about your weakness before your teacher; if you lied, you would suffer. Here lie means not telling the truth and its past forms are lied, lied. He lies in the bed early and remains lain till late. Here lie means to be or remain in a position and its past forms are lay and lain. The hen has laid three eggs today. It’s dinner time. The table has been laid. Lay means to place or put something or give eggs and its past forms are laid, laid. Make sure that you won’t get confused with them in future by choosing the right form of ‘lie’ or ‘lay’ in the given sentences. 1. The report has been lied/ laid/ lain in the parliament. 2. The greedy man killed the hen which lied/ laid/ lain a golden egg a day. 3. The river Saraswati had lied/ laid/ lain on the land of India for centuries before it finally disappeared. 4. It was soon revealed that he had lied/ laid/ lain about the matter in the court. 5. They lay/ lied/ laid the carpet and lay/ lied/ laid down on it. Answers 1 laid 2 laid 3 lain 4 lied 5 laid, lay Which verb is suitable in the context? 1. Adopt/ adapt/ adept Animals __________ according to their environment. She is quite __________ in embroidery. 2. Accept/ except - 13 -
  • PES/ENG/XI/117 Everybody came in the party _________ you. _________ or reject, it is your choice. 3. Defer/ differ The twins don’t __________ much in their appearance. If you ________ the payment of you bill beyond the last date, you will have to pay fine. Tick the correct word. 4. He hanged/ hung his bag on the peg. 5. Don’t lose/ loose your pen once again. 6. She choose/ chose the best colour from those presented to her. 7. The affect/ effect of late night waking was quite bad on his health. 8. The teacher advised her to practice/practise again and again. 9. Attach the reign/ rein to the bridle of the horse. Answers 1 adapt = change , adept = skilled 2 except = not , accept = to take, to agree 3 differ = are dissimilar 4 hung (hanged = sentenced to death) 5 lose (loose garment) 6 chose (past of choose) 7 effect (affect, affected are verbs) 8 practise (practice is noun) 9 rein (reign = rule) Anchor 5: Till now we have become quite aware of the types of common errors that we usually commit. Before we cast some more light on the confusing usage, let’s see a situation and beware of not committing such mistakes. The District Education Office was under inspection. The head of the office was quite fond of speaking English to impress his seniors and juniors. He said - 14 -
  • PES/ENG/XI/117 Sir, this clerk is very hardly working and that peon outside the office is always outstanding. He used hardly working which mean working rarely instead of hard working as he worked without wasting a single moment. The head wanted promotion for him. On the other hand, for the peon, he wanted to say that he always stood out and hardly did any work. He wanted some punishment or demotion for him. But he said he was always outstanding which means he was very good. What was the result? The inspector sent a letter after a few days demoting the clerk and promoting the peon. And it was a real shock for the head. He should have said Sir, this clerk is very hard working and that peon outside the office is always standing out. Voice Over: You might confuse your reader if put your apostrophe incorrectly. If you write My parents’ house You mean both parents’ But if one writes My patent’s house One means either one’s mother’s house or one’s father’s house Suppose somebody writes My fathers’ house Then it would be a blunder as - 15 -
  • PES/ENG/XI/117 it would mean more than one father. A boy’s bag – one boy’s bag. The boys’ school – many boys’ school. This is my friend’s house – one house belonging to one These are my friends’ house – many houses belonging to many If two or many together own something, the last one will take the apostrophe: Jack and Jill’s bat – it means both own the same bat But if different persons own different things, each of the names takes an apostrophe. Savita’s and Sarita’s basket – it means two different baskets of two different persons The last name in the series of names takes the apostrophe. The President of the United States’ speech Divya, the girl next door’s birthday Words with ‘s’ as the last letter take apostrophe without ‘s’. Charles Dickens’ novels Levis’ jeans Girls’ school Friends’ house Certain prepositions can also confuse you at times. Decide, in these sentences which preposition should be used. Use the given prepositions correctly in the blanks. 1. Beside/ besides _____________ an Arabian horse, he has a Turkish one also. - 16 -
  • PES/ENG/XI/117 He came and sat _____________ me. 2. Between/ among The extremists hid themselves __________ the people sitting in the meeting. There is no grudge __________ your and me. 3. Along/ across We were walking ___________ the river and enjoying the cool breeze. They waded ___________ the river and reached the other bank. Over/ above 4. By/ in He has come here ______ my car. He goes to office ______ car. 5. With/ from Food is cooked here ________ pure olive oil. She cut the vegetable _______ a knife. Answers 1 besides = in addition to, beside = at the side of 2 among = in many , between = in two 3 along = at the side of, across = from one side or bank to another 4 in = car with adjective my, by = car as means of transport 5 from = cooking medium, with = tools/ instrument Anchor 6 Have you ever thought what difference the correct use of language makes? What have we learned today? Let’s recapitulate. eh s[;h ed/ ;'funk j? GkFk dh ;jh tos' eoB Bkb eh nzso g?Adk j? .nkU j[D n;h i' f;fynk j? T[;Bz{ d[jok bJhJ/ . A review - 17 -
  • PES/ENG/XI/117 • Correct use of language avoids confusion and inconvenience • It increases confidence and accuracy • Nouns and pronouns have their own singular and plural forms • We have to be careful of confusing verbs, adjectives and prepositions • Wrong use of punctuation marks like apostrophe is not a minor mistake Anchor 7 w?Bz{ T[whd j? fe nZi dk gkm s[jkBz{ ;kfonkA Bz{ uzrh sokQA ;wM nk frnk j't/rk . s[jkvk ;kfonkA dk nZi dh ebk; ftZu fXnkB d/D bJh XzBtkd .c/o fwbkAr/ . BETA STAGE OF SCRIPT Submitted No. of Times: 1 2 3 4 Subject: _________________________________, Class: ________________________ Topic: _________________________________________________________________ Script ID: ______________________________________________________________ Date of Receiving by PES: ________________________________________________ Date of Receiving by Subject Specialist: ____________________________________ Name of Subject Specialist: _______________________________________________ Tick (√ ) any one of the following: 1. Necessary suggestions given at Alpha Stage have been incorporated by Service Provider. The script is now approved for making Master file. 2. None of the recommended corrections at alpha stage have been incorporated by the Service Provider and the script is returned back to send it again for Beta stage. 3. Some of the recommended corrections have not been incorporated and the script is sent back again to return as Beta again. - 18 -
  • PES/ENG/XI/117 4. New suggestions are recommended for incorporation, thus the script sent back to return as Beta again. Submitted to Service Providers Date _____________________. - 19 -