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Active passive xii
 

Active passive xii

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    Active passive xii Active passive xii Document Transcript

    • SUBJECT - ENGLISH CLASS - XII TOPIC - Voice Words: 3,575 MM1: Show the conversation between Ayushi and his grand pa Aayushi is shown with a lot many books at her grandpa’s home. Grandpa : Aayushi, why have you brought so many books? Aayushi: You always complain that I don’t spend enough time with you. So this time I’ll stay with you for the entire summer vacations, and I’ll also do my studies. Grandpa: That’s good! Aayushi: But, grandpa, why do we have to read so many books? We mug them up and forget after exams. Grandpa: The purpose of the books is to give you wisdom, not mugging. Whatever you read and listen, try to understand and assimilate. Otherwise you will become like that mathematician who drowned because of his foolishness. Aayushi: Which mathematician, grandpa? Grandpa: I’ll tell you that story. You know there is a treasure of wisdom in our great old stories? MM2: As the story goes on the characters and background appear on the screen. A man with forehead smeared with sandal and turban on the head is shown sitting on a plank and working with numbers on a big slate. A woman in a simple sari is sitting on the ground and cutting vegetable. Huts and bullocks can be shown in the background. Voice Over: Once there was a mathematician in an Indian village and he was very proud of his learning. He thought that he could solve any problem any time mathematically. One day he was going to visit his in-laws with his wife. After they covered a few miles, their path was obstructed by a river. 1
    • Now the scene is of a flooded river and the mathematician and his wife talking. While the Voice Over narrates the story, the dialogues of the characters are also shown in the bubbles. On other days they could cross it wading into it as it was not very deep. But being it rainy season, it was flooded. The wife suggested him, “Let us return as it is not safe to cross it. At the same time, we do not know how to swim.” The mathematician considered his wife foolish as she was not literate. So he used his knowledge of trigonometry and arithmetic. He easily found out the width and depth of the river and said, “Don’t worry. We can easily cross the river. The water is only 4 feet 5 inches deep on an average and our height is 5 feet 7 inches on an average.” Saying this he held his wife’s hand and descended into the river. Before they could reach the middle of the river, the woman raised an alarm. “Help! Help!” She freed her hand and waded back to the bank. Being proud and arrogant, the mathematician proceeded into his watery grave. MM3: Again the grandpa-granddaughter duo are shown. Grandpa: What was his foolishness? Aayushi: He took the average of the different depths on the side of his bank. Grandpa: And he also took the average of his and his wife’s heights. Aayushi: So funny. Grandpa: Did you note that while you get some wisdom through what your read and listen, you also learn some language skills? Aayushi: Let me retell the story and you guide me about the language skills that I learnt. Anchor 1: Now, as the story is being retold, listen it carefully to note what changes Aayushi makes to it unknowingly. 2
    • (As Voice Over goes, the story appears gradually line by line.) Once there was a mathematician in an Indian village and he was very proud of his learning. He thought that 1 any problem could be solved any time by him mathematically. 2 One day his in-laws were going to be visited by him and his wife. 3 After a few miles were covered, their path was obstructed by a river. 4 On any other day it could be crossed by wading in it as it was not very deep. 5 But being it rainy season, it had been flooded by the rain. The wife suggested him, “Let us return as it is not safe to cross it. At the same time, we do not know how to swim.” The wife was considered foolish by the mathematician as she was not literate. So his knowledge of trigonometry and arithmetic was used. The width and depth of the river was easily found out by him and he said, “Don’t worry. The river can be crossed easily by us. The water is only 4 feet 5 inches deep on an average and our height is 5 feet 7 inches on an average.” Saying this, his wife’s hand was held by him and he descended into the river. Before the middle of the river could be reached by them, an alarm was raised by the woman. Her hand was freed and she waded back to the bank. Being proud and arrogant, the mathematician proceeded into his watery grave. Anchor 2: What remark do you think the grandfather would have given after listening to the story from his granddaughter? He was obviously a little puzzled because of her over use of the passive voice sentences. Now show the story narration text again (point 1-5) and bring the correct sentences Next to each point 1 Any problem could be solved any time by him mathematically. 3
    • Instead of He could solve any problem any time mathematically. 2 One day his in-laws were going to be visited by him and his wife. Instead of One day he was going to visit his in-laws with his wife. 3 After a few miles were covered, their path was obstructed by a river. Instead of After they covered a few miles, their path was obstructed by a river. 4 On any other day it could be crossed by wading in it as it was not very deep. Instead of On any other day they could cross it by wading in it. 5 But being it rainy season, it had been flooded by the rain. Instead of But being it rainy season, it was flooded. Anchor 3: In Aayushi’s story, actions and incidents take precedence over the character. However, the story is about characters. Therefore, the sentences should be the Active Voice keeping the doer or characters at the beginning of the sentence. Let’s check out the learning objectives of this module. Learning Objective Upon completion of the module, the learner will be able to- • State the importance of using a correct voice in a particular situation • Differentiate between the Transitive and the Intransitive Verb 4
    • • Apply the ways of converting Active sentences into Passive sentences • Identify correct form of Voice in the given context Anchor 4: Let us understand the difference between a sentence in active voice and a sentence in passive voice. Who is throwing a ball? A girl. A girl is throwing a ball. In these sentences we are talking about the doer of an action. The doers are ‘who’ and ‘a girl’. Therefore, these sentences are in active voice. What is being done in the picture? Being thrown. A ball is being thrown. In these two sentences we are talking about an action that is ‘being done’ or ‘being thrown’ and not about any person or doer of it. Therefore, these sentences are in passive voice. A sentence in active voice is the one where the doer is active or does something. A sentence in passive voice is the one where the doer or the person who does an action is either inactive or absent. Another word for inactive is passive. The structure of the active and passive sentences goes like this: ACTIVE SUBJECT VERB OBJECT Doer of Action Action/ Work done Target of Action The girl threws a ball. I learn my lesson. 5
    • You have done your work. PASSIVE SUBJECT HELPING III FORM OF BY OBJECT VERB VERB Target of Action Doer of Action Action A ball was thrown by the girl. My lesson is learnt by Me. Your work has been done by you. In a passive sentence the doer of an action goes in the place of object and the target of the action takes the place of the subject. Anchor 5: Let’s look at another picture. Who is hitting the ball? The person is not visible or known so we should talk about this picture in passive voice. What is being done in the picture? A ball is being hit. The obvious doer is a player. But as he is not seen, we should not say A player or the player is hitting the ball. It is better to say A ball is being hit. Or, A ball is being hit with a cue by some player. Our sentence is rather complete up to ‘a cue’ and the rest is obvious and so unnecessary to say. 6
    • Therefore, ‘A ball is being hit with a cue’ can describe it well. We can further say something more about the picture keeping in mind that The player has not hit the ball yet. It would be better to say The ball has not been hit yet. The player may change his mind and will choose another ball to hit. So we can say The ball is being touched with a cue and is being hit. But as it has not been hit yet, another ball can be chosen and hit. This is how we continue our talk about the picture. In this type of expression where the doer is absent or not prominent, we describe the scene, action or process better in the Passive Voice. Anchor 6: Now let’s consider active and passive sentences in different tense forms. Something that we always or usually or habitually do is simple present tense as in the following sentences: Simple Present Tense: Who delivers the ball in cricket? – Active A bowler delivers the ball in cricket. – Active By whom is a ball delivered in cricket? – Passive A ball is delivered by a bowler in cricket. – Passive Do you play billiards? Active Yes, I play billiards or, I do not play billiards. – Active Who plays billiards? – Active By whom is billiards played? – Passive Something that is happening before our eyes, as in the picture, or these days is expressed in the present continuous tense. 7
    • Present Continuous Tense 1 What is the fox doing in the picture? – Active It is chasing a mouse. – Active 2 What is happening in the picture? – Passive A mouse is being chased. – Passive Simple Future Tense 3 What will the fox do if it caught the mouse? – Active The fox will eat it up. – Passive 4 What will happen if the mouse is caught? – Passive The mouse will be eaten up. – Passive As your see here that we don’t need to change the tense of the active sentence while converting them into passive, we will not discuss Tense in detail here. You only need to maintain that tense by doing slight necessary changes. What are these changes? Before we discuss that, try to answer the questions accompanying the pictures following the tense pattern of the questions. 8
    • What is happening in the picture? – Passive What’s better to say: 1 A girl is singing a song – Active or 2 A song is being sung? – Passive Answer: No. 2. Why? Because a question in passive should be answered in passive. By whom is a song being sung? – Passive 1 A girl is singing a song – Active or 2 A song is being sung by a girl? – Passive Answer: No. 2. Why? Because the question is in passive. Who plays an instrument in your class? – Active Boy X or girl Y plays an instrument in my class. – Active How is that instrument played by him or her? – Passive The instrument is played very well by him or her. – Passive It is quite clear here that you have to follow the pattern of the question, and answer them. Anchor 7: 9
    • Let us now talk about how to convert active sentences into passive sentences. (The following picture and sentences appear on the screen) Active: What are the people doing? They are watching a rooster fight. What are the roosters doing? The roosters are fighting. Can you convert these active sentences into passive? Try. They can be converted into passive as: Passive: What is being done by the people? A rooster fight is being watched by them. What is being done by the roosters? We cannot, however, change the last sentence into passive as for making passive we need an object in the active sentence. It is present in the first three but absent in the last one. Ask the questions for them: The people are doing WHAT? WHAT is the object here. They are watching WHAT? The answer is a rooster fight. A ROOSTER FIGHT is the object. The roosters are doing WHAT? WHAT is the object here. The roosters are fighting what? We can’t answer this question as they are fighting nothing but just fighting. As we cannot answer 10
    • We are sleeping or standing or resting what? If there is no object with an action or verb, then such verbs are called INTRANSITIVE. That is the action does not transit or move from the doer to the done. The sentences with an intransitive verb cannot be changed into a passive sentence. Action, however, moves from the doer of the verb to the target of the verb in case of TRANSITIVE verbs as in The cat killed a mouse. Or He kicked the ball. The result of the action is on ‘a mouse’ and ‘the ball’. Ask questions and answer them in active and passive voices for the following pictures. Answers: What is the taxi driver doing? – Active He is reading a newspaper. – Active What is being done by the taxi driver? – Passive A newspaper is being read by the taxi driver. – Passive A LETTER Answers: Who is writing the letter? – Active Someone is writing the letter. (Because the person is not visible or known) – Active 11
    • By whom is the letter being written? – Passive The letter is being written by someone. – Passive In such cases where the doer is unknown or obvious we omit the agent like ‘by someone’. We should say The letter is being written or A letter is being written In The man has been arrested by the police, the mention of ‘by the police’ is unnecessary. Anchor 8: We never change the tense of a passive sentence but we add a correct form of ‘be’ before the main verb. The forms of ‘be’ for the i) Present Tense Verbs such as take/ takes, do/ does, give/ gives – is, am, are ii) Past Tense Verbs such as took, did, gave – was, were iii) A continuous verb such as taking, doing, giving in all tense forms – being iv) Perfect Tense Verb forms such as have, has and had – been v) Modals such as can, will, may, should, must – be In this exercise two sentences of each kind are given. The first one is done. Do the second one on the same pattern. 1 Mrs. Bhatia teaches English grammar. English grammar is taught by Mrs. Bhatia. 2 Khushwant Singh writes novels. Answer: Novels are written by Khushwant Singh. 3 The artist created beautiful pictures. Beautiful pictures were created by the artist. 4 The principal called us. ____________________________________ Answer: We were called by the principal. 5 She has been singing the same song for last two hours. The same song has been being sung by her for last two hours. 6 They are writing their papers. 12
    • ____________________________________ Answer: Their papers are being written by them. 7 The government has implemented the new laws. The new laws have been implemented by the government. 8 You have taken my pen. ____________________________________ Answer: My pen has been taken by you. 9 Every citizen must respect his nation. The nation must be respected by its every citizen. 10 You can do whatever you want to do. _____________________________________ Answer: Whatever you want to do can be done by you. When you have to convert active sentences into passive sentences, take the following steps: 1. First, identify the object by asking a question with WHAT or WHO after the verb. 2. Then begin the sentence with the identified object. 3. Add a proper form of ‘be’ – before the ‘ing’ verbs being, after have, has or had been and after can, may, will etc be and use the verb in the third form. 4. If no helping verb is already there, then add is/ am/ are for the present verb form and was/ were for the past verb form and convert the verb into its third form. In nutshell, the structure of a passive sentence is Subject + Helping Verb + III Form of Verb + by + object Imperative sentences can be turned into passive either by beginning with ‘let’ or by ‘you should’, ‘they should’ etc: Open the shelf. Let the shelf be opened. You should open the shelf. Let us write a letter. Let a letter be written. We should write a letter. Active sentences with double objects can be turned into passive by taking either of the objects at the beginning. However, it’s more convenient to take the first object at the beginning: She taught us English grammar. We were taught English grammar by her. 13
    • English grammar was taught to us by her. You gave me a nice present on my birthday. I was given a nice present by her on my birthday. A nice present was given to me on my birthday. They have written us many letters. We have been written many letters by them. Many letters have been written to us by them. Anchor 9: By now you have understood 1 why a correct choice of voice is important while speaking and writing, 2 the difference between the transitive and intransitive verbs and 3 how to convert active sentences into passive Let us have a look how sometimes passive sentences are preferable over the active sentences in writing and speaking. Newspaper Headlines are either written in the simple present active form or the passive form without helping verbs. Look at the newspaper headlines here given in the passive form. They can be turned into a complete passive sentence by adding ‘was/ were’ or ‘has/ have been’ before the verb. Make complete sentences out of the given headlines. Add an agent at the end also like ‘by someone’. Then convert the sentence into active form. Follow the example. (Answers should appear at least after two seconds) NEWSPAPER HEADLINES 1 MAHATMA GANDHI ASSASSINATED AT DELHI Example: Mahatma Gandhi has been assassinated at Delhi by Nathu Ram Godse. Nathu Ram Godse has assassinated Mahatma Gandhi at Dilhi. 2 LOHIA FINALLY REMEMBERED ON HIS DEATH ANNIVERSARY Answer: Lohia has finally been remembered on his death anniversary by his followers. His followers have finally remembered Lohia on his death anniversary. 14
    • 3 SERVICE TAX TARGET FIXED AT RS 1,650 CRORES Answer: Service tax target has been fixed at Rs 1,650 crores by the government. The government has fixed service tax target at Rs 1,650 crores. 4 TANTRIK ARRESTED IN DELHI, SENT TO JUDICIAL CUSTODY Answer: A tantrik has been arrested in Delhi and sent to judicial custody by the police. The police have arrested a tantrik in Delhi and sent him to judicial custody. Notices and posters also use passive forms as they are impersonal in nature, that is, we are interested in the act rather than the person who does it: FIVE SKILLED WORKERS ARE REQUIRED SOUTH INDIAN LANGUAGES SPOKEN AND UNDERSTOOD HERE ALL SORTS OF CURRENCY NOTES ARE EXCHANGED HERE FOOD IS COOKED FROM PURE DESI GHEE CUSTOMERS ARE THANKED FOR BEING COOPERATIVE For Processes again we don’t want to say who is doing them but how they are done. It would be better if the process of making tea or washing clothes or filling up a form is converted into the passive voice. Try to complete the process of preparing tea. PROCESS OF PREPARING TEA Korean tea kettle over hot coal 15
    • 1. The traditional method of making a cup of tea is to place loose tea leaves in a tea pot and pour hot water over the leaves. Answer: According to the traditional method of making a cup of tea, tea leaves are/ should be placed in a tea pot and hot water is/ should be poured over the leaves. 2. After a couple of minutes you should or one is required to remove the leaves by straining the tea while serving. After a couple of minutes the leaves ________________________________________ by straining the tea. Answer: should be removed; or, are required to be removed. 3. We allow most green teas to steep for about three minutes, although some types of tea require as much as ten. Most green teas should _________________________ for about ten minutes, although as much as ten minutes _____________________________________________. Answer: be steeped, are required by some types of tea. 4. We often prepare stronger teas, such as Assam, with more leaves and drink it with milk. Stronger teas, such as Assam, ____________________________with more leaves, and _____________________ with milk. Answer: are often prepared, drunk. 6. We prepare, however, more delicate high grown teas such as Darjeeling with a little less leaves. However, more delicate high grown teas such as Darjeeling ____________________ with a little less leaves. Answer: are prepared. We have learnt so far Summary • The importance of using a correct voice in a particular situation • The difference between the Transitive and the Intransitive Verb • Converting Active sentences into Passive sentences 16
    • • Choosing a correct form of Voice in the given context A final word before we conclude. Passive voice sentences are a very efficient and handy tool useful for English speaking such as conversation, speeches, debate, discussions or presentations. Why? Because speaking is sudden and spontaneous; and unintentionally we may start a sentence with the doer of an action or the target of the action. In either case we are supposed to complete the sentence immediately. Otherwise a flaw in speech will not only break our confidence but also its coherence and intelligibility for the listener. We hope that you enjoyed learning Active and Passive Voice and that you would be more confident while using them in your speech and writing. Thank you! 17