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    ( design guidelines final 122309 ( design guidelines final 122309 Document Transcript

    • South Florida East Coast Corridor (SFECC) Transit Analysis Station Design Guidelines Prepared for Gannett Fleming, Inc. On Behalf of State of Florida Department of Transportation By: Station Design Guidelines Station Design Guidelines
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 1: Introduction to Corridor a. Project Location and Background b. Goals and Objectives c. Design Guidelines Intent d. Planning for Sustainable Growth: The Planning Process Chapter 2: Brief Corridor History Chapter 3: Design Guidelines Overview a. Intent of: i. Transit Today 1. Civic/Cultural Crossroads 2. Iconic Form 3. Redevelopment Energy 4. A Sustainable Future ii. Station Design Parameters: 1. Integration into the Community/Urban Fabric 2. Accessibility: a. Pedestrians and Bicyclists b. Transit (Other Modes) c. Kiss and Ride d. Park and Ride 3. Transparent and Functional Simplicity 4. Security/CPTED 5. Comprehensive Systems Sustainability 6. Articulation of Form and Community Identity 7. Arts-in-Transit Chapter 4: Station Typology and Modes a. Station Typology and Hierarchy i. City Center ii. Airport/Seaport iii. Town Center iv. Regional Park and Ride v. Neighborhood Center vi. Employment Center vii. Local Park and Ride viii. Special Events Venue b. Transit Modes: i. Commuter/Regional Rail ii. Light Rail iii. Bus Rapid Transit iv. Rapid Rail (Metro Rail) v. Regional Bus Table of Contents 1 2 4 6 7 14 18 18 19 20 20 21 23 28 34 50 20 72 24 38 54 66 74 22 25 31 42 58 68 26 33 46 62 70
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Table of Contents Chapter 5: Station Components: a. Typical Components of Station Areas b. Arrival Zone i. The Pedestrian Zone 1. Pedestrians 2. Bicycles 3. Greenways and Rail-with-Trails ii. Bus Drop-Off iii. Vehicular Drop-Off: Kiss and Ride iv. Park and Ride 1. Parking 2. Emergency Vehicle Access v. ADA Accessibility c. Travel Zone i. The Station 1. Station Building 2. Structure and Engineering 3. Support Buildings a. Restrooms b. Ticketing Booths c. Interior Waiting Spaces d. Concessions 4. Station Building Type Hierarchy ii. The Platform 1. Platform Layout 2. Sight Lines to and from Platform 3. Platform Canopy 4. Roofline Treatments and Materials 5. Drainage 6. Shading/Wind Screen and Climate Protection 7. Platform Access 8. Platform Amenities 9. Track Crossings a. At Grade Crossing b. Vertical Circulation 10. Components Summary Table 76 78 80 82 84 86 87 90 92 94 96 96 98 102 104 104 105 106 108 109 110 114 116 117 118 119 124 125
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 6: Elements of Design a. Information Systems i. Signage 1. Station Entry Statement 2. Station Identification 3. Informational Signage 4. Trailblazing Signage 5. Electronic Passenger Information Display Systems 6. Regulatory Signage ii. Advertising iii. Public Address Systems iv. Security Systems v. Wireless Technology Access b. Architectural Elements i. Style and Character c. Site Furnishings i. Seating ii. Bike Racks iii. Trash Receptacles iv. Bollards v. Planters/Flower Pots vi. Flagpoles/Banners/Pennants/Plaques vii. Tree Grates viii. Drinking Fountains ix. Vending Machines x. Ticket Kiosks xi. Hose Bibs d. Hardscape Surfaces and Materials i. Pedestrian Walkways ii. Pedestrian Crosswalks iii. Roadways iv. Parking v. Ramps vi. Plazas/Courtyards/Seating Areas vii. Platform e. Lighting i. Platform Area Lighting ii. Walkway, Elevator/Escalator and Stair Lighting iii. Parking Area Lighting iv. Landscape/Accent Lighting v. Lighting Control Systems vi. Electrical Convenience Outlets f. Design Elements Summary Table Table of Contents 127 128 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines g. Landscape Materials 1. Tree/Palm Relocation 2. Plant Material Selection/Design 3. Parking and Streetscape Plantings 4. Station Plantings 5. Rail Corridor and Right-of-Way Plantings h. Irrigation Chapter 7: “Green” Stations a. The Station as a Sustainable Entity b. Environmental Sustainability for the Site c. Environmental Sustainability for the Landscape d. Environmental Sustainability for Structures Chapter 8: Maintenance Guidelines Chapter 9: Appendix Table of Contents 146 127 127 148 127 127 149 151 154 156 158 160 165 177
    • 1Introduction to Corridor
    • Introduction to Corridor SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 12 Project Location and Background The South Florida East Coast Railway Corridor stretches along the eastern coast of the state of Florida and currently is in operation for the transport of goods and services related to the freight and shipment industry. The study corridor, as determined in the Phase 1 Study, is the 85- mile portion of the Florida East Coast Railway Corridor from Tequesta to Downtown Miami. The study corridor covers one (1) mile on either side of the existing FEC rail line and traverses three (3) counties (Palm Beach, Broward and Miami-Dade). A total of 47 municipalities exist within the two (2)-mile corridor, of which 38 exist within one-half (½) mile of the FEC and 28 are directly on the FEC corridor. The first phase of the study was completed in 2008 and led to the launch of the second phase of the project. This second phase of the study further details and aligns the study area and goes into greater detail for classifying viable modes of transit for the FEC right of way that is now broken into three separate areas of utility. Following are the elements that were identified as a result of the first phase of the project: 1. Corridor The FEC corridor was identified as the study corridor after comparison to adjacent corridors (such as US-1, Dixie Highway, etc) as well as comparisons to various scenarios that included improvement to existing transit systems (such as bus transit, Tri-Rail, etc) and even a “no-build” option. The first phase helped align study efforts to the FEC corridor and recognized areas where further study was required. The SFECC Study Corridor
    • Introduction to Corridor SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 1 3 2. Transit Technologies Multiple modes of transit were considered and narrowed to five modes for further refinement and study 3. Station Typology (8 Types total) Various types of stations were determined as suitable for the corridor based on various existing land uses and conditions as well as community needs and desires. These station types will be further discussed in more detail later in the report. 4. Station Locations Based on the various technical requirements determined by the transit system mode/ technology and various land use factors, potential station locations determined in the first phase of the study have been refined. The second phase of the study focuses on station typology, design, as well as the identification of potential station locations along the 85-mile corridor. Station locations in Phase 2 are based on station typology, technical and engineering requirements for the system based on the transit system modeling, land use, and community preference for specific station locations. The goal of the Design Guidelines and Criteria for Stations is to standardize the components and design process related to the various station types and modes to ensure a consistent approach and level of investment throughout the corridor. The guidelines will help guide the layout of a comprehensive system while also providing opportunities for the various municipalities in the corridor to incorporate their own distinctive elements (such as Arts in Transit) into the station design. The SFECC Phase 1 Report and 5 modes/transit technologies being further studied in Phase 2. Source: www.sfeccstudy.com
    • Introduction to Corridor SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 14 Project Goals and Objectives Trends indicate that the need for alternative transportation solutions that provide viable and sustainable growth opportunities are on the rise in regions, such as South Florida, that continue to experience growth and redevelopment. South Florida has experienced and will likely continue to experience both growth and redevelopment. Ridership of the recently expanded Tri-Rail (commuter rail) system continues to rise; however, preliminary studies by the Regional Transit Authority indicate that some demands exist along the densely populated eastern corridor of the region. The SFECC Transit Analysis Study looks at reintroducing passenger transit on the FEC corridor in order to provide inter-connectivity with other regional transportation networks that will help resolve the congestion and sustainable growth issues that the region is experiencing. Today, transit continues to serve as a sustainable tool that encourages a reduction in auto-dependent transportation corridors and uses and therefore encourages the preservation of natural resources and amenities. The South Florida metropolitan region extends along the eastern shore of the state of Florida and is unique in that it links three dense city centers, (i.e. Miami, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach), each that serves as the hub of the three counties (i.e. Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach). The South Florida metropolitan region population ranks 7th in the nation, with an estimated population of almost 5.5 million in an area of approximately 6,000 square miles . Each of these hubs also operates their own major airport and seaport centers that provide wide- spread global connectivity to the region. The FEC passenger railway system is poised to capture on these connections and provide the type of intermodal connectivity and accessibility to mass transit that the region needs. Transit today faces multiple challenges that have to balance ridership needs with ongoing operating and maintenance costs. Additionally, a dedicated revenue source is crucial. Several key factors that go into a successful transit system include an integration into an overall multi-modal connectivity framework, including linkages to other forms of connectors that range anywhere from sidewalks and dedicated bicycle pathways to interstate highways to trolley and bus transit systems. Throughout the process, however, a balance also has to be achieved with a need for sustainable and best management practices as well as a pleasant and sometimes even engaging experience for the user. This is especially true in South Florida, as today , and into the near future transit riders still will have a choice to drive an automobile as the urban-scape has grown from an auto dependent paradigm.
    • Introduction to Corridor SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 1 5 Following are the goals and objectives that the design and planning for the stations on the South Florida corridor should follow: • Provide innovative and user-friendly station facilities by incorporating supporting facilities such as concession areas, waiting rooms, restrooms, and ticket booths • Provide pleasant, covered platform areas and shelter from environmental and micro-climate factors prevalent in the region (i.e. sun/heat, wind, rain, etc) • Provide aesthetically pleasing and visually engaging surroundings that people will enjoy while waiting for the trains to arrive • Maintain quality design standards through the design and construction process so that station facilities will endure public use for many years • Provide secure and safe places for the commuter during the day and night • Provide that all areas are barrier-free for the physically challenged • Accommodate for safe and practical circulation methods between the various station components and parking/drop-off areas • Incorporate the use of sustainable planning, building, and implementation practices to ensure long-term use and cost-effectiveness while also encouraging an environmentally- sensitive approach Mockingbird Station, located just east of North Central Ex- pressway at Greenville Avenue and Mockingbird Lane, is allow- ing people to realize the full potential of this light rail station through recent retail and residential developments immedi- ately adjacent to the station. Source: http://www.nctcog.org/trans/sustdev/landuse/ex- amples/Mockingbird%20(DART).jpg Portland, Oregon’s MAX light rail system makes Pioneer Court- house Square a better place. Source: http://www.lightrail.com/photos/portland/portland05. jpg
    • Introduction to Corridor SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 16 Design Guidelines Intent The intent of the Station Planning and Design Guidelines is to provide a mechanism that simplifies the approach to station planning and also provides a comprehensive framework to ensure consistency and clarity of station design within the SFECC Transit system. The Guidelines also outline the optimal requirements for the building of efficient, functional, and coordinated station areas along the 85-mile corridor. To provide for a comprehensive understanding of the approaches and framework requirements, the guidelines steer the reader from the broader goals and objectives down to the specific building blocks that help achieve the common system requirements. It is important to note that the criteria in this booklet describe optimal design elements and conditions for the eight typical station types identified for the SFECC corridor. As the transit system continues to develop and station sites are identified for planning and design, the operating/management agency of the transit system may choose to only provide standardized basic amenities for each station type. It will thus be the responsibility of the individual municipalities and jurisdictional agencies to “upgrade” their station based on the recommendations made within this document, the SFECC Station Design Guidelines, based on community preferences, phasing, and overall costs. The SFECC Station Design Guidelines begin by describing the over-arching framework for station design and introduce the different station types that were established as part of the first phase of the study. The guidelines stress the importance of accessibility and functionality by incorporating diagrams that indicate basic relationships and components of the various station types proposed for the corridor. Next, the various requirements for the different elements required in station areas are described and range from platform area canopy structures to security cameras. Finally, prototypical station diagrams demonstrate the application of the guidelines and provide a visual guide to the process and approach. These applicability guidelines provide an impetus for creating a comprehensive and efficient transit system that contributes to the civic pride and identity of the diverse communities along the historic FEC corridor. The guidelines include eight chapters and appendices. They are as follows: 1. Introduction to Corridor 2. Corridor History 3. Design Guidelines Overview 4. Station Typology and Modes 5. Components of a Station Area 6. Elements of Design 7. “Green” Stations 8. Maintenance Guidelines 9. Appendices As innovations in the transit industry advance, the guidelines should also be reevaluated and updated at incremental stages to incorporate new and more sustainable trends and techniques. While the design guidelines provide basic criteria, it is also important that station design include room for cultural and artistic expression that garner civic pride and support in their community stations and the overall transit system.
    • Introduction to Corridor SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 1 7 Planning for Sustainable Growth: The Planning Process The following paragraphs describe the recommended design and planning approach for specific station areas based on basic planning principles that begin identifying the goals and objectives and station locations through the design process to implementation. Step 1: Project Definition The planning process for Station Design begins first by defining the project goals, objectives, and area/location. At the beginning of Phase 2 of the SFECCTA Study, a series of station types were defined in order to address the needs of the transit system based on technical studies and community preferences. (Refer to Appendix A: Station Typology Memorandum by Gannett Fleming for a complete narrative on the various types) In addition, based on the criteria developed for the various types of stations, potential locations were also analyzed in accordance with GIS mapping of existing conditions and system technical/ scheduling requirements (as determined through transportation modeling systems). Through a combination of the various studies, a combined approach helped determine a potential list of stations and station types that were then discussed and evaluated with each individual municipality along the FEC Right-of-Way/ROW that had a potential station location. Furthermore, as part Phase 2, a strong focus remains on the FTA criteria and process for station selection which involves the assessment of transit- supportive land uses within the study corridor. The FTA criteria takes a comprehensive look at elements that are critical in the development of stations and surrounding areas such as pedestrian linkages, connectivity to major circulation networks (vehicular and other forms of public transit such as buses), character of surrounding development and urban patterns, and parking supply. Available potential implementation mechanisms are also examined through the study of economic conditions, relevant market data such as development patterns, and policies/plans that support transit development. As the ultimate client of the station area, an essential component of this first step is the continued integration of community and municipality input. Community meetings and design charrettes facilitate the needs and wants of the community and its stakeholders. They also help in gathering base data for the following design steps. One example of a community input process is the Visioning Workshop which aids in the creation of “vision diagrams” for the various communities and their needs and aspirations for transit development in their neighborhoods. Also integral is the involvement of the municipal governments and planning departments that help guide the station design process based on their community needs and desires. They also provide the official rules and regulations necessary for the planning process such as zoning, comprehensive land use plan requirements, permitting requisites and so forth. THE “DOTS” EXERCISE: Various boards with a variety of images were placed around the room. Participants were given blue stickers that they were asked to post next to their most favored ‘vision’ images.
    • Introduction to Corridor SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 18 Step 2: Site Reconnaissance and Inventory of Existing Conditions: The planning process for station design thus begins with site visits and a gathering, or inventory, of existing conditions and elements. Quantifiable elements are mapped in order to achieve station designs that integrate into existing conditions. Some of these elements include: • Land availability, i.e., vacant or under-utilized parcels • Sidewalk connections and character, i.e., widths, linkage potential, etc. • Transit stops within proximity to the potential station • Green way/trails connections • Parking capacity and facilities • Building stock and densities • Zoning and land use policies • Types and mix of uses • Streetscape and landscape components and other aesthetic elements, etc. • Connection potential to important historic, environmental, and/or community resources These broad characteristics are combined into a basic plan that will begin to establish the building blocks for the next stage in the process which identifies opportunities and constraints for the development of successful station areas and also helps determine the ingredients necessary to encourage the use of future transit stations. Step 3: Analysis: Identifying Opportunities and Constraints This second step in the planning process begins to delineate the various conditions created by existing inventory characteristics. The analysis process also establishes conditions for future development potential. A careful analysis of existing conditions reveals opportunities for improvement and identifies constraints that need to be addressed prior to station development. As part of the analysis stage, projections for future changes and revitalization effects of transit integration are also analyzed to ascertain the potential use and capacity needs. The analysis stage is therefore defined by an evaluation of the existing inventory and future conditions through a physical and qualitative analysis of physical and economic conditions. Physical conditions analysis also goes beyond the basic inventory of existing characteristics and considers environmental features such as climate (predominant winds, rainfall, temperatures, humidity), vegetation cover and characteristics, natural features of the land, slope and drainage patterns, boundaries, access, and views, and starts to establish relationships between the elements and various land uses within the site’s regional and local context. Along with the analysis of physical elements and the various opportunities and constraints that are reached as a result of this examination, another fundamental component to the planning exercise is an examination of the market and economic conditions. Economic probability studies establish target markets and project elements necessary to attract those markets. Market studies also help identify/survey competitive or comparable projects and provide insight into size needs, mix of components, costs, and any innovative design and implementation techniques used.
    • Introduction to Corridor SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 1 9 Source: Sample station study process for the SFECC.
    • Introduction to Corridor SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 110 Step 4: Conceptual Planning The conceptual plan uses the conclusions developed through the analysis stage to create land use diagrams and alternatives that begin to define program elements and their relationships as well as basic capacity studies for the site. Review and input are provided during this process to ensure consistency with the visioning process and the goals and objectives set forth during the preliminary planning stages. This also allow the community and government agencies to make early development decisions and begin identifying specific program needs and requirements. The conceptual design phase also provides preliminary phasing strategies based on general development plans and costs as determined through the economic/market consultant. The economic consultant can also provide basic economic feasibility studies through a study of projected revenues, and capital investment as well as operating and maintenance budget requirements that can also determine cost/phasing alternatives. Step 5: Master Planning - Preliminary Refinements through Final Master Plan This phase refines the design direction derived from previous phases into site specific plans that begin to delineate scaled program elements as well as defined spaces, building footprints, architectural style, roadways, sidewalks, stormwater management techniques, etc. Preliminary plan alternatives offer options to the layout of the various program elements and these alternatives are then distilled into the Final Master Plan. The Master Plan is supported by detailed plans, sketches and other drawings such as perspectives, sections, and elevations that further describe the design intent including the relationship of vertical elements that are not as apparent in plan format. In addition to the Master Plan, development strategies are refined along with detailed project parameters, cost and revenue variables, and other supporting market and financial documentation reports. Furthermore, utilities and infrastructure needs are also mapped by the engineer at the Master Plan level. These plans delineate connections to the water supply, sewage and stormwater management, electrical supply and distribution, and solid waste disposal as well as other basic infrastructural needs for roadways and development. Step 6: Community Consensus and Agency Approvals Following the completion of a refined design package, the next stage involves the approval process that includes approval from the client, the stakeholders, and the various permitting, financing, and approval agencies. Additional documentation may be provided to address compliance needs with requirements and regulations for zoning, environmental permitting, planning guidelines, etc. The community consensus process can be beneficial to the approval process and helps demonstrate how the design meets the needs and desires of the users and stakeholders. This process can be conducted through workshops and informational meetings; and helps garner support for the project’s overall development and implementation. Public Workshop and Meeting
    • Introduction to Corridor SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 1 11 Step 7: Detailed Design: Schematic Design through Construction Documentation After the approval process and after the project is successful in gathering funding for ongoing design development, the following design phases take the project through to its final construction and implementation phase. • Schematic Design: In Schematic Design, critical areas are enlarged to incorporate detailed design features that begin to address materials and constructability. In addition, site sections and sketches are developed to illustrate critical relationships between various project components. Typically, architectural footprints and building elevations are incorporated into the Schematic Design Package along with engineering guidelines that address features such as stormwater drainage and other infrastructure considerations. Along with the design refinement, cost estimates are also fine tuned to monitor budget parameters along the incremental design phases. • Design Development: The next Detailed Design phase, Design Development, begins to address how the project will be built. Further examination of detailed plans and enlargements establish project “character” and “scale” and include general layout and grading, hardscape materials and detailing suggestions, lighting character, and landscape massing. Accuracy in detailing provides precise take-offs that help fine tune cost estimates and therefore allow budget decisions to be made prior to the preparation of the final Construction Documents. Similar levels of detailing and refinements are also provided by the architectural and engineering disciplines. • Construction Documentation: Once Design Development plans and budgets are approved, the final detailed design phase, Construction Documentation, commences. Construction drawings provide a complete package of information required for obtaining competitive construction bids from contractors. In addition to detailed construction drawings, construction specifications are also created in this phase. Specifications address specific technical standards and requirements for the construction and implementation process. The construction package details the following items at a construction level: 1. Landscape architectural components 2. Fully dimensioned layout plans 3. Surface grading and hardscape elevations 4. Hardscape and paving plans 5. Site features and furnishings details 6. Site Lighting Plans 7. Detailed Planting Plans 8. Irrigation Plans 9. General Notes and Requirements 10. Technical Specifications Construction Documents compile the overall design and implementation of a project into one package. Commensurate Construction Document Packages and refined cost estimates are provided by each discipline, i.e., landscape architecture, architecture, and engineering, etc. The Construction Package provides a comprehensive understanding on how a project is designed and built as well as how it will be operated and maintained. This fully documented package is sealed by each registered discipline and becomes the legal document of record for the construction of the project. • Implementation: The implementation phase guides the project from the bidding process, through the selection of a successful bid, construction and execution of the construction bid, and finally to the project opening. During the construction phase, the design team provides assistance and construction observation capability to ensure the successful implementation of the project and advises the client or project manager with answers to technical questions and queries. The implementation phase ends with the completion of the construction phase and the beginning of operations and ongoing maintenance of the project.
    • 2Corridor History
    • Corridor History SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 214 FEC History: The Growth of a Region The history of the Florida East Coast Railroad is one that tells the story behind the man that is also often referred to as the father of the region. Henry Morrison Flagler first envisioned bringing rail access to South Florida in the late 1800s, when much of southern Florida remained largely undeveloped and unknown. Flagler, a successful oil tycoon, saw the potential of South Florida as a tourist destination and as an emerging destination for those seeking relief from the harsh northern winters. In 1885, Flagler began building the Ponce de Leon Hotel in St. Augustine and realized that the “key to developing Florida was a solid transportation system.”1 Flagler began consolidating existing freight railway lines and applying a standard gauge system which made interconnection of the various lines possible. This first phase of railway lines created railroad links between Jacksonville and Daytona. Later Flagler was petitioned by landowners in the southern area of the state to build an extension of the railroad further south. After exploring the vast development opportunities in the south, Flagler began the process of extending the railroad south into what is now known as the South Florida Metropolitan Region. 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florida_East_Coast_Railway 2. Compiled by Janus Research, Inc. One of the last railroad extensions brought the FEC further south to the shores of Biscayne Bay. This extension helped establish the City of Miami which grew from a settlement of 50 people, to a city of over 400,000 today. Flagler then launched the ambitious Overseas Extension that took the railroad all the way to Key West, Florida. Flagler completed his mission and rode the first train into Key West in 1912. While the FEC was successful in establishing a passenger transit system in the region that lasted almost 70 years, with the consequent hurricanes and the Great Depression came major financial difficulties that eventually brought an end to passenger transit on the FEC. Many cities and towns that were established along the corridor, however, grew and prospered due to the railroad. Remnants of these historic stations and structures still exist today. The following cultural resources have been documented within 500 feet of the FEC corridor:2 • 2,155 Historic Structures (of which 339 are in the National Register for Historic Places-Listed/ Potentially Eligible) • 67 Historic Districts and Linear Resources (of which 45 are in the National Register for Historic Places-Listed/Potentially Eligible) • 16 Archaeological Sites (of which eight [8] are in the National Register for Historic Places- Listed/Potentially Eligible and Native American Sensitive) Miami station with the Freedom Tower in the background-1930’s Miami-1930’sJupiter station- 1910’s Dania Beach station- 1910’s
    • Corridor History SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 2 15 • Seven (7) Historic Cemeteries (of which six [6] are in the National Register for Historic Places- Listed/Potentially Eligible and Native American Sensitive), and • Seven (7) Historic Bridges (of which one [1} is in the National Register for Historic Places-Listed/ Potentially Eligible) Included in these cultural resources are actual remnants of the historic FEC railroad such as the FEC Railway Passenger Stations in Boca Raton and Hialeah. Others include the National Register- listed Freedom Tower and City of Miami Cemetery in Miami as well as parts of documented historic districts within Biscayne Park, Miami Shores, El Portal, Fort Lauderdale, and West Palm Beach. While the corridor carries a rich and vibrant history from its early days, today the FEC operates as a freight rail carrier that owns and operates:1 • 351 miles of mainline track between Jacksonville and Miami, Florida • 277 miles of branch, switching, and other secondary track • 158 miles of yard track ______________ 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Florida_East_Coast_Railway Recognizing the need for passenger transit opportunities along the eastern coast of the South Florida Region, the South Florida East Coast Corridor TransitAnalysis(SFECCTA)Studywasstartedin2005 to study the potential of reintroducing passenger rail on the FEC tracks in support of the existing Tri-Rail Commuter Rail and Amtrak Rail services. As the first phases of the environmental and land use studies took place, it became overwhelmingly apparent that reintroducing passenger transit on the FEC tracks would be a positive opportunity for the sustainable growth of the region, while reviving the history and tradition that was lost due to post-industrialization. Engine No. 1034 breaks the tape on track No. 3 in Miami marking 75 years of Florida Special New York-Miami service 1963. Florida States Archive Source: http://www.pbase.com/ Fort Lauderdale station-1956Pompano station-1930’s
    • 3Design Guidelines Overview
    • Design Guidelines Overview SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 318 Transit Today: The role of transit today spans many facets of day- to-day lives and creates positive and lasting effects through social, visual, fiscal and environmental impacts. These broad impacts are further described in the following pages. Civic/Cultural Crossroads: Development trends in the last few decades indicate that investment in transit and the resurgence of downtown areas continue to rise with shifting market demands and lifestyle preferences. As urban areas continue to grow, so does the demand for convenient travel modes that provide alternatives to congested highways and roadways. This shift toward denser and what is known as “transit-oriented development” has allowed transit to once again become an integral cultural element in many communities across the country. Transit Oriented Development, or TOD, is defined as “compact mixed-use development near transit facilities and high-quality walking environments.” Through various funding mechanisms, TODs have become economic engines which are helping revive investment of transit systems within communities across the country. With the continued development of transit systems in many urban cities such as Dallas, Los Angeles, Salt Lake City, Denver, Portland, and St. Louis, transit has begun to transform the post- industrialization trend toward suburban auto- oriented communities. Today, transit centers and stations experience the intermingling of the masses and serve as vital links. Transit’s role was best described by David Moffat in his publication, The Art of Modern Transit Station Design, “Extensions of the cities around them, they (transit stations) provide common ground for a common purpose and they give dignity and excitement to thousands of individual ceremonies of departure and arrival each day”. Iconic Form and Urban Identity: Along with being integral elements of the connective tissue within transit systems, transit stations also often incorporate connective layers between multiple modes of transportation. The hierarchy of connections occurs mostly at main station centers within dense urban areas and these centers therefore become opportunities for expression of iconic form and distinct design. Iconic-precedent stations such as Grand Central Station in New York City and Union Station in Washington, D.C. offer a nexus of transportation networks, which support public services and design, and culminate in iconic public spaces. Memorable iconic public spaces spark redevelopment and economic revitalization. Downtown Plano Station Source: https://www.dart.org/images/pressreleases/Down- townPlanoStationAerial.jpg
    • Design Guidelines Overview SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 3 19 Redevelopment Energy: Transit stations serve as economic catalysts and models for sustainable development. TODs today offer compact development choices with the direct fiscal benefits derived from increased ridership and its associated revenue gains which enhance community amenities. These benefits include the increase in neighborhood and housing market vitality, i.e., affordable housing choices, increased fiscal benefits for joint development opportunities, and enhanced property values for adjacent land and business owners. According to a recent study published by the Transit Cooperative Research Project, joint development of station properties that leverage transit infrastructure, such as ground leases and operation-cost sharing, encourage and foster “community and development partnerships,” promoting economic development and smart growth. A Sustainable Future: Transit-oriented development is responsible for significant investment in building a sustainable and environmentally-sensitive planet. Alternative forms of transportation reduce the increasing demand of roadways, and, therefore, work toward a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. Mass transit modes, such as rail, continue to be the most efficient and environmentally-friendly way to address the increasing mobility demands from people and their modes. In studies done by the UIC, the International Union of Railways, rail is four (4) times more efficient for passenger transport (based on average carbon dioxide emissions) when compared to car and plane. In terms of the transport of goods, rail freight operations result in eight (8) times less carbon dioxide emissions than the use of trucks and four (4) times less than the use of inland waterway barges. Overall, “rail is on average, 2 to 5 times more energy efficient than road, shipping, and aviation.” and “travelling by rail is on average 3 to 10 times less CO2-intensive compared to road or air transport.” Although not a recent development, the role of transit in sustainable development continues to advance with new “green” methods and technologies and the use of renewable energy resources (biomass/waste, hydro, wind, etc.). The fundamental environmental benefits of transit: 1. Reduce land consumption for roadways 2. Decrease the use of automobiles, which improves air quality, and reduces consumption of natural non-renewable resources and fossil fuels (coal, oil, gasoline, etc.) 3. Compact development methods encourage land conservation and decrease travel demand 4. Reduce greenhouse gas emissions from roadway construction and expansion projects 5. Improve safety for pedestrians and cyclists 6. Diminish auto-dependency, saving energy and reducing roadway congestion
    • Design Guidelines Overview SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 320 Station Design Parameters: Transit station planning and design is comprised of six (6) principles delineating the parameters of a successful station. The methods include, integration into the contextual fabric, accessibility via multiple modes, functional simplicity, security, comprehensive systems sustainability, articulation of form and identity and finally the incorporation of arts in transit. The features of these parameters are discussed in greater detail. Integration into the Contextual Fabric: One of the basic components of station design factors is where a station responds to its surroundings through architectural elements. These surrounding factors include appropriate design measures to provide protection from environmental and climatic elements such as wind, rain, heat, etc. In addition, transit station design should also be sensitive to its context and associated cultural factors. A well-integrated station works symbiotically with its context to provide facilities and amenities to the passengers as well as surrounding residents and business owners. Incorporation of transit-compatible uses, such as day care centers, dry cleaners, shoe/watch repair shops, coffee shops and small restaurants, provide increased incentives for the public to use transit and also create revenue mechanisms for the transit system (i.e. through space lease agreements, etc). Transit stations also offer unique opportunities for cultural integration through the designation of open spaces and plazas that can serve as dynamic gathering nodes within the urban fabric. Finally, stations often become iconic landmarks for the community and whether it is through the use of vernacular architecture or local building materials and methods, the transit station should relate to the user and the user’s environment. Station architecture and detailing should also create an inviting, safe, and comfortable environment for its users to encourage greater and more frequent use of the transit system. Transit also plays an important role in the development and redevelopment of communities, and their existing networks, on both a local and regional scale. These networks usually consist of multiple modes of mobility ranging from pedestrian pathways, bicycle routes, railroad corridors, and major arterial roadways. While transit covers a range of modes, its basic premise involves the movement of people and goods. This basic idea is what enables the various modes of transportation to interconnect and, therefore, provide greater capacity and range of movement. An example would be a light rail system that connects to a regional commuter rail system and also links to local bus transit. A wider audience is reached, thus a greater ridership is achieved. Accessibility: Accessibility to a wide range of users is a key factor in transit station design. Accessibility is defined by the ease of use or approach to a particular space or area. Therefore, in a transit station, access is the ability of various groups to use a facility. These user groups include pedestrians, cyclists, motorists, commuters, and the mobility- and sensory-impaired population. Each group has its own criteria and requirements which are described in greater detail in the following pages. Crowd attends ribbon-cutting ceremony of Adelaide’s new central-city extension to Glenelg tramway. Source: http://www.lightrailnow.org/features/f_ade_2007- 11a.htm
    • Design Guidelines Overview SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 3 21 Bicycle pathways are also integral to the pedestrian connectivity system, and should be clearly distinguished from vehicular areas for safety. In addition, similar to pedestrian connections, bicycle networks should provide clear links and access points for the users. Bicycle Stations with locker rooms for the storage of bicycles and bicycle rentals can provide further use of bicycles near and around station sites. All station areas should comply with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines Code of Federal Regulations. These requirements outline basic criteria for barrier-free and accessible design for customers with special needs, such as the mobility- and sensory-impaired. These standards also provide access benefits to other types of passengers requiring assistance (such as parents with children in strollers, passengers with luggage, etc.) ADA Accessibility Guidelines and Regulations have been included for reference in Chapter 9 - Appendix. 1. Pedestrians and Bicyclists: Pedestrians should receive the highest priority since they are the primary users of transit systems and stations. Pedestrian environments should be designed with safe, clear, and unobstructed connections to the station area. “Non-fragmented and integrated pedestrian paths to the station will encourage more customers to walk and can increase ridership without the need for additional parking facilities or bus service.” A comfortable pedestrian environment also encourages greater use of the transit system and enhances the overall perception of a station area. Pedestrian routes to the transit station should be short, direct, and continuous. Comfortable walking distances range from ¼ to ½ mile and are generally links between various nodes that range from neighborhoods to major public gathering spaces and destinations. Pedestrian circulation routes should also be at street level and provide separation from vehicular circulation routes to minimize areas of conflict. Pedestrian pathways need to be visible and well-lit for safety of the users. Finally, pedestrian networks should incorporate connectivity to pedestrian trails and other regional networks such as greenways. Areas where pedestrians congregate (waiting areas) and connections to the main station area should be designed to offer shade and protection from weather elements such as wind, sun, and rain. Discover how you can have a negative carbon footprint on the planet and a positive “carbo” footprint on your body at the same time Source: http://detours.us/images/2009%20toocan%20 juicy%20cameo%201%20crop%20A%20sm1.jpg Seat-in-coach transfers to other destinations are arranged at fixed departure times Source: http://www.siamleisure.com/assets/images/bus.gif
    • Design Guidelines Overview SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 322 2. Transit (connections to other transportation modes/systems): Intermodal transit connections with bus and rail systems, such as local and express bus systems, generate higher volumes of passengers and users, and should be located within close proximity to station areas. These connections usually refer to various modes of public transit that have established routes or dedicated ROWs and operate on a set schedule. Transit connections can include links to local bus routes, bus rapid transit, other rail, and even trolley/ tram systems as well as others. To encourage transit use, pedestrian access and amenities should also be provided within a radius of ¼ to ½ mile around transit stops. 3. Kiss and Ride: Next in terms of access hierarchy are the drop-off and pick-up areas commonly known as “Kiss and Ride”. Kiss and Ride facilities also require proximity to the station area and typically include short-term parking. A kiss and Ride facility encompasses various vehicular modes of transportation such as taxi stands, private shuttle buses, and automobile drop-off/pick-up areas. In larger stations with high passenger volumes, taxi stands are often located separately from vehicular drop-off areas. Facilities can also include “paratransit” services, i.e., a curb-to-curb public transportation service for users with disabilities who are unable to use other forms of public transit. Paratransit vehicles are usually equipped with wheelchair lifts and other devices that make them ADA accessible. 4. Park and Ride: Finally, Park and Ride facilities denote stations that are primarily accessed by vehicles and therefore include substantial parking areas for longer range commuters. These facilities are generally located in less dense areas where land is more easily available and in areas with direct connections to regional Connections are clearly marked at the station’s exit. Source: http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/zOTn2MQU- Wef0NUzdgVjcLw You can get free public transportation when you park at the Park n’ Ride Garage Source: http://www.keywestcity.com/egov/gal- lery/861206625094153.JPG The Gare du Nord (Northern Train Station) is situated north of central Paris. Source: http://parisfrance.ca/images/trainstation.jpg
    • Design Guidelines Overview SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 3 23 AMTRAK’s Acela Specialty Station Signage Program Source: http://www.segd.org/images/content/4/1/41138.jpg roads and connectors (such as arterial roads connecting to major interstates). However, overtime redevelopment will occur around the stations. Park and Ride facilities incorporate larger-scale circulation networks between parking areas and the actual stations and are often located at end- of-the-line stations. In both regional and local Park and Ride stations, taxis stands should be separated and clearly delineated from automobile drop-off areas to assure safe and clear mode transitions for passengers. Functional Simplicity: Another fundamental criterion for a transit station is clarity and ease of use. Crucial design components should be organized logically so the average user is able to accomplish basic tasks from reaching the station area, to identifying their transit needs, purchasing the ticket, and boarding the train. The reverse situation is also applicable, where a transit user gets off the train, is guided to other transit interchanges, the destination, or parking areas where his/her car is parked. This incorporates the use of good design, and appropriate information systems available in prevalent languages of the region (English, Spanish, etc.) Transit technology has improved globally to allow better access and circulation to transit systems and also allows clearer transition between various modes. Recently, regional transit systems in South Florida, such as Metro Rail (Miami) and Tri-Rail have upgraded to the “Easy-Pass” system. The “Easy Pass” is a form of an automated fare collection system similar to what many transit systems across the world use to make transit more user-friendly and also reduce some of the operating costs associated with fare purchase and collection. The purchase of a transit card such as the “Easy-Pass” allows the user to charge their card for the desired amount of trips. Cards can be programmed to allow for unlimited trips within various time frames (such as weekly/monthly/annual passes) and for automatic recharge. The transit card holder simply swipes their card through card readers at faregates (at controlled entry portal areas) which allows them access onto the platform and to the transit system. The transit card can also be made to allow the passenger universal access onto a variety of transit modes such as regional and local bus systems, rail systems, and so forth. The OV Chipkaart (Public Transportaton Chipcard) allows the user to access mulitiple transportation systems (bus, rail, metrorail, tram, etc) in the Netherlands. Source: www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread. php?p=45433315
    • Design Guidelines Overview SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 324 Security: User safety and security are key components when designing a successful public space. CPTED, or Crime Prevention through Environmental Design, is a planning tool based on the premise that the proper design and effective legitimate use of the built environment can lead to a reduction in the incidence and perception of crime. The four (4) key principles of CPTED are (adapted from “Crime Prevention through Environmental Design: General Guidelines for Designing Safer Communities” by the City of Virginia Beach Municipal Center, January 20, 2000): 1. Access Control: Physical guidance of people coming and going from spaces by the judicial placement of entrances, exits, fencing, and landscaping. In addition, locating public gathering areas as centrally as possible or near major circulation paths in the project. 2. Natural (Passive) Surveillance: The placement of physical features, activities, and people in such a way as to maximize visibility. 3. Territorial Reinforcement: The use of design elements that express guardianship, such as fences, pavement treatments, art, signage, landscaping, and lighting. 4. Maintenance: Serves as an additional expression of ownership, and prevents lack of visibility from landscape overgrowth and inoperative lighting. Security issues have become the focus and priority of public planning projects and CPTED guidelines help steer the planning of safer public amenities and environments. However, it is important to note that Local Building Codes and federal security criteria (such as perimeter security requirements for large government buildings/facilities) may prescribe more stringent criteria and would take precedence over CPTED guidelines. Design for these security- This ATM is placed well, using good CPTED features and has an unobstructed view from the street and patrolling police. Credit: Randy Atlas Source: http://www.popcenter.org/tools/cpted/images/ cpted_atm.jpg In order to implement automated fare collection systems such as the Easy-Pass into the SFECC system, stations will have to be equipped with faregates as well as ticket/transit card vending machines at key stations as well as at retail locations for purchase and recharge by the user. Stations will also have to be designed to allow for controlled entry and exit points in order to guide users through the faregates. Additional design considerations, such as barriers and fencing, should be considered to help funnel users from surrounding areas into the station. Automated fare collection systems will also allow accurate count of passenger trips and be able to process trip information that can assist in better transit planning and future improvements to the system. Information systems, utilizing signage and other graphics, an also make transit more user-friendly and help guide a passenger from one area to another; for example from parking areas to the station platform. Train schedules and system information should also be easily accessible and comprehensible to the user. (See Chapter 6 for additional information on Information Systems.) Finally, public facilities such as accessible toilets/ washrooms, and telephone booths, should be distinguishable and centrally located within the station area. (The relationships between the various components inherent to station areas are further described in Chapter 5.)
    • Design Guidelines Overview SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 3 25 Emergency Assistance Credit: Jeremiah Cox Source: http://www.subwaynut.com enabling elements should be incorporated in such a way as to encourage the use and functionality of the station area. The U.S. Department of Transportation and Federal Transit Administration require that transit systems implement Security Standards and Guidelines early in the design stages to assess vulnerability of station systems and areas to threats and hazards. The report, “Transit Security Design Considerations” FTA 2004, (can be found at http:// transit-safety.fta.dot.gov/security/SecurityInitiatives/ DesignConsiderations/default.asp) addresses safety and security design considerations and assists in “developing an effective and affordable security strategy following the completion of a threat and vulnerability assessment and development of a comprehensive plan”. The SFECC Transit Agency should establish a security plan and certification system for the system to address security and safety standards in: • Programming and Planning (i.e. to determine if facilities are built, inspected, and tested in accordance with applicable codes, standards, criteria, and specifications”) • Training of Personnel and emergency response organizations An example of the various steps of System Security Manage- ment and Implementation. Source: The Public Transportation System Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning Guide, U.S. Department of Transportation- Federal Transit Planning Guide January 2003 • Infrastructure and Facilities (i.e. signage, emergency telephones/communication devices, alarms, key controls and locks, protective barriers and lighting, electronic surveillance systems, and so forth) Other important documentation regarding safety and security guidelines for transit systems are listed below: • The Public Transportation System Security and Emergency Preparedness Planning Guide, U.S. Department of Transportation- Federal Transit Planning Guide January 2003 • Handbook for Transit Safety and Security Certification, U.S. Department of Transportation- Federal Transit Administration Office of Safety and Security, November 2002 • Hazard Analysis Guidelines for Transit Projects, U.S. Department of Transportation- Federal Transit Administration Research and Special Programs Administration, January 2000 • Recommendations for Bridge and Tunnel Security, The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) Transportation Security Task Force, Prepared by The Blue Ribbon Panel on Bridge and Tunnel Security, September 2003
    • Design Guidelines Overview SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 326 Grand Central Terminal, second busiest rail station in the country. Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com- mons/7/71/Image-Grand_central_Station_Outside_Night_2. jpg •NFPA 130 - Standards for Fixed Guideway Transit Systems •ADAAG- Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines and ADA Title II and Title III Regulations •FACBC- Florida Accessibility Code for Building Construction •ANSI 117.1 - Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities •Codes of Applicable Jurisdictions (City Zoning Ordinances and Development Standards) •CPTED - Crime Prevention through Environmental Design •SFECC Engineering and Technical Requirements Comprehensive Systems Sustainability: Incorporating environmental and economical sustainability into station design begins during the early planning stages through land use and zoning analysis. Environmental sustainability and the guidelines for building “Green Stations” are addressed in more detail in Chapter 7 of this report. Transit should be located in areas where travel demands are forecasted as well as where land uses coexist and support the development of a transit station. Transit can also be the mechanism used to spark redevelopment, thus spurring compatibility. Integration into future land use plans should also be identified during the early planning stages. Along with other design parameters, station areas also need to comply with local standards and guidelines. Some of the important standards and regulations include, but are not limited to: •Building Code Local Jurisdiction – Florida Building Code •South Florida Building Code (Broward Edition) •South Florida Building Code (Miami-Dade Edition) •Fire Prevention Code Local Jurisdiction •FDOT Design Standards •County Association of Government Standard- Uniform Specifications and Details for Public Works Construction Local Jurisdiction Supplements •NEC- National Electrical Code •NFPA 70 - National Fire Protection Association •NFPA 101 - Safety from Fire n Buildings and Structures
    • Design Guidelines Overview SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 3 27 own thoughts, people may adopt an unexpected addition to their known space as an icon, reject it as alien, or see it as something in between. Public art is perceived in the context of its site, but even within the relatively homogeneous stations, artists choose different placements as well as forms. Unfortunately today, aside from art galleries, and large public gathering plazas, there is little visual art on public transit lines and stations. In order to appropriate positive public art influences in transit station areas, the overall goals for the selection of pubic art for the SFECC corridor should include the following: 1. The installation must offer an opportunity for public engagement, while arousing curiosity and interest. Communities will learn to embrace the art and murals within their area, and inspire surrounding communities to bring creative projects into their own everyday neighborhood life. 2. The installation in some visual and/or conceptual way, should enhance the experience of place. For example, public art at certain stations can celebrate the heritage and history of the community and its relationship to the FEC Robert Indiana’s LOVE sculpture on Sixth Avenue, New York. Source: http://farm2.static.flickr.com/1164/870131940_ f56062503f.jpg?v=1203902106 Articulation of Form and Community Identity: Transit stations are integral to the public realm and include elements that represent civic pride and identity. Major transit hubs and stations can themselves become iconic architectural spaces and buildings. Iconic stations such as Grand Central Station in New York City, and Union Station in Washington D.C. are renowned transportation gateways and civic structures. A majority of transit stops and stations are day-to-day gateway areas and address the needs of millions of commuters traveling between destinations, and between homes and workplaces. These stations have the ability to embrace and portray the civic character of the area and influence of surrounding communities and jurisdictions. A very integral element in stations is the expression of ‘public art’ that enhances the visual appeal and aesthetic quality of the station’s basic building blocks and criteria. Public art is defined as art outside museums and galleries, or art on its own without institutional protection. It provides a broad range of visual experiences for often radically diverse audiences. Most transit art is permanent, commissioned through a public process, and then funded according to a percentage of station construction or renovation costs. Many individuals and committees are involved; and the artists are usually chosen by professional panels. Transit stations offer an abundance of opportunities for interpretive public art, especially because they also serve as a community center, where one can find information on local exhibits, housing and dining. There is potential for emphasized excitement in these places, particularly when the community is invited to learn the many ways artists work. The prospect of presenting art to unsuspecting commuters and causing them to converse about visual art in the stations is stimulating and intriguing to passengers. Furthermore, the commuting user waiting for a train provides a captive audience. Immersed in their
    • Design Guidelines Overview SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 328 the room can be emphasized with artistic furniture, providing riders with a startlingly different place to sit. The user is provided with a more comfortable place to sit as well as something amusing to look at, with enough variety to engage multiple viewings. The Waiting Area Walls and Semi-Covered Corridors: Walls, even if outside, are traditional places for art. They define the immediate visual parameters of the viewer’s space. Public wall art competes with advertising public announcements, and the larger immediate built environment. These corridors offer the greatest opportunity for art since the commuters never miss the displays. The possibilities allow for a tunnel effect where a person could be completely surrounded by a visual effect. The Platform The station platform, in stark opposition to the covered corridor, offers an open visual field where riders wait. Artistic columns can attract the eye as riders either walk or gaze around the platform. Also, ground plane engravings can be added, a simple yet artistic touch that does not vertically break the pedestrian traffic flow. railroad corridor. Many cities had their downtowns emerge along the tracks and some still have historic station structures and museums dedicated to this historic legacy. 3. Increase aesthetic value and impact of station areas through appropriate and selective use of Art in Public Spaces. 4. Enhance citizens’ sense of ownership, pride, and enjoyment of the SFECC as a public amenity. 5. Engage the community and youth in art selection and appreciation programs that help improve quality of life and encourage creative expression. 6. The installation must invite and reward repeat encounters. The following are some specific locations and opportunities for public art within the station area: The Station Building and Waiting Areas: If there is a station waiting room that shelters the transit audience indoors, and they have the time, Art adds to the dyanamic feel of Times Square. Credit: Roy Lichtenstein, Times Square Mural, 2002, Times Square-42nd Street. © Estate of Roy Lichtenstein, Source: www.tfaoi.com/aa/5aa/5aa325.htm
    • Design Guidelines Overview SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 3 29 Arts in Transit: Several major transit systems across the country have programs that collaborate and manage the incorporation of art into the transit system. The program often is a means of community outreach and becomes a “catalyst for enabling neighborhood residents to weave the stations into the fabric of their community.” (St. Louis Metrolink Arts in Transit Program: www.artsintransit.org). The Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) in New York City also manages an extensive public arts program. The objective of the program is that “every design element in the system should show respect for the customers and enhance the experience of travel”. Therefore, ‘art’ is expressed through a variety of media and materials that are durable, and easily maintained. While some are consided as permanent pieces, other art exhibits rotate regularly. New and innovative art media include music performances, posters and art cards, and lightboxes that highlight the work of local photographers. Funding for Arts in Transit programs and similar public arts programs is usually allocated as a percentage of the implementation costs (design and construction) of a public works project. For example, in creating “vibrant and neighborhood- oriented transit facilities”, the Charlotte Area Transit System (CATS) “commits 1% of the design and construction costs for the integration of art into most projects in the capital program, including stations and surrounding areas, park and ride lots, transportation centers, maintenance facilities, and passenger amenities.” “Bright, vivid photographs enliven subway passageways and the underground environment, and showcase the work of primarily New York - based photographers.” Source: http://www.mta.info/mta/aft/lightbox/ Victor Johnson and David Stephen’s art work displayed at 60th Street Station of Philadelphia’s SEPTA system is funded through SEPTA’s Art-in-Transit Program which combines the Federal Transit Administration and City of Philadelphia: Per- cent for Art initiatives. Source: http://www.theelseptaatwork.com/ArtInTransit.html The South Florida region does not have a specific art program related to transit, however, several venues exist that offer a podium for public art funding and awareness such as Miami-Dade’s Art in Public Places. A comprehensive listing of city and county public art programs in the state of Florida can be found on http://www.florida-arts.org/ resources/cityandcountypublicartprograms.htm. As the SFECC transit system matures in South Florida, an Arts in Transit program can be formed to be the guiding authority for the incorporation of Public Art into the transit experience. Similar to the successful programs across the country, the SFECC Art in Transit Program should “commission art works that seek to reflect the diversity and individual character of the surrouding communities and neighborhoods”. (http://www. theelseptaatwork.com/ArtInTransit.html)
    • 4Station Typology and Modes
    • SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 432 Land Use FEC Corridor Diagram 18 A Land Use study was completed in Phase 1 of the study highlighting existing transit-supportive land uses within the corridor.
    • Station Typology and Modes SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 4 33 STATION TYPOLOGY AND HIERARCHY: The following are the various station types determined in early phases of the SFECC Transit Analysis project. These station types were identified by the types of communities where they are located, as well as those requirements based on service and access needs. These station types have been grouped into a hierarchal group that ranges from Anchor Stations which are major destination stations, to Key Stations and Intermediate Stations. The following is a list of the station types and groups: Anchor Stations: 1. City Center 2. Airport/Seaport Key Stations: 3. Town Center 4. Regional Park and Ride Intermediate Stations: 5. Neighborhood 6. Employment Center 7. Local Park and Ride 8. Special Events Venue The following diagrams depict typical applications for each station type within the SFECC corridor. These broad diagrams are not site-specific. However, they depict typical conditions present in the corridor and thus provide broader relevance. Each station type is composed of various components and relationships for access and circulation which remain constant; however, these components can be modified to fit site specific conditions since each station area will present a different set of opportunities and constraints. Therefore, the diagrams on the following pages should be used as guiding tools only and not as specific plans for each station site. In addition, at this stage of the phasing process, various modes (which also carry different variables) are being considered for the corridor. The following diagrams depict station typology (eight [8] types listed previously) based on the Commuter Rail (or Regional Rail) mode. After the diagrams, a brief description of the four (4) other modes under consideration, Light Rail, Bus Rapid Transit, Rapid Rail, and Regional Bus, and their typical applications is provided.
    • Figure Diagram SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 434 Station Types City Center1 City Center Stations Located within a dense urban area and serving as a gateway for the heavy volumes of downtown commuters and city bus routes, the City Center is primarily a destination station. Accommodating large volumes of pedestrians and connections with taxis, buses and other high volume transit in this area is key. Wider sidewalks and an entry plaza with added visual interest, i.e., special paving details, landscape beds, etc., should frame the entrance to the City Center Station and the platforms. People should be funneled from on- street activities and the bus drop-off area into the station’s amenities, for example the ticket booth, restrooms, plaza with seating and/or food kiosks. The surrounding buildings should serve the users at the station through additional ground-level pedestrian amenities such as restaurants and shops. Since this station is predominantly a destination station, no dedicated parking is required. If desired, parking can be available in the surrounding existing parking structures as a shared resource with surrounding development. Taxi drop-off and pick-up areas can be provided in front of the station, but must not interfere with the bus drop-off area. Station Area Zoning • Commercial Zoning: Floor Area Ratio greater than 10 • Residential Zoning: Greater than 25 Dwelling Units per Acre • Parking Restrictions: Less than space per 1,000 Square Feet Station Requirements • Site Acreage: Less than one (1) Acre • Transit Access: All services • Parking: No dedicated parking EXAMPLE OF FAR >10
    • Prototypical Plan SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 436 City Center Some station types are meant to improve mobility while maintaining existing community character. Center city stations are major intermodal centers, the focus for bus and pedestrian activity. These stations are often integrated into high-rise office buildings. Nearby development is in mid- to high-rise buildings, and can be a wide variety of uses. Well-designed pedestrian environments have wide, land- scaped, contiguous sidewalks. Mixed use high- rise building Station platforms between tracks to accommodate express and local service Station in existing building At-grade pedestrian crossing
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 4 37 Local road Mid-rise building Pedestrian gathering space Station in building Bus drop-off Outdoor public space Taxi Drop-off High visibility pedestrian crossing
    • Figure Diagram SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 438 Station Types Airport & Seaport2 Airport/Seaport Station These stations are often both ‘origin’ and ‘destination’ stations. They serve travelers such as tourists and visitors, as well as employees and other local passengers. Shuttle drop-off and waiting areas are directly linked to the station and also connect passengers to the airport/seaport facility. Where plausible, a vegetation buffer may separate the station from the collector road. To assist travelers, especially those with luggage, an ideal layout for the station area would provide a more direct connection between the station and the airport/seaport facility via a moving walkway. However, existing conditions may not always allow for this convenience. Station Requirements • Site Acreage: Less than one (1) Acre • Transit Access: Local and Express services • Parking: No dedicated parking Station Area Zoning • No zoning requirements unless combined with another station type
    • Prototypical Plan SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 440 Airport and Seaport These stations ideally provide direct access to the airport/ seaport facility. When not located at an airport or seaport, access is provided by a people mover. Dedicated shuttle buses also facilitate access between stations and airport/seaport destinations. Bus/Airport shuttle drop-off and waiting area Station platform Pedestrian walkway Station tower with ticket booth Pedestrian bridge connection to parking struct
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 4 41 ture Parking structure Airport Pedestrian bridge connection to airport Colllector road
    • Figure Diagram SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 442 Station Types Town Center3 Town Center Stations Located on urban collector roads that form “Main Streets” of smaller urban areas, these stations are both ‘origin’ and ‘destination stations.’ Since these stations are typically walkable and offer a multitude of pedestrian amenities (for example, restaurants, ticket booths, restrooms, and areas for outdoor commercial activities), they should be located and incorporated into an existing environment that has a network of sidewalks promoting pedestrian accessibility. The Town Center accommodates a multitude of transportation types, thus offering Kiss and Ride, taxi and bus drop-off areas. Limited parking that does not block any drop- off areas should be provided on the surrounding streets. Shared surface parking and /r structure parking should be made available in lots behind all support buildings. Pedestrians on foot can then walk through the additional amenity areas within the support buildings. Note: Town Centers may have different intensities along the corridor. Some stations will resemble neighborhood stations in size, while others will be larger, and closer to City Centers. Station Area Zoning • Commercial Zoning: Floor Area Ratio greater than 2.5 • Residential Zoning: Greater than 15 Dwelling Units per Acre • Parking Restrictions: Less than 1.5 spaces per 1,000 Square Feet Station Requirements • Site Acreage: 1/2 - 2 Acres • Transit Access: Local services, Express services • Parking: 50-200 spaces (surface or structure) EXAMPLE OF FAR > 2.5
    • Prototypical Plan SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 444 Town Center The semi-circular building of condos over commercial is the heart of the Beaverton Round. Town Center Stations are sited on urban collectors in smaller- scale mixed-use areas. Stations are designed to fit in to the built environment of the town center. Town Center Stations are in walkable areas with a full network of sidewalks. Station platform Station tower with ticket booth Optional above-grade pedestrian crossing At-grade vehicular crossing At-grade pedestrian crossing
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 4 45 Pedestrian gathering space Mixed-use buildings Outdoor public space Support buildings including bike racks and lockers Shared parking Bus drop-off Kiss and Ride On-street parking Structured parking surrounded by mixed-use buildings Collector road
    • Figure Diagram SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 446 Station Area Zoning • Commercial Zoning: Floor Area Ratio greater than six (6) • Residential Zoning: Greater than 25 Dwelling Units per Acre • Parking Restrictions: Less than 1.5 spaces per 1,000 Square Feet Station Types 4Regional Park and Ride Regional Park-Ride Station These stations are located on principle arterial roads with close connections to larger highways and interstates. Regional Park and Ride Stations serve large volumes of riders from outlying communities. Similar to local Park and Ride Stations, safe pedestrian connections must be designed to circulate people from drop-off areas and parking lots/structures to the station entrance. Kiss and Ride and Bus Drop-off areas should be placed closest to the station entrance followed by parking. As vehicles and buses are diverted from the major arterial road, separate one-way roads help minimize traffic congestion around drop-off areas. Sites suitable for large at-grade parking lots do not exist within the study corridor; therefore, structured parking options within station types, such as the Regional Park and Ride, need to be examined. Land dedicated to parking requirements can also be an opportunity for future redevelopment. Areas for surface parking should potentially incorporate the feeder bus routes which may be rerouted into the station to provide convenient passenger transfer. Station Requirements • Site Acreage: Five (5) Acres or greater • Transit Access: Local services • Parking: 600-2000 spaces (surface or structure) >2000-space parking structure required COMMERCIAL ZONING FAR > 6
    • Prototypical Plan Regional Park and Ride SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 448 Areas surrounding regional park-ride stations should be zoned to encourage denser future development. Regional park-ride stations should be accessible directly from major highways or major arterials. Station platform Parking area with future development potential
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 4 49 Parking structure lined with mixed- uses Station with ticket booth Covered bus drop-off* Surface parking lot for short-term, carpool and van pool parking Parking structure lined with mixed-uses Kiss and Ride Taxi drop-off *Note: If a covered drop-off area is not plausible under building/ structure, a covered canopy should be provided at a minimum between the bus drop-off and the station.
    • Figure Diagram SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 450 Station Area Zoning • Commercial Zoning: No requirements • Residential Zoning: Greater than Eight (8) Dwelling Units/Acre • Parking Restrictions: No requirements Station Types 5Neighborhood Neighborhood Station The Neighborhood Station is located on local roads within a residential area. It is an ‘origin’ only station and services a relatively low volume of people from surrounding communities, the residential neighborhood itself and convenience retail services. The users are filtered into the station and platform area, either on foot via the the surrounding sidewalk network system, or through the bus drop-off area. Drop-off for a local circulator can also be provided with direct connection to the station. Parking will be provided on surface lots at a scale which will fit into the surrounding community and not create traffic issues on local streets. Pedestrians can then cross local traffic lanes and access the station entrance. Preferably, the surface parking should be shared with any multi-use commercial/residential development, or institutional use such as a church. Station Requirements • Site Acreage: 1/2 - 1 Acre • Transit Access: Local services • Parking: 50-100 spaces (single-use surface) EXAMPLE OF RESIDENTIAL DENSITY > 8 DU/ACRE
    • Prototypical Plan SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 452 Neighborhood Station Neighborhood Stations do not disturb the context of residential neighborhoods. Neighborhood stations often have minimal facilities that blend into the community. Housing types can be diverse and accommodate a mix of single-family and multi-family units. Existing residential block Shared parking Existing mixed-use or institutional-use block Station with ticket booth Local road with on-street parking Station platform Existing bus station
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 4 53 Existing residential block Pedestrian crossing Collector street At-grade vehicular crossing At-grade pedestrian crossing Kiss and Ride Station with ticket booth Station platform Kiss and Ride Drop-off for local circulator (City Shuttle)
    • Figure Diagram SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 454 6Station Types Employment Center Employment Center Stations These destination stations serve suburban centers of employment, for example, office parks, hospital complexes, college campuses, large mixed-use centers, and shopping centers. Employment centers close to the station will require direct sidewalk connections for pedestrians, while those further away may not be walkable, but would be within shuttle bus access. A plaza area should be incorporated into the front of the station and the surrounding bus and shuttle drop-off areas. Due to high traffic volumes at these stations which tend to be at peak periods during the work week, morning arrival, lunch, and evening departure, the station plaza can accommodate a larger proportion of people in a short period of time. Since this station is predominantly a destination station, no dedicated parking is required. If desired, parking should be available in the surrounding existing parking structures. Station Area Zoning • Commercial Zoning: Floor Area Ratio greater than 2.5 • Residential Zoning: Greater than 25 Dwelling Units per Acre • Parking Restrictions: Less than 2.25 spaces per 1,000 Square Feet Station Requirements • Site Acreage: Less than one (1) Acre • Transit Access: Local services • Parking: No dedicated parking COMMERCIAL ZONING FAR > 2.5
    • Prototypical Plan SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 456 Employment Center Commercial/Office building with ground-level parking Bus/shuttle drop- off area Station with ticket booth Station platform Pedestrian crossing Pedestrian gathering space At-grade vehicular crossing At-grade pedestrian crossing
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 4 57 Employment centers can be office parks, hospital complexes, universities, or other large mixed-use centers. No dedicated parking is needed at employment center stations; parking can be shared. Surrounding buildings are 3-5 stories or above with surface or structured parking. Local road with on-street parking Collector street Commercial/Office building Existing/future employment center Local road Kiss and Ride
    • Figure Diagram SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 458 Station Types Local Park and Ride7 Local Park andRide Station Located on collector roads, these stations handle moderate volumes of traffic, mainly accessible by cars and buses. Safe pedestrian connections must be designed to circulate people from drop-off areas and parking lots or structures to the station entrance. Kiss and Ride and Bus Drop-offs, should be placed closest to the station entrance followed by short-term parking. As vehicles and buses are diverted from the major arterial road, a one-way road helps minimize traffic congestion around drop- off areas. Surface and structured parking for the station should be buffered by buildings where possible. Parking and drop-off areas may also incorporate appropriate vegetation buffers separating vehicular, bicycle and pedestrian areas. The surface parking should incorporate the feeder bus routes. Also, zoning should be updated to encourage Transit Oriented Development/TOD around stations in the future. Thus parking lots could be future development sites for TOD within appropriate regions. Station Area Zoning • Commercial Zoning: Floor Area Ratio greater than 2.5 • Residential Zoning: Greater than 15 Dwelling Units per Acre • Parking Restrictions: Less than 2.25 spaces per 1,000 Square Feet Station Requirements • Site Acreage: Two (2) to six (6) Acres • Transit Access: Local services • Parking: 200-600 spaces (surface or structure) COMMERCIAL ZONING FAR > 2.5
    • Prototypical Plan SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 460 Local Park and Ride Station access should be from a collector or minor arterial street. Parking areas should be located within close walking distance of the station. Appropriate landscape buffers should be used around parking areas. Stations should be connected to surrounding development by sidewalks or walking paths. Station platform Parking area (with future development potential) Station with ticket booth Landscaped buffer At-grade vehicular crossing At-grade pedestrian crossing
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 4 61 Continuous sidewalk and bicycle pathway connection to central station and platform from parking area Surface parking lot for short-term and carpool/van pool parking Station with ticket booth Support buildings including bike racks and lockers Bus drop-off Kiss and Ride Parking structure Parking area with future development potential Taxi drop-off
    • Figure Diagram SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 462 Station Types Special Events8 Special Events Venue Station These stations need to be expressly designed to accommodate the specific venue they facilitate, i.e., a stadium or arena. The station and surrounding areas will have to simultaneously manage large crowds for short periods of time. Pedestrian bridges can be used to link people from the stadium and/or venue building to the transit station and platforms. No transit-related parking is necessary unless the station functions as another type in addition to serving as an events venue. If the stadium or venue is located within a dense mixed-used urban environment, parking may be shared with other surrounding structured parking. If possible, a pedestrian bridge should be used from the parking structure to the station and the stadium or venue. Station Requirements • Site Acreage: No dedicated acreage requirement • Transit Access: Local services and express services • Parking: No dedicated parking Station Area Zoning • No zoning requirements unless combined with another station type
    • Prototypical Plan SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 464 Special Events Venue With the exception of event days, these stations are quiet and primarily serve the local community. Venue parking can sometimes be shared with commuters. These stations are designed to facilitate large volumes of passengers leaving events at the same time. Pedestrian bridge connection to Arena, Station, Parking structure Bus drop-off Arterial Road Arena/Special Events Venue
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 4 65 Station Tower with ticket booths at ground level Station platform At-grade pedestrian crossing At-grade vehicular crossing Collector road Parking Structure
    • FECSHAREDCORRIDOR (100’R.O.W) EXPRESSPASSENGER &FECFREIGHT FECSHAREDCORRIDOR (100’R.O.W) FEC FREIGHT SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 466 Prototypical Plan Commuter Rail Transit Alternative Transit Modes: Currently, five (5) separate modes of transit are being assessed for the SFECC Transit System. Each mode carries a set of requirements that may vary depending on the type of technology and final system design parameters. Therefore, variations will occur with the types of stations for each mode. A brief description of each mode and its general requirements follows: 1. Commuter Rail or Regional Rail (RGR): a. A railway-based premium transit system comprised of push-pull train sets/locomotives pulling un-powered passenger cars or self propelled rail cars (DMUs) that carries commuters between destination and origination centers. Commuter rail typically operates in an exclusive ROW and typically serves corridors 20 miles or greater in length. Commuter rails can share tracks with freight trains and Amtrak. (Tri-rail is an example of commuter rail in South Florida) b. Commuter rail will share four (4) tracks with the Florida East Coast Railroad and will serve both Express and Local services. Depending on the station type and the types of services accommodated at the station, platform-to-track configurations will vary between center and side platforms. c. Platform lengths are typically 500’ in length and must be ADA accessible. Side platforms are a minimum of 20’ in width and center platforms are a minimum of 25’ in width. d. Pedestrian Crossings: Crossings for pedestrians are typically at-grade and run along existing street intersections with connections to the platform areas. Setbacks may vary, but a minimum safe distance of 100’ is required between the platform end and the at-grade pedestrian crossing. Above- grade pedestrian crossings can also be used in higher volume stations where surrounding structures provide direct connection into above- grade pedestrian crossings, i.e., catwalks, pedestrian bridges, etc. Note: Diagram shows typical platform configurations for the Commuter Rail mode. Variations may occur depending on specific site conditions. Platforms should be designed for high-level boarding to ensure universal accessibility and compliance with ADA guidelines. Station platform Station entry Station platform Station entry
    • FECSHAREDCORRIDOR (100’R.O.W) FEC FREIGHT LRT SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 468 Prototypical Plan Light Rail Transit 2. Light Rail Transit (LRT): A railway-based form of rapid- or semi-rapid transit comprised of diesel or electrically powered mechanical units. These units operate in exclusive or semi-exclusive ROWs and also have the capability to operate in mixed roadway traffic but must be separated from freight tracks (corridor sharing). Examples of light rail systems include Metro Transit in the Minneapolis/St. Paul region, and the TriMet System in Portland, Oregon. The following are basic station requirements for LRT. a. Light Rail will operate on two (2) dedicated tracks and will typically employ center platform configurations. Two (2) tracks will only accommodate one (1) tier of local service. b. Platform lengths are typically 300’ and the center platform is a minimum of 25’ in width. c. Pedestrian crossings will typically occur at street intersections and a minimum setback of 30’ is required between platform ends and street crossings. Above-grade pedestrian crossings may be utilized in higher volume stations. Grade crossings can also be used at platform ends where allowed. Platform end crossings need to have a security fence, which prevents pedestrian traffic from crossing over into the FEC freight tracks. Note: Diagram shows typical platform configurations for the Light Rail mode. Variations may occur depending on specific site conditions. Station platform Station entry
    • FEC FREIGHT BRT 13’12’12’13’ FECSHAREDCORRIDOR (100’R.O.W) SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 470 Prototypical Plan Bus Rapid Transit 3. Bus Rapid Transit (BRT): A rubber-tire based form of semi-rapid transit that combines the quality of rail with the flexibility of buses by operating on exclusive or semi-exclusive ROWs. “A BRT system combines intelligent transportation systems’ technology, priority for transit, rapid and convenient fare collection, and integration with land use policy in order to substantially upgrade bus system performance.”1 The South Dade Busway in Miami-Dade is an example of BRT in the South Florida region. The following are basic requirements for BRT. a. BRT will operate on the FEC corridor using dedicated bus lane roadways, separate from freight or other rail. b. Platform lengths may vary in length according to specific requirements at each station and should accommodate staging areas for busses where passengers board. Typically, side platforms that are 20’ in width will be employed for BRT (right-side doorways). c. Pedestrian Crossings will typically occur at street intersections. A minimum setback of 30’ is required between platform ends and street crossings. Above-grade pedestrian crossings may be utilized in higher volume stations. Grade crossings can also be used at platform ends where allowed. Platform end crossings need to have a security fence, which prevents any pedestrian traffic from crossing over into the FEC freight tracks. 1 http://www.apta.com/research/info/briefings/briefing_2.cfm Note: Diagram shows typical platform configurations for the Bus Rapid Transit mode. Variations may occur depending on specific site conditions. Station platform Station entry
    • FECSHAREDCORRIDOR (100’R.O.W) ELEVATED METRORAIL FEC FREIGHT SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 472 Prototypical Plan Rapid Rail Transit 4. Rapid Rail Transit (RRT): A railway-based form of rapid transit comprised of electric mechanical units operating in exclusive ROWs. A working example of this configuration within the SFECC region is the Miami Metro Rail, which uses elevated tracks. a. RRT operates on two (2) elevated dedicated tracks and employs a central platform. It must be separated from freight rail. b. Platform lengths are typically 616’ in length, and 30’ in width for center platforms. c. Vertical pedestrian circulation elements, i.e., ramps/stairs, escalators, or elevators, are utilized to provide connections between the at-grade street level and the above-grade platform. These circulation elements should be designed per site and system requirements (such as peak flow, etc.), and should accommodate connections at street-level between drop-off areas and pedestrian pathway connections. Note: Diagram shows typical platform configurations for the Rapid Rail Transit mode. Variations may occur depending on specific site conditions. Station platform Station entry
    • FECSHAREDCORRIDOR (100’R.O.W) SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 474 Prototypical Plan 5. Regional Bus (RGB): A longer distance and limited stop variation of street transit employing over-the-road motor coaches. RGB would operate on existing arterial connections such as major interstates and highways and provide an alternate mode for study that does not operate on the FEC corridor. Examples of RGBs include the DART (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) Regional Bus system and Miami Dade’s Commuter Express buses. Note: Diagram shows typical platform configurations for Regional Bus mode. Variations may occur depending on specific site conditions. Regional Bus Transit Station entry Station platform To Parking Rail-side platform - facilitate transfers
    • Typical Components of Station Areas
    • 5Station Components
    • Typical Components of Station Areas SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 578 Typical Components of Station Areas: This section of the Design Guidelines deals with the typical components of the station area: the arrival area and the travel corridor. The typical spatial arrangements and circulation patterns are discussed in the following pages. Detailed architectural elements are described in the following chapter. All access/arrival modes lead to the station and platform area from the gateway into the transit experience. The user enters into the transit experience and becomes a passenger in the “arrival zone.” While arrival modes vary, the ultimate goal is to reach a desired destination, accessible via the station platform. Therefore, the station and platform become the second part of the sequence called the “travel zone.” The various “arrival zone” components and the “travel zone” components work synergistically within the transit system to provide a logical, clear, and seamless passage for users. Typical Components of Station Areas
    • Typical Components of Station Areas SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 580 Arrival Zone: Each day, transit stations are witness to “thousands of individual ceremonies of departure and arrival.” The transit experience is primarily comprised of two fundamental parts; the “arrival” or access, and the departure, or “travel zone.” Typical components of the arrival and travel zone, will be discussed in greater detail later in the chapter. The first part of the transit experience deals with the arrival zone where multiple user types utilize a variety of modes and methods to reach the transit station. Principles of access will be described in greater detail for various user groups in the next few pages. Depending on the chosen mode, the arrival experience into the transit station area varies for different individuals. WALKING BICYCLE TRANSIT PICK-UP/ DROP-OFF VEHICLE PARKING Connecting Rail Feeder Bus Shuttle Motocycle Carpool Car-sharing/Station Car Single Occupant Vehicle Private Auto Taxi The following are components of the arrival zone, with highest priority given to pedestrian access, then bus/transit circulation, followed by Kiss and Ride, and finally to park and ride access. ADA access should be universal and be given highest priority in all access areas. 1. Pedestrian Zone • Nodes and circulation network • Includes bicycle path network 2. Bus/Transit Circulation • Includes bus and other local transit circulators, i.e., shuttles, trolleys, etc. 3. Kiss and Ride (Vehicular Drop-off and Taxi Stands) • Automobile drop-off, taxi queuing, paratransit, etc. 4. Park and Ride • Surface and/or structured parking 5. ADA Requirements • ADA Design Guidelines Arrival Mode Hierarchy Typical Components of Station Areas
    • Typical Components of Station Areas SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 582 (1) The Pedestrian Zone: Nodes and Circulation Network Pedestrians are the most important component in the arrival zone since all users transition to on-foot access as they enter the station and platform area. It is critical that all pedestrian circulation networks are compliant with ADA Accessibility Guidelines as well as Florida Accessibility Guidelines (see Chapter 9, Appendix for the complete ADA Guidelines). The pedestrian zone also needs to provide a sense of place, and fit into the surrounding context. Pedestrian zones consist of a network of street- level pathways interjected by gathering nodes and spaces. A pedestrian node, such as a plaza, is the part of the station area that collects passengers arriving from various modes, i.e., pedestrians on foot, bicyclists, bus or Kiss and Ride drop- off passengers, Park and Ride passengers, and allows them to partake in minimal activities, such as eating and people watching, before proceeding onto the platform for their train. Where possible, it is important that cover be provided for transitioning passengers in walkways and waiting areas. The station area may be ameliorated with supporting retail and other commercial uses that help generate greater foot activity and offer services to the transit user. Outdoor dining areas and cafés generate additional activity which makes the station area more attractive and user-friendly. A focal point, such as a water feature or an art sculpture, not only helps draw attention to the plaza area, but to the station entrance. Shade trees and other landscape elements can also be incorporated into the pedestrian node design, but must not impede the main circulation route people use to enter the station. Trees and landscape beds can provide shaded areas for gathering/seating and frame the space by adding a sense of enclosure, creating a more intimate atmosphere similar to that of a comfortable courtyard. Vegetation can provide shade and help reduce the overall heat- island effect; and porous surfaces increase infiltration rates of stormwater runoff. The following conceptual plans illustrate spatial components that need to be incorporated into the pedestrian zone designs. Water fountains can create interesting and artistic focal pieces for pedestrian plazas and gathering spaces. Source: http://fatherpitt.files.wordpress.com/2009/05/2009- 05-05-mellon-green-02.jpg Typical Components of Station Areas
    • Component Diagram SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 584 Pedestrian Crossing Pedestrian Crossing: The following are elements that create successful street accessibility for both pedestrians and bicyclists: • Streets that encourage slower automobile speeds and safe pedestrian crossings promote a sense of neighborhood intimacy. As a result, they increase the use of foot traffic and bicycling. • Shorter blocks lead to more intersections which create greater design opportunities for safe pedestrian crossings. These elements increase convenience for pedestrians. • Safe pedestrian crossings should include actuated signal crossings and medians that are lit, and flared sidewalks at intersections which are landscaped and do not impede on site visibility requirements. Barrier-free ramps should also be incorporated along all intersections for ADA Accessibility and should comply with ADA Accessibility Guidelines (see Chapter 9 - Appendix). • Shorter turning radii on street corners decrease the street crossing distance for pedestrians and force vehicles to slow down. Overall a safer intersection is created for pedestrians. • Bicycle lanes adjacent to roadways and sidewalks with planting strips adjacent to roadways (wider along arterial streets) should be added to new and existing neighborhood roads. Pedestrian Crosswalk typical Pedestrian crosswalk with special paving
    • Component Diagram SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 5 85 Sidewalk Pedestrian Sidewalks: The station design should focus on prioritizing pedestrian connections into the station site by ensuring that sidewalks from neighboring areas are continuous, and offer direct access into the station area and the platform. Sidewalks should also offer a clear network of connectivity to origination and destination areas within the station’s contextual area such as neighborhoods, employment centers, open spaces/parks, civic buildings, etc. Sidewalks should range between 6’ and 12’ in width depending on the station context and volume of users. For example, a City Center Station should have sidewalks with a minimum width of 12’ to support larger volumes of passengers that would access the station on foot versus a smaller Neighborhood Station that can support narrower sidewalk widths. Following are general guidelines for sidewalk design: • Minimum width of 6’-0” • Vertical Clearance: 8’-0” • Paths should be highly visible • Paths to be planned to concentrate pedestrian egress. Concentrate multiple pathways to a single exit (see and be seen). • Minimize unnecessary changes in direction and avoid dead-end paths • Where possible, provide connections to surrounding streets without crossing parking areas • Mid-block crossings can be used (with appropriate design and safety measures) when intersections are spaced more than 400’ apart • Maximum walking distances to station entrance: • a. 500’ from bus bay b. 600’ pick-up/drop-off c. 1500’ from parking space (Park and Ride d. 1/4 -1/2 mile to/from major destinations (1/4 mile preferred for South Florida)
    • Component Diagram SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 586 Bicycle Circulation and Bikeways: Bicycle access is integral to transit stations and should be encouraged by providing safe, clear, and convenient access and bicycle parking solutions for transit users who arrive to the transit station on their bicycles. When possible, bicycle circulation should be should be integrated alongside pedestrian sidewalks and roadway surfaces which access station sites. In stations where higher volumes of bicyclists are expected, separate bikeways and bike paths can be planned along with adequate bicycle parking. Bike lanes shall meet all local and state transportation regulations and must be clearly designated and separated from any vehicular-use areas. Bike lanes should be linked to local and regional bike systems where possible and connect to surrounding neighborhoods, open spaces/parks, civic buildings, and other destinations within the area. When possible, varying colors and materials should be used to provide added visual separation. Where vertical circulation is required to access stations and platforms, bicycle “tracks” can be added along stairs making it easier for users to wheel their bicycles up and down. Finally, depending on the transit mode chosen, allowances should made (i.e. an onboard bicycle program) to allow users to take their bikes onto the transit system. Bicycle Circulation Bicycle Parking: Racks, Lockers, and Stations A Bicycle Parking administration program can be initiated for the SFECC Transit system to help assess and determine appropriate solutions, pricing, and other policies related to bicycle parking per individual station needs. The program can also help determine amount of bicycle parking offered at each station (which can range from 5%-10% of automobile parking provided). At a minimum bike racks should be located at station entrances, and their placement should not impede the pedestrian traffic entering and exiting the platform. Bike racks should be located in high-use and visible areas to discourage theft and vandalism. Once bikes are locked and secure, the rider can pass through the pedestrian node toward the station entrance. Bike rack designs should all complement the architectural surroundings as well as other thematic site elements. As demand permits with higher-volume stations, bike lockers can be located at station sites alongside entrance areas in lieu of bike racks. Bike lockers can be keyed or electronic and can be offered in sheds that provide additional cover and shelter. Once again, bicycle lockers and shed should be located in high-visibility areaas or alongside pedestrian circulation routes to discourage theft and vandalism. CANOPY WITH SUPPORT COLUMNS Bike Rack Area Typical Plan Layout Chicago’s Millenium Park Bike Station offers lockers, showers, and bike repairs in addition to secure bike parking. Source: http://www.naparstek.com/uploaded_images/bikesta- tioninside-759627.jpgPlaza-01.JPG
    • Component Diagram SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 5 87 Greenways Greenway Typical Section Greenways and Rail-with-Trail (RWT): Rail-with-Trail (RWT) describes any shared use path, or other trail located on or directly adjacent to an active railroad corridor. These pedestrian/ bicycle paths are physically separated from motorized vehicular traffic by an open space or barrier and generally run parallel to an existing railway. Similarly, greenway systems can also utilize, but are not limited to, railroad ROWs. They can include canal and wide-road ROWs, utility easements and waterways. Greenways and RWT create county-wide and/or regional networks of safe, clean, equestrian, bike and pedestrian trails that connect neighborhoods, parks and recreation areas, cultural and historic sites, schools and businesses. A well-designed RWT can bring numerous benefits to communities and railroads alike. Working closely with transit agencies, railroad companies and other stakeholders, is crucial to a successful RWT. Limiting new and/or eliminating at-grade trail-rail crossings, setting the trail back as far as possible from tracks, and providing physical separation through fencing, vertical distance, vegetation, and/ or drainage ditches can help create a well-designed trail. At high volume and density transit station, bicycle stations can be provided with an attendant who ensures secure bicycle parking. Bicycle stations can also offer bicycle repairs and rentals along with other amenities such as showers and lockers. Bicycle rental programs such as Lyon’s “velo-v” offer unique infrastructural bike programs that like bicyclists to 340 rental stations and over 4000 bikes also offer innovative transit link solutions that are sustainable and serve a wider group of users. In Lyon, “Each bicycle can be picked up from one station and dropped off at the other, and once you are a “velo v” member, if your trip between stations is less than 30 minutes, the trip is free.”1 . Portland, Oregon also offers a similar innovative free bicycle program called “Ugly Bikes” where users can borrow and return a bicycle for others to use. Bike rental programs can be offered at key transit stations to assist in mode transfers between the station and the user’s final destination. 1. Source: http://theirearth.com/.../lyon-france-bicycle-rental
    • STATIONPLATFORMWITHCANOPY1 LOCALROAD2 GREENWAYPEDESTRIANPATH3 SECURITYFENCE4 FECROW5 1 4 4 WIDTH VARIES PLATFORM&STATIONENTRANCE66 FEC (100’ WIDTH) SHARED CORRIDOR PEDESTRIAN/BIKECIRCULATION 3 GREENWAYLEGEND 2 1 3 1LOCALROAD2 GREENWAYPEDESTRIANPATH3 SECURITYFENCE4 FECROW5 PEDESTRIAN/BIKECIRCULATION GREENWAYLEGEND 5 STATIONPLATFORMWITHCANOPY1 LOCALROAD2 GREENWAYPEDESTRIANPATH3 SECURITYFENCE4 FECROW5 1 4 4 WIDTH VARIES PLATFORM&STATIONENTRANCE66 FEC (100’ WIDTH) SHARED CORRIDOR PEDESTRIAN/BIKECIRCULATION 3 GREENWAYLEGEND 2 1 3 1LOCALROAD2 GREENWAYPEDESTRIANPATH3 SECURITYFENCE4 FECROW5 PEDESTRIAN/BIKECIRCULATION GREENWAYLEGEND 5 STATION PLATFORM WITH CANOPY1 LOCAL ROAD2 GREENWAY PEDESTRIAN PATH3 SECURITY FENCE4 FEC ROW5 4 WIDTHVARIES PLATFORM & STATION ENTRANCE66 FEC(100’WIDTH) SHAREDCORRIDOR PEDESTRIAN / BIKE CIRCULATION 3 GREENWAY LEGEND 2 STATION PLATFORM WITH CANOPY1 LOCAL ROAD2 GREENWAY PEDESTRIAN PATH3 SECURITY FENCE4 FEC ROW5 4 WIDTHVARIES PLATFORM & STATION ENTRANCE66 FEC(100’WIDTH) SHAREDCORRIDOR PEDESTRIAN / BIKE CIRCULATION 3 GREENWAY LEGEND 2 SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 588 Component Diagram Greenways Greenway Diagram 1 Outside of 100’ ROW SFECC Greenways: The corridor also offers the opportunity to create a continuous “greenway” that can be developed to incorporate a walking and biking trail with native plantings (depending on track layout and available ROW width). Shrubs and canopy can provide a shield from the rail corridor, and extend greenway connections to the surrounding context. In all areas where the existing FEC rail corridor has space to accommodate a greenway, the track ROW must be separated by a minimum four-foot (4’) chain link fence from the greenway. The following diagrams show how greenways can be incorporated in a variety of scenarios along the FEC corridor with pedestrian/bicycle trails. They can: • Be incorporated into many local city land- use plans • Be part of larger East Coast Greenways • Provide a safe alternate route for commuters • Connect neighborhoods to schools, shopping centers, cultural sites, employment centers and recreation areas FEC 100’ shared ROW
    • Typical Components of Station Areas SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 590 (2) The Bus Drop-off In terms of accessibility, after pedestrian circulation, bus/transit circulation is given priority. Bus Drop- offs, located at major employment centers or in collaboration with Park and Rides, serve as major access points as they carry a larger volume of users at scheduled times (based on bus schedules). It is important to distinguish between the Kiss and Ride/vehicular drop-off and bus drop-off because they serve two (2) separate users. Bus drop-off areas should be given access priority often by implementation of a loop road (in larger stations such as Park and Rides and large employment centers), and should be located in closer proximity to the station entrance area. Bus drop-off areas should be of adequate size for one (1) to two (2) bus lengths at a minimum (more depending on per-station and site-specific needs), and not allow bus queuing to impede pedestrian flow at station entrances. Where possible, pedestrian waiting areas and connections between bus drop-off platforms and the station should be covered with overhead canopy to protect passengers from the elements (rain, sun, etc.). Following are additional considerations when planning bus access and circulation into station areas. • One- (1) way counter clockwise loop bus lane circulation is preferable. Two- (2) way circulation should be avoided. • Lanes for bus storage should be located in proximity and within view of the bus bays to allow layover buses to move to their assigned locations. • Center-island bus bays to be used when there are significant bus-to-bus transfers. A central- median corridor can be utilited to accommodate sidewalks that extend from the bus drop-off areas to the station area. In high-intensity areas, access sidewalks can be moved outside of bus circulation areas. The median area also has an opportunity for the implementation of sustainable green spaces with stormwater and runoff catchment/ treatment areas such as bio-swales and/or retention ponds. • When possible, bus platforms should be covered with a continuous canopy to the station entrance. Connecting walkways should comply with all ADA Accessibility Guidelines and provide barrier-free circulation. • Pedestrian crossings across bus lane(s) should be avoided. If crossings are unavoidable they should be located at the end of the bus staging areas. Vertical circulation elements such as pedestrian bridges can also be used to reduce conflicts between buses and passengers. • Appropriate signage, lighting, and landscape treatments help make the transfer experience more seamless, safe, and enjoyable. • Where loop roads are implemented into bus drop-offs, various layout modifications can utilized based on specific site conditions. The number of drop-off stalls can also vary depending on specific site needs. In the following scenarios, a saw-tooth layout is depicted for bus pull in/drop-off areas (right- side loading/unloading bus vehicles). The following illustrate spatial components that need to be incorporated into the bus drop-off designs. Typical Components of Station Areas
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 5 91 Bus Drop-Off Diagram Bus Drop-Off Diagram (Alternative) Depending on station sites and requirements, bus drop-off areas can be integrated into the station site or along existing roadways. The diagram above shows a major bus drop-off area that uses the “double-bay” saw-tooth configuration. Pedestrian platforms connect passengers from the drop-off location to the station. typical Component Diagram Bus Drop-off PEDESTRIAN WALKWAY BUS PARKING BAY SECURITY FENCE PEDESTRIAN CROSSING WITH SPECIAL PAVING BUS PLATFORM BUS TRAVEL LANE BUS TRAVEL LANE 6 KISS & RIDE7 7 66 4 4 3 2 BUS DROP-OFF/WAITING AREA5 2 2 1 1 1 55’ R APPROX. 500’ 35’ R 4 PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION 22 TO STATION POTENTIAL CANOPY EXTENSION 3 5 5 COVERED PEDESTRIAN WALKWAY BUS PARKING BAY RAIN GARDEN/BIO-SWALE BUS WAITING LANE BUS PLATFORM BUS TRAVEL LANE BUS TRAVEL LANE 6 6 6 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 1 55’ R APPROX. 400’ TO STATION 35’ R 35’ R 4 1 PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION
    • Typical Components of Station Areas SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 592 (3) The Vehicular Drop-off: Kiss and Ride In terms of accessibility, following pedestrian and bus/transit circulation, Kiss and Ride is given priority. Vehicular drop-offs function similarly to bus drop-offs; however, they cater to smaller- capacity vehicles such as cars, vans, taxi cabs and shuttles, etc. Therefore, Kiss and Ride areas should not be located farther than 600 feet from the station and platform area. Vehicular drop-off facilities can be incorporated along streets as simple pull-in facilities or as loop roads with short- term parking. Kiss and Ride facilities typically include areas for taxi cabs and shuttle queuing areas for vehicles waiting to pick up or drop off passengers. The automobile drop-off should allow for stacking of two (2) to three (3) cars, and should not allow for automobile queuing to impede pedestrian flow toward the station platform entrance. In larger- volume stations, taxi queuing and shuttle drop-off areas (paratransit vehicles) can also be provided adjacent to platform areas and in close proximity to the station entrance area. Taxi stands should be separate from vehicular drop-off areas in larger-volume stations to accommodate efficient passenger transfers. Pedestrian circulation should be separate from drop-off areas or be provided in such a way as to reduce any vehicular and/or pedestrian conflicts. Special paving can be used to highlight pedestrian crosswalks and the connections between the station and short-term parking lots. Evenly spaced bollards, or a security fence, can also be used for added separation between pedestrian and vehicular areas increasing passengers’ safety while directing passengers toward the station entrance. Landscaped, or green, buffers can be used to provide additional separation between the drop-off area or access road, and between the loop road and short-term parking area. Covered canopy or shade trees should line the edge of the passenger and taxi drop-off area, providing shade and weather protection for passengers waiting for pick up. Where space restrictions exist, tree grates can be employed, in more urban areas, to provide barrier- free connections between the drop-off areas and the transit station and platform area. The following illustrate spatial components that need to be incorporated into the Kiss and Ride designs. Typical Components of Station Areas
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 5 93 Kiss and Ride areas are typically located along roadways as pull-off bays where vehicles can stop temporarily either to drop off or pick up passengers. The diagram above illustrates a Kiss and Ride area dedicated for short-term parking and taxi queuing. Kiss and Ride with Oon-street Vehicular Drop-off Typical Section Kiss and Ride Diagram with Short Term Parking typical Component Diagram POTENTIAL CANOPY EXTENSION TO STATION Kiss and Ride PEDESTRIAN CROSSWALK TAXI WAITING AREA PASSENGER DROP-OFF AREA VEGETATIVE BUFFER SHORT-TERM PARKING ADA ACCESSIBLE PARKING 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 SECURITY FENCE7 ENTRY / DIRECTIONAL SIGNAGE8 8 8 77 3 2 2 2 1 PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION TO STATION 1 TO PARKING COVERED WAITING AREA9 9
    • Typical Components of Station Areas SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 594 (4) Park and Ride: In terms of accessibility, following pedestrian, bus/ transit, and Kiss and Ride circulation, Park and Ride is given final priority. Vehicular drop-offs function similarly to bus drop-offs. Located farthest from the station, the Park and Ride component allows transit users to park and have direct pedestrian access to the station entrance within a maximum of 1500’. The surface lot or structured parking facility should circulate vehicles in an efficient and logical manner throughout without dead-end parking. Structured parking is more likely to occur in the SFECC corridor since little land is available for large surface parking lots. These parking structures can function as multistory and multi-use buildings, or as stand-alone structures. Liner buildings or green walls should be encouraged to prevent blank walls from being constructed adjacent to pedestrian walkways. In addition, parking garages should be set back from street fronts and aligned behind buildings, especially at ground level. This can reduce the visual scale and mass of the structure while also providing shade onto sidewalks. Elevated pedestrian crosswalks, or catwalks, can also be employed from parking structures directly into station areas in order to reduce pedestrian and vehicular conflicts. Clearly distinguishable areas should be provided for pedestrian crosswalks, and conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles should be kept to a minimum. Variable special paving materials and applications can further aid the visibility of pedestrian crosswalk areas. Where possible, all pedestrians waiting and connecting walkways to the station should be covered. Most municipalities and regulatory agencies already have landscape requirements for off-street parking areas that should be complied with at a minimum. Creating green spaces within a large surface lot is critical because they reduce ‘heat islands’ within the South Florida climate, and increase permeable surfaces while decreasing runoff volume. Planting medians can implement other sustainable and best management principles for stormwater management such as green roofs, rain gardens, bio-swales, and retention/detention areas. In addition to the use of shade trees, pervious paving materials with a high solar reflectance index (SRI) can also help diminish the heat-island effect and provide additional comfort and safety to the users of the Park and Ride facility. Where structured parking is employed, green roofs and walls can help insulate and reduce heat-island surfaces. Solar panels on roofs can also provide additional shade to parked vehicles. The following illustrate spatial components that need to be incorporated into the Park and Ride designs. Typical Components of Station Areas
    • SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 596 Component Diagram Parking: Parking lot layout and dimensions, including appropriate turning radii (typically between 30’- 35’ outside curb radius), should follow precedent municipal/agency ordinance requirements, or the minimum requirements listed below (whichever is more stringent). In addition, it is also necessary to comply with ADA accessibility guidelines and federal regulations. Passengers with disabilities should not be required to cross traffic lanes. Parking should be provided per ADA regulations for passengers with disabilities closest to the station platform entrance. Where possible, covered canopy connections, such as awnings on adjacent buildings, should be provided between parking areas and the station. Preferred parking will also be offered to car pool and van pool users to encourage sustainable vehicular use. The following guidelines are from Amtrak Station Program and Planning - Standards and Guidelines • Standard 90-degree, 9’x19’ parking stalls should be used for both long- and short- term parking • Parking structures (garage column spacing) should be arranged to provide clearance of aisles for vehicle maneuvering • Structured parking should allow for an average of 350-400 square gross feet of floor area per vehicle • Surface parking averages 330-350 square feet of surface area per vehicle including maneuver space, circulation space and access and parking control Emergency Vehicular Access: Emergency access (fire and ambulance) is critical and must be provided at all station areas and Park and Ride facilities. Roadway circulation within the parking lot configuration must have ample radii (typically between 45’-50’ outside curb radius for a fire truck with ladder) to allow fire truck access to the station. Surface Parking Lot
    • Typical Components of Station Areas SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 598 (5) ADA Requirements: The American Disabilities Act (ADA) guidelines and design criteria are the governing authority for accessibility requirements and compliance. The following general requirements and diagrams are from the ADA Design Guidelines. For the complete guidelines, please refer to Chapter 9 - Appendix. Features that improve accessibility for transit users with disabilities (as specified by the Americans with Disabiliites Act) need to be incorporated into station design. These include:1 • Elevators or ramps • Handrails on ramps and stairs • Large-print and tactile-Braille signs • Audio and visual information systems • Accessible station booth windows • Accessible ticket vending machines • Accessible service-entry gates at subway stations • Platform-edge warning strips • Platform gap modifications or bridge plates to reduce or eliminate the gap between trains and platforms • Telephones at an accessible height with volume control, and text telephones (TTYs) • Accessible restrooms at commuter rail stations with restrooms (not all station buildings have restrooms) 1 MTA Guide to Accessible Transit, http://www.mta.info/ mta/ada/ The following guidelines describe ADA guidelines specific to rail transit (Per Federal ADA and Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines Section 810.5-810.10, published in June 2004). 810.5.1. Rail Platforms shall not exceed a slope of 1:48 in all directions (Exception: Where platforms serve vehicles operating on existing track or track laid in existing roadway, the slope of the platform parallel to the track shall be permitted to be equal to the slope (grade) of the roadway or existing track.) 810.5.2. Detectable Warnings: Platform boarding edges not protected by platform screens or guards shall have detectable warnings complying with 705 along the full length of the public use area of the platform. 810.5.3. Platform and Vehicle Floor Coordination: Station platforms shall be positioned to coordinate with vehicles in accordance with the applicable requirements of 36 CFR Part 1192. Low level platforms shall be 8 inches (205 mm) minimum above top of rail. (Exception: Where vehicles are boarded from sidewalks or street level, low-level platforms shall be permitted to be less than 8 inches (205 mm). 810.6. Rail Station Signs: Rail Station Signs shall comply with the following: (Exception: Signs shall not be required to comply with 810.6.1 and 810.6.2 where audible signs are remotely transmitted to hand-held receivers, or are user- or proximity- actuated. 810.6.1 Entrances. Where signs identify a station or its entrance, at least one sign at each entrance shall comply with 703.2 and shall be placed in uniform locations to the maximum extent practicable. Where signs identify a station that has no defined entrance, at least one sign shall comply with 703.2 and shall be placed in a central location. 810.6.2 Routes and Destinations. Lists of stations, routes and destinations served by the Figure 705.1: Detectable Warnings Size and Spacing of Truncated Domes Typical Components of Station Areas
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 5 99 station which are located on boarding areas, platforms, or mezzanines shall comply with 703.5. At least one tactile sign identifying the specific station and complying with 703.2 shall be provided on each platform or boarding area. Signs covered by this requirement shall, to the maximum extent practicable, be placed in uniform locations within the system. (Exception: Where sign space is limited, characters shall not be required to exceed 3 inches [75 mm].) Advisory 810.5.3 Platform and Vehicle Floor Coordination. The height and position of a platform must be coordinated with the floor of the vehicles it serves to minimize the vertical and horizontal gaps, in accordance with the ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Transportation Vehicles (36 CFR Part 1192). The vehicle guidelines, divided by bus, van, light rail, rapid rail, commuter rail, intercity rail, are available at www.access-board.gov. The preferred alignment is a high platform, level with the vehicle floor. In some cases, the vehicle guidelines permit use of a low platform in conjunction with a lift or ramp. Most such low platforms must have a minimum height of eight inches above the top of the rail. Some vehicles are designed to be boarded from a street or the sidewalk along the street and the exception permits such boarding areas to be less than eight inches high. Advisory 810.6 Rail Station Signs Exception. Emerging technologies such as an audible sign system using infrared transmitters and receivers may provide greater accessibility in the transit environment than traditional Braille and raised letter signs. The transmitters are placed on or next to print signs and transmit their information to an infrared receiver that is held by a person. By scanning an area, the person will hear the sign. This means that sign can be placed well out of reach of Braille readers, even on parapet walls and on walls beyond barriers. Additionally, such signs can be used to provide wayfinding information that cannot be efficiently conveyed on Braille signs. 810.6.3 Station Names. Stations covered by this section shall have identification signs complying with 703.5. Signs shall be clearly visible and within the sight lines of standing and sitting passengers from within the vehicle on both sides when not obstructed by another vehicle. 810.7 Public Address Systems. Where public address systems convey audible information to the public, the same or equivalent information shall be provided in a visual format. 810.8 Clocks. Where clocks are provided for use by the public, the clock face shall be uncluttered so that its elements are clearly visible. Hands, numerals and digits shall contrast with the background either light- on-dark or dark-on-light. Where clocks are installed overhead, numerals and digits shall comply with 703.5. 810.9 Escalators. Where provided, escalators shall comply with the sections and of ASME A17.1 (incorporated by reference, see “Referenced Standards” in Chapter 1) and shall have a clear width of 32 inches (815 mm) minimum. (Exception: Existing escalators in key stations shall not be required to comply with 810.9.) ADA Accessible Transit Technology. Source: http://www.nmrailrunner.com/Wheelchair%20Photo. jpg Component Diagram ADA Requirements
    • Typical Components of Station Areas SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 5100 Other transit and site-related ADA guidelines include, but are not limited to, the following: (Complete guidelines can be found in Chapter 9- Appendix): • Detectable warning strips (refer to section 705 of the Federal ADA and Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines in Chapter 9 - Appendix for complete guidelines) will contrast visually with adjacent walking surfaces either light- on-dark, or dark-on-light and shall be 24 inches wide and shall extend the full length of the public use areas of the platform • ADA accessible parking stalls should be no more than 100’ from building entries • Accessible walkways should consist of closed loops rather than dead ends • Any ramp that is placed within the system should have a 1:16 slope where possible with landings every 30’ • Hand railing heights for outdoor ramps typically range from 30” to 34’’. The railing ends should extend beyond the top and bottom ramp by 12” to 18”. • Passenger waiting areas will accomodate wheelchair spaces. Benches will have seats that are a minimum of 42” long; a minimum of 20” deep and a maximum of 24” deep. The top of the bench seat surface should be 17” minimum and 19” maximum above the finish floor or ground. Ramps Typical Section Walkways Typical Section 810.10 Track Crossings. Where a circulation path serving boarding platforms crosses tracks, it shall comply with 402. (Exception: Openings for wheel flanges shall be permitted to be 2½ inches [64 mm] maximum.) Figure 810.10 (Exception) Track Crossings Typical Components of Station Areas Component Diagram ADA Requirements
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 5 101 Parking Typical Section Telephone Access Typical Section Handrails Typical Section
    • Typical Components of Station Areas SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 5102 1. Station Zone • • Restrooms • Ticketing • Waiting area • Concessions 2. Platform/Track • Side platform • Center platform • Access • Amenity • Platform crossing Travel Zone: The “Arrival Zone” and access modes lead to the station and platform area which funnels the user into the transit experience. Here the user becomes a passenger waiting to board the transit system. While arrival modes may vary, the ultimate goal is for a passenger to reach his/her destination which can be accessed via the station platform. Therefore, the station and platform become main components of the travel zone. After understanding the components of the arrival and travel zone, it is important to recognize both work together to provide a seamless passage to the users’ ultimate destination. The following pages describe the components of the travel zone in greater detail. Typical Components of Station Areas
    • Typical Components of Station Areas SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 5104 (1) The Station: The station is the first of two (2) components within the travel zone, giving priority to the pedestrian circulation within and around the area. The term ‘Station’ often refers to the entire transit experience at a particular stop that facilitates access and use of the transit system. Depending on density and volume (case-by-case scenario) the station area could include a station building that serves as the gateway between the arrival area and the travel zone or it could simply be a centralized transitional space. Station Building: The main function of the station building area is that it spatially funnels people from surrounding access routes and pedestrian gathering areas through a secure checkpoint with a ticket booth or machine, on to the platform. If possible, restroom facilities should be connected to the station and platform area with a semi-covered walkway or located in a structure attached directly to the station and platform area. Architecturally, there is an opportunity for the station to become a focal point to the station area and the surrounding urban context. Architectural variety and articulation of building facades can add to the public realm experience, and aid in orienting users toward the station platform entrance. In major community and urban centers, the station building often embodies elements of iconic architecture that give character and identity to not only the station, but also its surrounding community and context. Within less dense environments and lower-volume stations, functions of the station, such as ticket sales and amenities (snack vending machines), often are incorporated into the platform area itself and reduce the need for additional building structures. The following illustrate spatial components that need to be incorporated into the Station zone designs. American Plaza in San Diego is an example of a transit station built into an existing structure. Source: Photo (Left): http://washaw.files.wordpress.com/2008/12/__america_plaza.jpg Photo (Right): http://www.urbanrail.net/am/sdie/OR-America-Plaza-01.JPG Typical Components of Station Areas
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 5 105 STATION TOWER TICKET / INFORMATION SEMI-COVERED PEDESTRIAN CORRIDOR COVERED BIKE RACKS AND STORAGECOURTYARD WITH SEATINGMAIN ENTRY TO STATION 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 APPROX. 50-60’ Structure and Engineering: Structure and building systems (plumbing, HVAC, MEP, fire and safety, etc.), including appropriate footings and load calculations, should be completed by registered architect and engineer respectively. Aesthetics should be an important consideration along with life-cycle cost effectiveness and maintenance considerations. Station Configuration Typical elevation Station Layout Component Diagram
    • SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 5106 Component Diagram Station Layout Support Buildings: Each station is designed with the intention that future buildings, if necessary, will follow the set design criteria. The need for additional services may require service buildings to be provided. Supporting buildings and structures should integrate into the overall station design and character and also employ strategies that are environmentally sustainable. These areas may include: Restrooms: Restrooms will be provided for employees and transit users at most stations (may be offered according to need at smaller Neighborhood Stations or as a joint facility with surrounding development). Restrooms will be fully accessible and meet all ADA requirements as to size and fixture requirements. Single-occupancy restrooms require approximately 36 square feet. In additional, restrooms will have: • ADA-accessible toilet and grab bars (number of stalls determined by station volume) • ADA-accessible lavatory and mirror • Slip-resistant floor tile and fully tiled walls • Standard accessories • Floor drain Restrooms should also incorporate sustainable plumbing solutions, i.e., solar water heating, low-flow fixtures, recycled water (rainwater or greywater), non-potable water supplies, and motion-sensor plumbing and lighting fixtures to save on water and electricity costs. Ticketing Booth: As needed, and possibly in conjunction with Tri-Rail, Amtrak, Metro Rail or other intermodal facilities, ticket offices, staffed by SFECC employees, must meet the following requirements: • Area of approximately 300 square feet • Handicapped accessible counters (34” height maximum and compliance with ADA requirements for reach and projections) • Bullet-resistant glazing and window frames with security and storm shutters • Bullet-resistant speakers • Bullet-resistant doors, frames, and hardware with access for employees only • Video surveillance equipment • Weapon-resistant deal trays • Window visibility of platform areas and approaching trains • Secure storage for money and tickets • Storage room for information, schedules, tickets, and office supplies • Telephone and future information system outlets • Information racks for literature, maps, and schedules • Reinforced masonry walls and vandal-resistant ceilings • Potential luggage check-in/transfer area • Self-serve ticket vending machines Interior Waiting Spaces: Future stations may offer interior waiting spaces, possibly in conjunction with Tri-Rail, Amtrak, Metro Rail or other intermodal facilities, where applicable. These areas require 14-15 square feet per passenger. Public restrooms also need to be provided.
    • GROUND FLOOR GROUND FLOOR 4 CONCESSION AREARESTROOMS 5 - Space Requirements: minimums 400 SF - Space Requirements: Single-occupancy 36 SF ENTRY GROUND FLOOR 2 1 3 TICKETING & LOBBY INTERIOR WAITING ROOMS ROOFING & ICON - Space Requirements: minimums 300 SF - Space Requirements: 15 SF per passengers (plus provide public restrooms) TO PLATFORM GROUND FLOOR SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 5 107 Station Building Components Where appropriate, station buildings can be incorporated into the travel zone. Integrated station buildings (with supporting elements such as interior waiting rooms, concesssions, etc.) will typically occur at larger-volume stations or with intermodal stations that offer connections to other local and regional transit connectors (Amtrak). Typical Section
    • SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 5108 Component Diagram Station Layout Concessions: Concession buildings may be desirable features in many or all future stations as a service to commuters and as a potential source of income. Anticipated space will be leased to one (1) or more concession operators who will provide finishes and equipment as deemed necessary. Approval from the SFECC is required. Ticketing services may be combined with concession areas to encourage better use. Typical program elements for concession areas include: • Approximately 400 square feet • Handicap-accessible counters • Vandal-resistant windows with both security and storm shutters • Vandal-resistant ceiling • Secure access for employees • Employee access to restrooms • Floor drain • Electric water heater, hand sink and three- (3) compartment sink with hot and cold water • Separate grease waste line and grease interceptor from three- (3) compartment sink and floor drains • Telephone and communication outlets • Fire safety equipment • Separate electric meter and panel • Adequate interior and security lighting Interior waiting rooms can be elaborate and well- designed spaces such as this particular space at Union Station in Los Angeles. Source: http://frenchybutchic.blogspot.com/2008/11/great- los-angeles-walk-2008.html Integrated station ticketing facilities and waiting area comprise the interior of Charlottesville’s new transit center. Source: http://www.ecosafetyproducts.com/Charlottesville- Transit-Center-s/435.htm
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 5 109 Amtrak “Medium” Station Layout Typical Layout Station Building Type Hierarchy: Station building types can vary from station to station. However, using Amtrak Guidelines on typical layouts for different stations that vary by capacity and volume, the following building types were determined for the SFECC Transit System: Station A: Based on the layout for Amtrak’s “Medium” sized stations, Station Type A would be the typical station model for larger anchor stations such as City Center and Airport/Seaport Stations. These stations would normally handle passenger capacity of 50-175 passengers per peak hour and include programmed space for interior waiting rooms with small concessions, i.e., vending machines, a staffed ticket room/office, baggage room, and restrooms. Station B: The second station layout would apply to smaller key stations such as the Town Center, and Regional Park and Ride, as well as the Employment Station. These stations typically handle between 24-75 passengers per peak hour (per Amtrak’s “Small” Station Layout) and would include an interior waiting area, storage room, and restrooms. Station C: Finally, the remainder of the station types, Neighborhood and Local Park and Ride, would have station layouts based on Amtrak’s “Basic” Station Layout and would basically include a shelter for passengers which could house the ticket kiosk, vending machines, and restrooms. In some low- volume stations, restrooms may be designed as a shared facility with adjacent developments. Amtrak “Small” Station Layout Typical Layout
    • Typical Components of Station Areas SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 5110 (2) The Platform: The station area transitions directly onto the platform which is usually the area where passengers wait to board the transit system and the area where they also enter as they get off the transit system. The platform, depending on the chosen mode, variable system requirements (track configurations, service requirements, etc.) and site-specific conditions can either be designed as a side platform or a central platform. Typically, platforms should be 500’ in length for commuter rails (616’ for elevated Rapid Rail platforms, and 300’ for LRT) and 25’ wide for center platforms and 20’ for side platforms. (30’ for elevated center platforms) Both center and side platform configurations should include a central gathering area that contains the station’s core facilities. For example, in the case where space restrictions do not allow a separate station building that transitions the arrival areas into the travel zone, the central platform can house ticket kiosks where passengers can obtain information on the system, schedule, and destinations, etc, as well as purchase tickets. Depending on the size of the station and area, the center platform could also contain other public amenities such as restrooms, vending machines, newspaper stands, customer information desk, etc. In order to make the central amenities a focal point, different architectural, signage, and paving features, can be employed to direct attention to the central space and make it more easily recognizable to users. Depending of volume and site-specific conditions, a completely covered platform offers protection from the rain and the shade, and most likely will be used within dense urban areas which must accommodate a high volume of riders. At a minimum, canopy coverage should be provided in areas where vertical circulation elements such as stairs, elevators and escalators are provided for cross-circulation between platforms. In addition, based on the South Florida climate, canopy coverage should be considered for amenity access areas and user facilities such as ticket vending machines, system information maps and electronic signage, and at least fifty percent of the seating areas. Finally, an integral element to the platform area is the track crossing, which allows a passenger to move from one platform to another at grade, and is based upon setbacks and mode of technology. In most stations, pedestrian-grade crossings can be employed outside of the platform area. Special consideration must also be given to the mobility- and sensory-impaired population. Setbacks to pedestrians at grade crossings are determined by the mode that is selected and vary from 30’ for LRT to 100’ for commuter rail transit. While vertical circulation elements, such as stairs/ stairwells, escalators, and elevators, are associated with higher costs for construction and maintenance, they do provide ease of access to the passenger and should be weighed on a case-by-case scenario. The following page illustrates spatial components that need to be incorporated into the platform designs. Typical Components of Station Areas
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 5 111 TrackTrack Track Track20’ Platform 20’ Platform Side Platform Elevation Typical Elevation Track Track Track Track25’ Platform 25’ Platform Center Platform Elevation Typical Elevation Component Diagram Platform Layout
    • 1 2 4 5 2 1 12 11 10 5 3 3 500’ ( FOR COMMUTER RA 20’25’ 500’ ( FOR COMMUTER RA SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 5112 Component Diagram Platform Layout Side Platform (High Volume Station) Plan typical Center Platform Plan Typical Plan
    • SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 5114 Component Diagram Platform Layout Platform Layout: Depending on the chosen modal technology, transit operation will provide ADA access to those with disabilities to enter and exit the platform with ease. Platform design as well as the design of handicapped-accessible ramps will comply with ADA accessibility guidelines and standards. Dimensions: Length: • Minimum 300’ (Light Rail) • Minimum 500’ (Commuter Rail, Bus Rapid Transit, and Regional Bus) • Minimum 616’ (Rapid Rail- Elevated) Width: • Minimum 25’ (Center Platform) • Minimum 20’ (Side Platform) • Minimum 30’ (Rapid Rail - Elevated) • Edge of canopy including gutter will be set back 5’ from edge of the trackside platform. Canopy width will be 20’ wide for a 25’-wide side platform. • The required distance from centerline of the near track to the platform edge will be 5’-1 1/8” • The minimum clearance from edge of platform to face of elevator/stair tower structure will be 20’-0” • The minimum clearance from centerline of nearest outside track to canopy column or post will be 12’-0” • Canopy structure (not including brackets and decoration) will be located a minimum of 10’-4” above platform. Canopy height can extend below the 10’-4” height to maximize protection of passengers from wind-driven rain • Any station element that could be targeted for theft or vandalism (light fixtures, speakers, cameras, etc.) will be located a minimum of 9’ above traveled pathways. The potential to use benches, trash receptacles, etc., to access these elements should also be considered in locating these elements. In addition, horizontal elements (canopy framework, sign units, etc.) that could lend themselves to climbing will also be located 9’ above the platform floor. • In the event of high-level boarding, the design of all platforms will be raised to provide universal access to the train that complies with ADA guidelines. With respect to platform requirements, the ADA and implementing regulations generally provide as follows: • Platforms must be “readily accessible to, and usable by individuals with disabilities, including individuals who use wheelchairs.” • At stations with raised platforms, there may be a gap of no more than 3” horizontal and 5/8” vertical between the platform edge and entrance to the rail car • Where it is not operationally or structurally feasible to meet such gap requirements, assistive boarding devices (ramps or bridge plates, car-borne or platform-mounted lifts, mini-high platforms) are permissible means to accommodate passengers with disabilities. Regulatory approval is not required.
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 5 115 Center Platform - Low Level Boarding Side Platform - High Level Boarding Typical Elevation Typical Elevation 25’ min. 20’ min. Railing 5’ min. 5’ min. 10’-4”min. 4to5’ 8”min 10’-4”min.
    • SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 5116 Component Diagram Platform Structures Roofline Treatments and Materials: Roof pitches will be 4:12 (minimum) or steeper, depending upon the selected roofing materials. Roofing materials, color, and texture will be selected to reinforce architectural style and station character. Materials will also be long-lasting, and require little maintenance. For the collection of potable and recyclable rainwater, the best roof materials are metal, clay, and cement-based. (Note: Roofing containing asbestos, lead, and other toxic materials should not be used where rainwater is being harvested for potable uses.) Roofline design should take advantage of methods to introduce daylight into platform areas through the use of glazing and skylights where appropriate. Solar panels can also be introduced on canopy rooflines as an on-site renewable energy resource to power select electrical operations. Drainage: The canopy must be designed so that rain water is collected and directed near or through columns at appropriate intervals and connected to an underground storm drainage system, collection cistern, or other stormwater management facility (rain garden, detention pond, etc.). Please see Chapter 7, Green Stations for more information on rain-harvesting systems for station sites. Gutters and downspouts will be selected for sturdiness and ease of maintenance Clean outs will be designed to be as inconspicuous as possible. Sight Lines to and from Platform: The train engineer must be able to see down the entire length of the platform for some modes such as Commuter Rail. The train is equipped with mirrors, and the line of sight from either the locomotive down the platform, or the end coach car must be kept clear. This is accomplished by restricting any vertical elements within the sight lines, and/or any light sources that may have a blinding effect on the engineers as they approach the station. Platform Canopy: The canopy constitutes the largest architectural element at each station. The main purpose of the canopy is to protect commuters from the rain, sun and wind. It is apparent that these canopies will become important visual features or “landmarks” throughout South Florida. Platform canopies, along with station buildings, may therefore be helpful both in the establishment of community identity, as well as in the development of a system-wide “image” for the SFECC. “Green” solutions related to platform canopies can be found in Chapter 7, “Green” Stations. DART Light Rail Stations in downtown Dallas, TX.
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 5 117 Shading/Wind Screen and Climate Protection: Due to extreme summers in South Florida, shade, cooling devices, and opaque materials are an extremely important necessity for this system to function properly. Horizontal canopies alone cannot provide the necessary shading and climate protection amenity in the South Florida climate without the provision of the vertical shading and wind structures. Shading for summer low-angle sun by vertical shading elements, especially during evening peak periods, is as important as the shading provided by the horizontal canopies during the hours of 10:00am to 2:00pm. Due to the strength of the sun and constant wind bursts, semi-transparent screens can be employed at key high-volume stations, and must be installed at an angle to allow visibility along both directions of track while seated under the canopy. Over half the platform width should have shading from the vertical sun and wind screens during the hours between 10am to 2pm. Shade canopies or shade structures will be designed to maintain all rail vehicle clearances. Horizontal canopy material will minimize heat radiation onto waiting passengers below. At lower- volume stations, canopy coverage may be broken up to allow segments without canopy cover. Small landscape or other structural elements (trellises, windscreens, art wall, etc.) can be integrated into these areas. Plant material will be selected to ensure platform visibility and required clearance setbacks to the edges of the platforms. Where possible, maximum canopy cover should be encouraged for passenger comfort and safety. DART Light Rail Stations in downtown Dallas, TX. DART Light Rail Stations in downtown Dallas, TX.
    • Component Diagram SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 5118 Platform Access Platform Access: There should be a major control access point where turnstiles can be implemented, simplifying pedestrian circulation and filtering passengers on to platform. Specific architectural elements or icons can be added to the access point entrance to draw attention to the designated theme for the rail corridor. The diagrams on this page show layout options for access areas and circulation related to the platform. 1 3 4 5 5 5 7 8 6 7 PEDESTRIAN ENTRY PATH TICKET VENDING MACHINES2 1 SYSTEM MAP INFORMATION SIGN3 SODA AND SNACK VENDING MACHINES 4 SEATING AREA5 PUBLIC PHONE6 PLATFORM8 CANOPY SUPPORT COLUMNS9 NEWSPAPER BOX7 2 9 9 Site Furnishing Area Typical Plan Platform Concept Typical Concept SEATING AREA PASSENGER CIRCULATION AREA
    • Component Diagram SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 5 119 Platform Amenities Platform Amenities: Each station platform will be a heavily congested area for commuters during peak hours of use during the day. The width ensures pedestrians can safely maneuver on and off the platform. However, to create a safe space for people while they wait for the trains, it is critical to reduce the number of site elements found on the platform. Site elements, such as benches, trash receptacles, and lighting, should be placed on the perimeters of the pedestrian flow, to keep foot traffic efficient. Amenities such as ticket vending machines, pay phones, snack and drink vending machines, drinking water fountains, newspaper/magazine kiosks, and information and ticket offices should be kept close to the access point for passengers for ease of recognition and use. CANOPY SUPPORT COLUMNS1 1 2 2 ADDITIONAL SEATING AREA WITH ADA ACCESSIBLE SEATING LIGHT FIXTURE TRASH RECEPTACLE LANDSCAPE BUFFER 3 4 5 3 4 5 Where space permits, seating areas will be designed alongside the platform and will include benches, trash receptacles, and lighting. These areas allow for the use of larger landscape materials to be integrated into the platform without encumbering platform visibility and clearance setbacks. Seating “nooks” also expand the pedestrian circulation environment and create safe, comfortable and pleasing areas for the waiting commuter. In addition, shade structures, such as trellises could provide additional sun and rain protection. Seating Area Typical Plan
    • SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 5120 Component Diagram Platform Vignette Canopy Platform Tracks (shared Commuter Rail)
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 5 121 Side Platform Layout Typical Layout This vignette depicts a typical side platform layout for a Local Station (Commuter Rail). Optional Central Icon Element at Station Entry ADA Ramp to connect platform to street level
    • SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 5122 Component Diagram Platform Vignette Canopy Platform Track Layout shows Commuter Rail Express Station
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 5 123 Center Platform Typical Layout Typical Layout Optional Vertical Circulation Bridge Connection to Main Station
    • Component Diagram SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 5124 Platform Track Crossing Track Crossings: Depending upon specific technical parameters that would vary with the different station types and mode of technology used, pedestrian track crossings will need to be implemented. Although not optimal, the most inexpensive type of track crossings are at-grade crossings. Each station platform area should incorporate at least one (1) at-grade crossing except in certain instances where overhead pedestrian bridge connections will be implemented. In addition, proper measures must be taken to ensure the safety of users as they cross tracks at-grade. Some of these can include the use of electronic gates that are timed to the transit schedule, warning signage, audible signals and alarms to warn users of oncoming trains. Finally, where possible, vertical circulation such as overhead walkways with elevators for ADA access or underpasses can be employed to reduce conflict areas between pedestrians and the transit system. At-Grade Crossings: At-grade crossings should be clearly marked with appropriate signage as well as comply with ADA requirements. Paving variations may be also be used in addition to signage to help identify the crossing area. Appropriate security requirements will also need to be incorporated to ensure safe crossing for passengers. Vertical Circulation: (only where needed) Overhead walkways from one platform to another may be necessary in the future. These will help minimize on-grade pedestrian traffic across railroad tracks. The minimum clearance inside width of crossover pedestrian bridges is 11 feet. The crossover bridge will be covered and include full elevator/stair towers for accessibility. The overhead crossings will also be significant structures and will provide opportunities for architectural impact upon the urban environment. They should be designed to be consistent with the established theme of the platform and building architecture. A positive stormwater drainage system must be intact to divert stormwater away from passengers and the track rail bed. The objectives of the overhead walkway are as follows: • Provide passengers protection from wind- blown rain (assume rain is falling at a 30 degree angle from the vertical) • Permit visibility of passengers within the enclosure from the outside • Prevent objects larger than 1 ½” in diameter or cross-sectional dimension to pass through Grade crossing at Hollywood’s Tri-Rail Station. Vertical circulation at Hollywood’s Tri-Rail Station shows the use of a pedestrian cross-bridge with esca- lators/stairs, and elevators at either end.
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 5 125 Components Summary Table Design Elements City Center Town Center Neigh- borhood Station Employment Center Local Park and Ride Regional Park and Ride Airport and Sea- port Special Events Pedestrian Crossings x x x x x x x x Pedestrian Sidewalks x x x x x x x x Bikeways (Racks/ Lockers) x x x x x x x x Greenways x x x x x x x x Bus Drop-off x x x x x x x x Vehicular Drop-off/ Kiss and Ride x x x x x x Taxi Queuing Stand (separate from Kiss and Ride) x x Parking x x x x Emergency Vehicular Access x x x x x x x x ADA Accessibility x x x x x x x x ARRIVALZONE Design Elements City Center Town Center Neigh- borhood Station Employment Center Local Park and Ride Regional Park and Ride Airport and Sea- port Special Events Station Building x x x Restrooms x x x* x x x x x Ticketing Booth x x x x x Interior Waiting Spaces x x x x Concessions x x x Platform (Side or Center*) x x x x x x x x Platform Canopy x x x x x x x x Shading/Wind Screen x x x x x x x x At-Grade Crossings x x x x x x x x Vertical Circulation x x* x x x ADA Accessibility x x x x x x x x TRAVELZONE * May be offered on a case-by-case basis (depending on need and volume of passengers/daily use).
    • 6Elements of Design
    • SAFETY & SECURITY CAMERAS PASSENGER SEATING NETWORK INFORMATION TICKET KIOSKREALTIME INFORMATION DISPLAY STATION SIGNAGE 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 Elements of Design SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 6128 The previous chapter described the various components such as access and circulation which form the framework of station areas. This chapter focuses on the ‘building blocks’ or integral elements that compose and unify the basic structure of the component areas. Elements are the various parts of station areas that can be isolated and defined individually. These elements, however, are then applied to become part of the entire structure that forms the transit station. Additional information regarding sustainable ‘Green’ station elements can be found in Chapter 7, Green Stations. Information Systems: One of the most fundamental building blocks of station areas is the various forms of Information Systems that range from signage systems to public address systems and technologies. Information Systems at SFECC stations should communicate information that assures passenger safety and comfort, enhances operations of the station site, and aesthetically complement the theme of the station and surrounding site elements. “The use of consistent Information Systems provides both real and perceived reassurances at all phases of the station experience to passengers, particularly those new to train travel.”1 1 Amtrak Station Program and Planning - Standards and Guidelines: Appendix 1: Information Systems, Version 2.2- March 2008 this graphic represents integral signage and architectural elements of the station platform area.
    • Elements of Design SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 6 129 Signage at SFECC Stations should reflect a recognizable system-wide logo for the SFECC (variations available only through format request to the SFECC), and all sign sizes and lettering styles must comply with ADA Guidelines. Signage as well as audio and visual announcements should be provided in the corridor’s applicable regional languages, such as English and Spanish. A formal ‘Signage and Informations Systems Manual’ should be created to define the aesthetics, composition and application of Information Systems throughout the transit corridor. This manual should be created and managed by the operating entity of the system to ensure consistency and clarity. Any alterations and/or updates to Information Systems and the system logo must be processed and managed by the operating entity. Following are general criteria for the signage systems and aesthetics that can be further detailed in the Signage and Information Systems Manual for the SFECC Transit System. The Signage System for SFECC stations must create visual unity by employing a consistent standard for size, location, typeface, color and materials. The system should also ensure compatibility during implementation, and when the system is expanded, updated and revised. One basic type style and boldness can be chosen for the lettering of all signs at one station. Horizontal lettering is encouraged because it is more readable than vertical type. Lettering should appear in the same general place on all signs, to communicate a consistent graphic system. Graphic devices such as arrows should be consistent among all the signage types. Written messages on signs should be brief and concise. Generally, as few words as possible should be used. Graphic symbols are encouraged in the place of words to increase comprehension. Station identification should be illuminated at night. Major informational and directional signs should be lighted or at least, they should be reflective. In certain scenarios where signage is placed in a soft surface such as a planing area, sign standards should have a hard surface base to reduce grass trimming and potential damage to the signs from lawn mowers or weed trimmers. Low-level planting should be incorporated to hide the sign base; and planting height should also be maintained to ensure visibility of the sign at all times. Signage should be integrated with surrounding site elements wherever possible. When multiple signs exist in one location, they should be integrated into an assembly of signage. In general, signs should be located at critical decision points, and placed to ensure visibility by providing a clear line of vision and approach from all angles.
    • Elements of Design SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 6130 The following is a list of potential signage elements which will help establish the station’s identity. Station Entry Statement: If the location is available, a station entry sign should mark the main entrance. The signage design should be comparative to a planned unit development or subdivision entrance. Also, the signage should identify the authority. In addition to the sign, the landscape component should complement the entry. Station Identification: Each station should have an identification sign visible at the station entrance and from adjacent transportation routes including the transit system corridor. Station identification signage should also incorporate the SFECC Logo. The logo is a graphic element created to link all stations. It will also inform users when they are in the SFECC transit system. Station identification signage should be displayed at opposite ends of the platform canopy. Additionally, station identification should be located on the canopy at intervals and on the platform canopy supports. If a concession building is located at the station, the station identification signage should complement the structure. Informational Signage: Signage should be provided to denote restroom locations, public telephones, bus drop-off areas, Kiss and Ride/vehicular drop-off areas, and other connecting services, etc. Signage should reinforce the signage system for SFECC and support a logical and unified Information Systems palette. Trailblazing Signage: Trailblazing signage should be located on major highways within close proximity to the station locations. Where possible, station names should be included on the highway signage. Exit information should be included from all directions. Once the commuter has exited the highway, signage should be located at each directional decision point. Station locations should be easy to find from any direction once off the highways. Trailblazing signage can also be used in larger stations areas to guide the passenger from remote parking areas or even from a greenway regional trail to the main station area. Trailblazing signage should be coordinated with, and approved by state and local authorities. Other transit/transportation facilities within proximity to the station site can also provide a comprehensive solution to wayfinding for all passengers. Sample sketch of entry signage at a station area.
    • Elements of Design SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 6 131 Electronic Passenger Information Display Systems: (PIDS) Electronic PIDS that use LED technology should be centrally located and provide real-time information to passengers such as the approaching/departing transit number, destination, arrival/departure time, boarding location, and boarding status. Static signage systems can also be employed in central locations displaying system schedule and operation hours. System maps should be provided along the platform at key areas for added reassurance to passengers as they board and disembark from the transit system and move toward their next destination. At high-volume stations, signage can support efficient boarding operations by indicating boarding and exit locations. Regulatory Signage: Regulatory signage at stations will be used to define emergency access, service vehicle areas, ADA-accessible areas, traffic maintenance, etc. Traffic regulatory signage includes changeable banners, flags and structures with a general life expectancy of three (3) months to one (1) year. While the specialty signage itself is changeable, its supports should be designed as permanent fixtures. All locations should incorporate a system-wide map at each station location. This signage will assist the commuter, and direct him/her during transit within the system. These signs should be illuminated, colorful and the identical from station to station. Advertising: Advertising opportunities can be provided at station sites but must follow system-wide implementation procedure as determined by the station system managing authority. Locations for and the application of advertising should follow jurisdictional guidelines and, at a minimum, be controlled and monitored to ensure consistency throughout the system. Source: http://www.forms-surfaces.com/Source: http://www.forms-surfaces. com/ Source: http://www.forms-surfaces.com/
    • Elements of Design SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 6132 Public Address Systems: The use of public address systems is recommended in all SFECC stations and platform areas. “Public announcements are made in a clear, audible and uniform manner to provide train and general information, as well as emergency and security announcements throughout the station facility. The primary goal of a public address system is intelligibility.”1 Where public address systems are employed, ADA Guidelines mandate that the same information can also be conveyed to passengers visually through variable message signage (PIDS), or through other paging systems. In addition, appropriate security and emergency measures such as warning lights, can be incorporated into address systems. Public address system equipment should be vandal-resistant and placement conducive to reaching passengers even in remote locations within the station site (such as platform crossings at platform ends). 1. Amtrak Station Program and Planning- Standards and Guidelines: Appendix 1: Information Systems, Version 2.2- March 2008 Security Systems: There should be Closed Circuit Television Cameras (CCTVs) at each station in all passenger and parking areas to provide security and reduce vandalism. All cameras, equipped with remote pan-tilt zoom control, and stationed a minimum of nine (9) feet above finished floor elevation, must be in accordance with Crime Prevention through Environmental Design guidelines (CPTED). All recording from CCTVs will be stored for up to 30 days. Wireless Internet Technology Access: To ensure that commuters can use their travelling time as productively as possible, wireless internet access will be offered at select high-volume stations. Wi-fi access should be managed, phased and updated regularly to maintain efficiency and applicability to the transit system users. London Underground Station with CCTV Surveil- lance and Public Address systems. Source: http://www.artofthestate.co.uk/photos/ blogger_london_underground.jpg Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/ crime/6082530/1000-CCTV-cameras-to-solve-just- one-crime-Met-Police-admits.html Source: http://interactivespots.com/
    • Elements of Design SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 6 133 Architectural Elements: Style and Character: Architectural elements help develop a ‘sense of place’ for the community. The planning process outlined in Chapter One of these Guidelines, provides a series of steps that will help achieve a successful site layout for the station area; and develop a theme, or style, that will define the station’s character by incorporating architectural detail elements or the use of a common signage style throughout all the stations in the corridor. While some communities may choose to build a station that reflects characteristics and design standards established for the surrounding area, i.e., based on zoning, land development standards and ordinances, etc. others may choose to create unique structures that stand out and become distinct elements within the urban fabric. Architectural elements and structures may be designed within a concept or ‘theme’ that is then carried out in a consistent manner throughout the station area. For example, ‘contemporary’ stations may be designed to fit within an Employment Center Station serving a corporate campus for a technology-related business. Here, the designer should integrate a certain palette of materials and corresponding site furnishings utilized consistently throughout the station area to provide a ‘contemporary’ feel. Iconic train Station in Valencia, Spain. Source: http://www.hickerphoto.com/busy-train- station-valencia-city-spain-europe-13395-pictures. htm Maps and Signage. Source: http://www.scrabble-assoc.com/ images/ Architectural detailing of station areas, however, should follow a set of defined parameters, or guidelines, to ensure they meet the character and intent of the community’s requirements while also remaining part of the overall criteria for the transit system. Therefore, a list of station ‘themes’ that provide guidance on architectural styles and characteristics can be developed for the SFECC Transit System based on the various station areas and communities along the corridor. Other information related to station buildings and support facilities/structures such as concessions, restrooms, etc., are discussed in greater detail in Chapter 5, Station Components. Interior of Bejing’s New South Station by T.P. Farrells. Source: http://www.topboxdesign.com/beijing-south- station-by-tfp-farrells-china/
    • Elements of Design SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 6134 Site Furnishings: Site furnishings play an important role in the overall visual quality of station design. It is important to match all furnishings with the theme and architectural design chosen for the station area. By defining an architectural theme, a ‘family’ of furnishings can be identified for SFECC stations that reinforces the architectural character of the station sites as well as the transit system. A selected palette of furnishings should also be established for the corridor to keep maintenance, replacement, and upkeep costs at a minimum. Site furnishings should be placed in groupings along the perimeter of the platform to ensure unobstructed pedestrian circulation along pedestrian zones such as walkways. Layout of site furnishings should be designed so that pedestrian flow between the plaform and transit tecnology (depending on the selected mode) is not obstructed. Finally, the furnishings should be located to take advantage of activity zones to promote feelings of safety and security among users. Site furnishings should be accessible to and usable by the physically disabled and comply with ADA Accessibility Guidelines. See Chapter 9, Appendix, for a comprehensive look at ADA Accessibility Guidelines. Seating: Seating should be provided at station entrances and along regular intervals on the platform. Seating furnishings, such as free-standing benches, should be scaled appropriately for their spaces. Bench selection should be made to ensure longevity, aesthetic design quality, functionality, and should incorporate elements that might discourage vagrants from sleeping on them (i.e. central arms). Pull-down seating can also be incorporated into vertical elements such as walls and windscreens. These require less space and will allow greater circulation along platform areas. Materials should be of high-grade quality and durable, and finishes should ensure longevity and minimize the likelihood of deterioration. In all platform areas, seating should be placed a minimum of 4’ from the platform outside edge (not trackside edge) to ensure canopy coverage and protection from rain and sun. Seating should also be placed to allow for maximum pedestrian circulation room between the platform and the transit system. Limited seating can be offered on a case-by-case basis at adjoining bus and Kiss and Ride drop-off/waiting areas. Seating area layouts should be designed to offer comfortable waiting spaces under cover and, where appropriate, in open areas. Clustered seating for groups of passengers can also be designed (as space permits) in close association with platform areas. Source: http://www.forms-surfaces.com/ Source: http://www. forms-surfaces.com/ Source: http://www.landscapeforms. com/
    • Elements of Design SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 6 135 Bike Racks, Lockers, and Stations: Bike racks should be located at station entrances, and their placement should not impede on pedestrian traffic entering and exiting the platform. Bike racks should be located in high-use and high- visibility areas to discourage theft and vandalism. Bike rack designs should all compliment the architectural surroundings as well as other thematic site elements. As demand permits, bike lockers can be located at the station site alongside entrance areas in lieu of bike racks. The bike lockers will provide a space for bike riders to store the bicycles within a locker space. Bike lockers are approximately 4’x4’x6’ in size and should be located in proximity to the station entrance. At larger-volume stations with higher pedestrian access volumes, bike racks/ lockers should be located within a structure or under a covered roof environment if possible. At larger stations with greater volume of users with bicycles, bicycle stations can be integrated into the parking system. Here, bikers can store thier bikes with an attendant, have repairs made, or even rent a bicycle. Shower and change rooms can also be offered at key stations where management is available. Finally, electronic keyed access to bike sheds/storage can also be implemented at stations where attendants are not available. Trash Receptacles: Trash receptacles should be located conveniently in all pedestrian gathering spaces, at station entrances, and, where possible, placed near seating areas. They should be designed as permanent features, with specified anchoring requirements per manufacturer instructions. All receptacles must have lids, which are removable, as a means to control unwanted odors. Removable liners should also be included in order to easily empty and clean the interior of the cans. Specified receptacles should be waterproof and designated bins for recyclables, such as glass, paper, and metal/aluminum and are encouraged along central amenity areas and in proximity to seating areas. Source: http://www.landscapeforms.com/ Source: http://www.dero.com/products/
    • Elements of Design SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 6136 Bollards: Bollards are designed to be both functional and aesthetically pleasing; however, their main purpose is to discourage vehicular intrusion into a pedestrian area. Bollard design should be consistent with the site furnishings at the station and compatible with the architectural theme for the station site. Materials for the bollards should be strong enough to withstand the force of a vehicle, and must be weather resistant. Planters/Flower Pots: Planters can visually enhance a space and provide landscape relief on hardscape surfaces. Seat walls can also be incorporated into planter wall edges and should be designed to ensure comfort and safety for the user. All planters should be waterproofed and irrigation/drainage should be provided for planters as well as hose bibs in case of irrigation failure. Planters should be constructed of materials that are compatible with their surroundings and help reinforce the architectural theme of the station area. Plant pots, or decorative urns, should be of significant size and seem heavy in appearance to discourage vandalism and theft. Pots can be bolted to pavements through their drain holes, or looped with a cable tied to a permanent object for security. When cables are employed, they should be concealed and out of sight from pedestrian paths and use areas. A variety of plant material can be incorporated into planters and pots depending on their placement, lighting levels, and desired aesthetic, as well as maintenance levels. See Plant Species in the landscape material section, in Chapter 6. Source: http://www.landscapeforms.com/ Source: http://www.simonsculpture.com/
    • Elements of Design SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 6 137 Flagpoles/Banners/Pennants/Plaques: Added visual interest can be incorporated into station areas with flagpoles and banners that relate to the overall architectural theme and add color, pattern and movement to the station area. Incorporation of banners, pennants, plaques, and even flagpoles offers an opportunity for temporary signage which can frame the entrances to the train stations. Banners can include items of various shapes, and can be attached to walls, light poles or canopies. The material must be able to withstand the South Florida climate of summer sun, and winds, and should be easy to remove during hurricane events. All flagpoles, and vertical signage elements must meet Florida Building Code and wind-loading requirements. Stations can incorporate educational signage such as a memorial icon feature that commemorates the historic significance of the FEC Corridor, the legacy its founding father, Henry Morrison Flagler, or other significant messages that the community may wish to display at the station. Also, a plaque placed separately or on the icon feature, can be used to distinguish the station name and members of the funding and management groups which might include the current board of directors, executive director, etc. Tree Grates: Tree grates are used to protect the root structure of trees and palms set in pavement. Tree plantings in paved areas should be surrounded by porous surfaces that allow water to reach the roots of the plantings. When placed near vehicular drop-off areas or parking lots, a 4’ clear pedestrian path should be left around the tree grate to facilitate foot traffic. Where possible, the use of Silva Cell, available through Deep Root (or approved equal) should be applied under tree grates. The Silva Cell is a subsurface integrated tree and stormwater system that holds unlimited amounts of soil while supporting traffic loads beneath paving and hardscapes. The healthy soil housed within the Silva Cell serves two (2) important functions: Growing large trees and treating stormwater onsite. Metal or precast concrete tree grates are acceptable for use and should be integrated within the design of the surrounding hardscape surfaces. Tree grates should be removable for ease of maintenance of light fixtures (in-ground uplighting) as well as for the removal of accumulated trash under the grate. Tree grate openings should be small enough to prevent trip and fall hazards and facilitate ease of flow for pedestrian activity. Source: http://www.vectordisplays. com/ Source: http://www.ironagegrates.com/
    • Elements of Design SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 6138 Drinking Fountains: Drinking fountains should be provided at each station area. They should be attached to the wall or securely anchored when free standing, and should be coordinated with other site furnishings as well as the station’s architectural theme. All fountains should be accessible and sited to avoid obstructing circulation patterns and ease of maintenance. Vending Machines: Vending machines must be grouped together and not impede pedestrian circulation on and about the platform. The organization of the vending machines should be in brightly lit areas and not in dark spaces and/or areas where people can hide behind them. Newspaper vending machines should be grouped in clusters away from pedestrian access areas. The number of vending machines per station site will be limited and provided by the SFECC or station management team. Larger vending machines, such as soda and snack machines, should be centrally located and not impede on pedestrian circulation flow. Access for vending machines should be located to ensure user safety and, when possible, cover should be provided to protect the user from the elements. Ticket Kiosks: All stations along the corridor will be equipped with ticket kiosks. A ticket kiosk works like a vending machine and produces travel tickets for purchase. Tickets for single-use, multiple-uses, or tickets for a specified duration of time (monthly passes) may be purchased for travel. Ticket kiosk display interfaces should be clear, user-friendly, and consistent with SFECC guidelines. They should also be vandal- resistant. Computerized and/or touch screen displays are now available with LED technology which support lower-energy consumption. Ticket kiosks should comply with ADA Accessibility Guidelines. The installation of ticket vending equipment should be in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. Stations with high-volume ridership can be equipped with a designated ticket window(s) to assist passengers with purchase of travel tickets. Intermodal stations, where multiple modes of transit converge should also incorporate ticket purchase windows or staffed offices. The ticket office should be staffed by SFECC or a designated transit system employee. Source: http://homepage. mac.com/ Source: https://my.qoop.com/ Source: http://img.alibaba.com/ Source: http://www.phsa.ca/
    • Elements of Design SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 6 139 Hose Bibs: Standard flush hose bibs shall be located to allow full coverage of the platform, fare vending area(s) and circulation elements. Hose bids should be located in vandal-resistant boxes with covers and secure storage. Hardscape Surfaces: Paving is an important element in site design. It assigns importance to an area, by separating uses and directing circulation and movement among different types of users. The type of material chosen should be based on low-level maintenance, durability, and cost-effectiveness. Materials and patterns should aesthetically relate to the overall theme and appearance of the station and its design. When possible, sustainable materials such as porous pavement systems should be used to encourage site infiltration capacity and reduction of runoff. The color, pattern and texture of paving should indicate the area’s use. The hardscape material should reflect a greater degree of detail at entrances and focal points, as opposed to monolithic materials which are conducive to large open areas. The climate of South Florida must be considered when selecting paving types and colors. Pedestrian areas should consist of slip-resistant, light-colored (not heat-absorbent) materials. There should be no highly-reflective surfaces that will create glare. Source: https://www.metrotransit.org/ Source: http://www.visaeurope.com/ Source: http://www.matcrete.com/
    • Elements of Design SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 6140 Pedestrian Walkways: Concrete modular paving materials should be used on pedestrian walkways, and provide separation using color, and texture, or both, from the surrounding vehicular areas. These materials add richness to the ground plane by providing added texture and color. Pedestrian Crosswalks: Where pedestrian walkways cross vehicular areas, a pedestrian crosswalk must be provided. Crosswalks, similar to pedestrian walkways, should be comprised of modular materials, such as concrete; and their edges should be defined by a concrete border providing separation from the asphalt roadway. Roadways: Roadway materials and detailing must be consistent with City code and applicable FDOT standards. Material strength and durability should to be taken into consideration depending on vehicular use and type. Parking: Since vehicular and pedestrian traffic must be separated, scale, type and color of paving materials should be used to facilitate this requirement. Each parking lot must be designed to provide a pedestrian collection system consisting of a pedestrian walkway, 6’-10’ wide at a minimum, and ramped to meet grades adjacent to asphalt parking and roadways. Source: http://www.lightrailnow.org/
    • Elements of Design SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 6 141 Ramps: Surface finishes on ramps must be slip resistant under all conditions. American Disabilities Act (ADA) Accessibility Guidelines and Standards for landings, ramp dimensions and incline must be followed. See Chapter 9 - Appendix for the ADA Standards for Accessble Design for more detailed information. Plazas/Courtyards/Seating Areas: Concrete or unit paver systems and patterns should be used to visually define these special pedestrian areas. Concrete borders should be added to provide a clean visual edge between one paving field and another. Platform: Since the function of the platforms relates directly to the users, the paving material must define seating areas, as well as a clear demarcation of the set back from the train track. A detectable warning strip should be installed on the track side platform edge. The remainder of the platform materials should be smaller scale, and colored, and add visual interest to the platform. Monolithic surfaces of poured concrete, broken up by variations in borders using texture and color, may be an alternative to special paving. When used along the length of the station platform, visual interest can also be added to these areas by the application of patterns of alternate materials, or a variety of textures, finishes, and color added to the concrete surface. Texture can be integrated and applied to the ground plane through the use of a durable materials (stamped concrete) and elements of art. For example, historic dates, text, and other educational/outreach information can be incorporated into the paving material which will add character and identity to each platform. Source: http://www.geocities.com/ Source: http://www.oregonlive.com/ Source: http://www.brixpaving.com/
    • Elements of Design SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 6142 Lighting: Sufficient lighting should be provided for both vehicular and pedestrian safety from all passenger waiting areas and parking to the stations. The designer will ensure that lighting materials and levels are designed to enhance station area ambience while also maintaining required lighting levels to ensure safe use of the station area after dark. Specific footcandle (fc) levels will meet or exceed local municipality codes and regulations at a minimum. As a reference, the following listing of illumination levels for various areas associated with station sites represents some of the standards in the lighting industry. However, lighting standards and requirements per the jurisdictional area of the station take precedence over these standards and should be consulted prior to lighting design. See Chapter 9 - Appendix for additional information. • Building areas that are actively in use require a minimum of 5.0 footcandles (fc) for entry areas and a minimum of 1.0 fc for their surroundings. • Bikeways in commercial areas require 0.9 fc while 0.2 fc (min.) is required for residential areas. Intermediate areas require 0.5 fc (min.). • Pedestrian walkways along vehicular circulation areas require 0.9 fc (min.) in commercial areas; 0.2 fc (min.) in residential areas; and 0.5 fc (min.) in intermediate areas. • Parking areas require 1.0 fc (min.). All specified lighting fixtures are to be low- maintenance, energy-efficient, and vandal-resistant. A variety of light fixtures are available today for selection and various applications for both indoor and outdoor environments. Selected light poles must withstand forecasted hurricane-level wind speeds. Light bollards can be used to frame pedestrian walkways leading to station entrances. Their use should provide adequate coverage and avoid the creation of dark spaces which could be perceived as threatening. Wall-mounted light fixtures and niche lights can also be used on station building doorway access points and along other major entrance areas and stairways. Accent lighting fixtures can be used to illuminate focal elements in landscape areas, and for signage illumination. Lighting strategies, material selection and recommended IESNA lighting levels will be used for the station areas in order to ensure passenger safety. Lighting strategies and material selection will also require careful consideration to ensure minimal impact on surrounding developments and communities (full-cutoff fixtures minimize ambient lighting). LED (light emitting diode) fixtures can be also be used to ensure reduced energy consumption, maximum lumens per watt output and extended life cycles. The designer should consider the following criteria for selecting the most appropriated lighting: • Application • Architectural conditions/context • Surrounding conditions/context • Type of fixture • Color rendering index • Energy efficiency • Maintenance and operations Source: http://www.simonsculpture.com/
    • Elements of Design SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 6 143 Platform and Passenger Waiting Area Lighting: All platform canopy lights must be hidden or screened from view within the canopy, and should be placed appropriately to ensure the train operator’s line of sight when approaching the station platform. It is required that minimum luminance be maintained along the platform edge and to a height which allows clear viewing of passengers boarding or exiting the transit system. Linear lighting methods, such as linear fluorescent fixtures with appropriate color-rendering and luminosity levels, are encouraged along the platform length. Indirect lighting sources can be incorporated into the canopy structure as long as minimum light levels are maintained for passenger. Lighting should produce an even luminance level along the entire platform length. Consideration should also be given to lighting vertical surfaces such as walls, canopy columns, etc., to enhance space perception and perimeter recognition within the platform area. Pedestrian entry points to the platform and station area should also be brightly illuminated for recognition and safety for night-time transit users. Other waiting areas, such as those located adjacent to bus transit or Kiss and Ride facilities (vehicular drop-off, taxi stands, etc.) should also be illuminated using apporpriate lighting fixtures such as pulse-start metal halide fixtures. Lighting levels should conform to all municipal codes. Walkway, Elevator/Escalator and Stair Lighting: Pedestrian lighting sources along walkways should consist of pulse-start metal halide fixtures. This lighting source is visually pleasing because the light source reveals a cool tone illuminating true colors. Master Color metal halide lamps also offer consistent and superior color rendition and should be considered for application in central areas of pedestrian use. Wall applications, such as niche lights, can be anchored to building facades or steps to highlight paths or architectural features. Entrances to elevator vestibules should be accommodated with appropriate lighting levels to ensure passenger safety. Safe lighting levels should also be incorporated within elevator, escalator and stair use areas to ensure visibility into the areas. Parking Area Lighting: Typical parking lot and structured parking lighting should consist of metal halide fixtures and conform to all municipal codes. Fixtures should be arranged in a careful architectural manner that achieves recommended IESNA levels or minimum lighting levels per local regulations. Vehicular entry areas should also be distinguished through the use of brighter illumination levels. For safety reasons, dark corners in parking areas and parking structures are not acceptable. Source:http://www.mnlandscape.com/
    • SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 6144 Elements of Design Landscape/Accent Lighting: Landscape lighting or accent lighting should consist of incandescent fixtures. These lamps have superior color rendition and a warm white appearance which amplifies the green foliage in the landscape. Accent lighting can be accomplished by either uplighting or downlighting. Accent spotlight fixtures directed up into tree or palm foliage can provide low intensity but dramatic illumination of nearby pedestrian areas. An above-ground adjustable light fixture can also be hidden and concealed by shrubs and groundcover. However, uplighting should be limited in station areas to reduce light glare and spillage into surrounding neighborhoods. Downlighting can be used instead to accent focal elements near a station. Lighting Control Systems: Lighting will be controlled by one of the two systems below: A. Photocell technology with manual override which results in lighting being energized for all hours of darkness. B. Photocell technology and a programmer with manual override. This should accommodate allowance for late-running trains. Electrical Convenience Outlets: Required electrical service outlets will be provided in vandal-resistant boxes in key locations and other circulation areas as well as fare-vending areas with full coverage to platform. Mechanical and electrical rooms or cabinets will have coverage per code, or per the manufacturer’s and/or designer’s recommendations. ____________________________________________ The following chart lists suggested uses of the various design elements for station site per the eight (8) station types discussed in Chapter 4. Specfic application may vary per station site. Source: http://lightpowercanada.com/ Source: http://common.csnstores.com/ Source: http://www.landscapeforms.com
    • SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 6 145 Elements of Design Source: http://hi.atgimg.com/ Design Elements City Center Town Center Neigh- borhood Station Employment Center Local Park and Ride Regional Park and Ride Airport and Sea- port Special Events Station Entry Sign x x x Station Identification x x x x x x x x Informational Signage x x x x x x x x Trail Blazing Signage x x x Regulatory Signage x x x x x x x x Public Address System x x x x x x x x Seating x x x x x x x x Bike Racks x x x x x x Bicycle Lockers x x x x Trash Receptacles x x x x x x x x Bollards x x x Planters/Flower Pots x x x x x Flagpoles/Banners/ Pennants/Plaques x x x x x Tree Grates x x x x Vending Machines x x x x x x Ticket Kiosk x x x x x x x x Hose Bibs x x x x x x x x Drinking Fountains x x x x x x x x Wireless Internet Access x x x x Platform Lighting x x x x x x x x Vertical Circulation Lighting x x* x x x x x Parking Area Lighting x x x x Landscape/Accent Lighting x x x x x x x x Electrical Outlets x x x x x x x x * May be offered on a case-by-case basis (depending on need and volume of passengers/daily use). Elements Summary Table
    • Elements of Design SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 6146 Landscape Materials: Landscape plantings, in and around the station and platform, should be consistent in material choice, enhance the functional activities of the station, modify climatic situational activities, screen views, supplement security measures, and direct circulation. At initial placement and with growth over time, it is essential that the plant materials not obstruct site lines to or from the platform. Landscape guidelines for the Florida East Coast Railroad (FEC) should be consulted for further information on preferred landscape materials and specifications. Tree/Palm Relocation: Efforts should be made to preserve or relocate existing vegetation on site. Fertilizing, proper prior trimming and root pruning are to be initiated during early design stages to increase relocation success. Temporary irrigation is required to irrigate trees and palms during preparation for relocation. Barricades are also required to protect tree crowns and root zones. Similar practices are required after relocation to best assure survival. Any preparation or relocation work should be conducted by a certified landscape contractor and crew, which follows National Arborist Association guidelines and any local or state jurisdictional codes. Plant Material Selection/Design: Local municipal landscape codes, both City and County, must be adhered to before developing a plant palette for the stations. Plant species should be chosen to require minimal maintenance. The designer will determine the existing vegetation features of the site, for example, location, species, size, function, importance, and the feasibility of protecting them. In addition the landscape design should: 1. Consider elements such as their effects on drainage and erosion, hardiness, maintenance requirements, and possible conflicts between preserving vegetation and the resulting maintenance needs. 2. Retain and/or plant selected native vegetation whose features are determined to be beneficial, where feasible. Native vegetation usually requires less maintenance then planting new vegetation. 3. Alternative landscaping techniques that promote water conservation such as ‘Florida Friendly’ or ‘Xeriscape’ guidelines should be applied to the station sites. The use of drought plants is strongly recommended as they can survive 2-3 months without supplemental watering. Plants can be selected from the South Florida Water Management District, Waterwise: South Florida Landscapes Booklet (available on www.sfwmd.gov) and can also be referenced in Chapter 9 - Appendix. Source: http://www.broward.org/ Source: http://cmgsla.com/
    • Elements of Design SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 6 147 Selected plant materials should follow Florida Friendly landscape principles and/or xeriscape/ water conservation principles such as: • Use of drought-tolerant plant materials. A comprehensive listing of Florida drought- tolerant plants can be found on the Floridata webpage (http://www.floridata.com/lists/ drought_tolerant_plants.cfm). • Use of native plants where possible. Native species are adaptable and resistant to South Florida climate. • Massing of plant materials with similar irrigation needs. Accent plants with higher water requirements should be grouped together to allow a separate irrigation zone. Turf grass should also be massed and have a separate watering zone. • In all cases, turf areas should be minimized since they are high maintenance landscape components. Varieties of plant materials incorporated into the design of the platform spaces should provide protection from the tropical atmosphere of South Florida. Use of plant material with excessive fruit or leaf drop is not recommended adjacent to pedestrian areas. Tree and Palms should not conflict with architectural features such as canopy heights and should be evergreen where possible to ensure year-round shade coverage. All trees and palms planted adjacent to pedestrian areas should have a minimum 8’ clearance to the first limbs or fronds. Shrub plantings should remain low for visibility, slow-growing, non-poisonous and evergreen varieties. Plant materials that exhibit vibrant and conspicuous flowering characteristics are encouraged. Accent planting, having special characteristics of color, flower, texture, and height, should be used at visual focal points. Accent plants can be used in mass or singly, depending on location and function. Accent planting should be used particularly in areas near pedestrian traffic. Mulch should be used to retain moisture levels in the soil and to reduce evaporation. A minimum depth of 3” organic mulch in all plant beds is recommended. One type of mulch only should be used within one planting area. The use of Cypress mulch should be avoided. The use of sterilized Melaleuca and Eucalyptus mulch is encouraged. Colored mulch (red mulch) should not be used. All plant material should be sensitively sited and sized to avoid security problems. Planting areas should adequately drain within their beds, and not onto surrounding paved surfaces. Source: http://www.pinkshovellandscapes.com/ Source: http://kiyoka.vivian.jp/
    • Elements of Design SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 6148 Parking and Streetscape Plantings: Parking areas should provide landscaped parking islands at prescribed distances based on municipal codes. Parking islands should be 7’ wide at minimum to provide two (2) 6” curbs and a 6’ plant bed. 9’ is preferred for parking islands. Use planting beds every ten spaces, or every 100’ within parking lots; or as local municipal codes dictate, if more stringent. Canopy trees should be planted in parking lots to provide shade and comfort for the users. The tree limbs should have at least an 8’ clearance to the first limb. When trees are selected, the correct size of tree needs to be based upon root ball diameter. Tree spacing along approach roadways should establish a visual rhythm for the streetscape. Trees should be perceived at both the pedestrian and auto levels as one continuous line of planting. Pedestrian walkways and collection areas in parking lots should be visually defined by a change in plant material. Accent plantings are appropriate for these conditions. At least three-quarters, or 75 percent, of the walkway area should be shaded, either by architectural or vegetative materials. Shrub material along pedestrian walkways should not exceed 4’ in height to ensure direct visual access to and from the walk outward. Shrub material can also be used as a backdrop to accent planting which should be placed directly adjacent to major pedestrian walkways and entry nodes. Station Plantings: Station entrances should be defined as important visual and functional focal points by the use of accent plantings. Station architecture can be enhanced through plant selection and location. Rail Corridor and Right-of-Way (ROW) Plantings: The existing corridor landscape generally consists of weeds, turf, and some native plantings. Chain link fences and the back of buildings usually define the edge of the ROW. To improve the aesthetics of these corridors, it may be desirable to begin native planting programs within the open space. It may also be desirable to negotiate with property owners along the corridor to establish a consistent landscape theme and application program. Source: http://www.smmgardens.com/ Source: http://www.sasaki.com/
    • Elements of Design SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 6 149 Irrigation: All plant materials will receive 100% coverage and separate irrigation zones will be used for plant materials with differing water requirements and materials with varying precipitation rate requirements. At a minimum, separate irrigation zones will be maintained for turf, shrubs, and trees/ palms. For example, large impact rotors can not be used to irrigate turf and shrubs together. Careful consideration should be given to irrigation material and application to ensure maximum water use efficiency. Where available and appropriate for use, grey water or reclaimed water lines can be used for irrigation. Source: http://www.soundtransit.org/ All irrigation systems should be automatic, and should be equipped with rain gauges for water conservation. Sprinkler heads should be pop ups in areas with a lot of activity or where there is a chance the pipes may be broken. Consider the use of mechanisms that reduce water flow to sprinkler heads if broken. All pop ups should be equipped with back-flow prevention. No plug-in heads are allowed. Irrigate slowly, or pulse irrigate, to prevent runoff and then only irrigate as much as is needed. Apply water at rates that do not exceed the infiltration rate of the soil. Rain sensors should be considered for station areas to ensure water management and irrigation application.
    • 7“Green” Stations
    • “Green” Stations SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 7152 “Sustainability requires that future generations have the same opportunities to benefit from our land as we do.” 1 The ultimate goal of environmentally sustainable development is to create zero-emission and zero- impact developments through appropriate site selection, design, construction, and operations. Another goal specific to transit station development is to optimize the ‘travel-chain’ by creating seamless intermodal connections to regional public transportation lines and other sustainable alternatives such as car-sharing services. Environmentally-sustainable design impacts social and economic progress by increasing property values, and it creates healthy and productive environments where people live, work, and interact. First and foremost, sustainability looks at developments that follow environmentally-friendly principles and guidelines. The basis of sustainable design lies in a thorough examination of the development site. An integrated site analysis 1 Cullen, Peter. The Journey to Sustainable Irrigation Irrigation Association of Australia Annual Conference Adelaide, May 2004 process will identify the site’s existing natural and man-made characteristics, such as hydrology, topography, soils, access, utility and infrastructure availability; and lays the foundation for the design and development of the transit area. Sustainable design requires that these vital characteristics and natural site patterns be preserved and integrated into the design of the station area as much as possible (and mitigated on site where not). By designing with existing patterns in mind, areas of improvement can be identified early in the design process and can ultimately help prevent additional costs, i.e., additional construction costs for stormwater catchment and sewage systems. ‘Green’ or environmentally-friendly transit is beneficial to the environment, and also provides many economic benefits. In a recent report submitted to the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA) of New York titled “Greening Mass Transit and Metro Regions,” David Lewis of HDR writes about “Transit’s Four Green Economic Impacts:” 1. “Avoiding Carbon Emissions: The CO2 emissions The Concept of Sustainable Development Source: Adapted from Ralph Hall, Introducing the Concept of Sustainable Transport to the U.S. DOT through the Reauthorization of TEA-21
    • “Green” Stations SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 7 153 from transit ridership are about one-fifth of those produced by single-occupancy vehicles, as measured on a per-passenger-mile basis.” 2. “Managing Regional Congestion: By improving traffic flow, transit optimizes regional mobility for both passenger and freight sectors which in turn reduces fuel costs, vehicle operating costs, and the costs associated with traffic accidents.” 3. “Optimizing Land Use: Transit enables more clustered residential and commercial development, which brings dramatic economic and sustainability gains.” 4. “Generating Higher Values: The value of transit to regional economies will be felt through higher worker mobility, lower energy costs, reduced pressure on public services, and other benefits that extend beyond the transit system users to the economy at large.” Practices and methods that encourage environmental sustainability are key to the long- term success of the SFECC transit system and should be formulated early in the planning and design process. The following pages describe general elements of sustainable design that should be applied to station areas. NOTE: Other general reference documents (links) for Environmentally Sustainable Design are included in Chapter 9, Appendix of this report. A comprehensive Site Analysis early in the design and plan- ning stages helps identify existing and man-made natural features that can be benenficial in addressing site sustainabil- ity criteria. Source: www.pierce.wsu.edu/Water_Quality/LID/
    • “Green” Stations SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 7154 1. Protect and Conserve Water a. Reduction of runoff and pollutant loadings into natural streams and waterways b. Treatment of runoff using stormwater management methods (such as bioswales, rain gardens, detention/retention ponds, infiltration trenches or underground stormwater storage where space is limited.) c. Encourage ground water recharge and harvesting of grey-water. In addition, where possible, promote use of non-potable sources of water for irrigation and building mechanical and plumbing systems 2. Encourage the design and construction of buildings and infrastructure to utilize green building practices 3. Encourage the use of sustainable materials and methods such as: a. Use of recyclable or rapidly renewable construction materials that are also locally available The Station as a Sustainable Entity: Environmentally-friendly design and construction methods should be encouraged in station areas. Recommendations for the environmentally- sustainable development of station areas along the SFECC transit corridor involve site-specific evaluations that maximize the site’s potential and include the basic fundamentals of “Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle.” The reuse of existing brownfields or vacant/underutilized parcels for the development of stations is encouraged as well as the reuse of building stock, infrastructure, and building materials that can be renovated for transit-related uses. “Compact Development” is another key principle in sustainable planning. Therefore, footprints for station areas (including buildings, parking areas, access roads) should be designed to increase land-use efficiency and transit-oriented development and ‘smart growth’ principles should be encouraged. Sustainable practices for design and construction are part of an integrated process which reduces or eliminates any potential degradation of the natural environment and systems. Following are some of the overarching general practices for the Environmental Sustainability of the Site, Landscape, and Structures that will be described specifically in the following pages: Peter Calthorpe’s Next American Metropolis talks about Transit-Oriented Developments and defines the boundary of pedestrian walking zones to be 2000’ maximum from the transit stop.
    • “Green” Stations SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 7 155 b. Use of native plant materials that have reduced irrigation needs c. Use of environmentally-preferable or biodegradable products for site and landscape maintenance d. Use of lighting systems that minimize light pollution and energy consumption (LED or induction lighting systems) 4. Minimize non-renewable energy consumption and encourage use of onsite renewable energy sources (photovoltaic and wind turbine systems) as well as proper waste management practices 5. Optimize operational and maintenance practices through training and education of best management practices to achieve long- term benefits 6. Optimize the ‘travel chain’ by offering connections to multiple modes such as pedestrian networks/greenways, bus transit (local and regional), as well as other mass transit modes such as rail, air, and sea. Other innovative ideas include car and bicycle rentals at key stations for passengers to use and return once they reach their destinations. 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 BUILDING-INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC MEMBRANE SYSTEM GREEN (VEGETATED) VERTICAL SCREEN GREEN ROOFS 3 2 1 RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEM ON PLATFORM CANOPY PARKING WITH BIO-SWALES POROUS PAVEMENT SYSTEM FOR USE IN ALL HARDSCAPE SURFACES (I.E. PARKING, WALKWAYS, ETC) 6 5 4 PRESERVED TREE CANOPY7 ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING (W/LIGHT SHIELDS TO REDUCE GLARE AND SPILL) 8 RECYCLED PLASTIC RAILROAD TIES9 RESPOND TO TOUCH ESCALATOR10 10 9 8 7 7 The diagram above highlights general elements of sustainability that should be encouraged in all station areas. Where available, existing elements such as infrastructure, landscape/tree canopy, and building stock should be examined for reuse in station areas.
    • “Green” Stations SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 7156 Environmental Sustainability for the Site: Sustainable site selection criteria are critical in setting the stage for building green stations. First and foremost, station sites should take advantage of existing infrastructure and building stock, as well as brownfield sites where possible, to take advantage of green tax incentives and programs. Site disturbance should be minimized, and open space and sensitive areas adjacent to the station should be preserved and protected. The legislation related to incentives for green building practices for the State of Florida can be found on the Florida Energy and Climate Commission web site (http:// myfloridaclimate.com climate_quick_links/florida_ energy_climate_commission). Site impacts should be minimized and usable building stock and materials, existing tree canopy, native vegetation, and pervious surfaces should be preserved. Light colored pavements and roofing materials help to reduce heat island effect. Station sites should discourage automobile dependency and promote accessibility for pedestrians and bikers which provide access from surrounding neighborhoods. Pathways should be attractive, functional and directly connected to the transit station with minimal crossings of automobile traffic. Other methods to discourage automobile dependency include incentives such as preferred parking using alternative fuels, zero emission vehicles, and zip cars or reward programs for passengers who use alternate forms of mass transit or high-occupancy vehicles (carpools/van pools) to access the station. Stations should provide convenient, secure bike storage facilities at the stations. Also, lighting should be enforced on station sites, and bike parking facilities without compromising safety. Lighting levels should be taken into consideration due to light pollution. Use of innovative parking solutions should be utilized to reduce land consumption for parking needs at larger Park and Ride stations. These include use of shared structured parking with adjacent developments, preferred parking to carpool/van pool users and hybrid car users (with charging stations), and the use of solar carports. South Florida’s climate experiences high rainfall events for a majority of the year, therefore, stormwater management strategies are important in addressing site sustainability for stations in the region. Additional measures, such as low- impact development models, should be taken to reduce, convey, manage and treat stormwater discharge from station sites into natural bodies of water. Low Impact Development, or LID, “is a stormwater management strategy that emphasizes conservation and use of existing natural site features integrated with distributed, small-scale stormwater controls to more closely mimic natural hydrologic patterns in residential, commercial, and industrial settings.”1 Tools used within LID include 1. Hinman, C. Low Impact Development Technical Guidance Manual for Puget Sound. Puget Sound Action Team. Washington State University Pierce County Extension. 2005 IMAGE 1: Bioswales can be found on the edges of parking lots or around developments and vary widely in size. Source: http://www.lakecountyil. gov/Stormwater/LakeCountyWatersheds/BMPs/ PublishingImages/bioswale.jpg IMAGE 2: Transit as part of the green solution. Source: http://kblank.com/work/files/ gimgs/10_transit2.jpg IMAGE 3: Green railroad corridor in Grenoble, France. Source: http://railforthevalley.files. wordpress.com/2009/03/grenoble_ tram1_1920.jpg
    • “Green” Stations SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 7 157 Table 3. Overview of BMPs Section Treatment Mechanism Common Characteristics Technologies Addressed/Fact Sheet (FS) or Case Study (CS) Structural BMPs 3.2 - Infiltration Practices/Bioretention adsorption, biodegradation, precipitation adequate soil media critical Infiltration Trenches (FS) (CS)Infiltration Basins (FS)Bioretention (FS) 3.3 - Detention and Retention/Wetland Practices particulate settling and biological filtering (wetlands) adequate hydrology and soils required for retention/wetlands Detention Ponds (FS) (CS)Wetlands/Shallow Marsh Systems (FS)Detention Tanks and Vaults (FS) 3.4 - Filtration Practices/Sand Filters straining, adsorption, chemical transformation, microbial decomposition effective suspended solids removal Underground Filters (FS) (CS)Surface Filters (FS)Organic Media Filters (FS) (CS) 3.5 - Vegetated Swales/Filter Strips infiltration, filtration, adsorption low cost, easy to install Dry and Wet Swales (FS) (CS)Vegetated Filter Strips (FS) (CS) 3.6 - Water Quality Inlets settling mainly pretreatment Oil-Grit Separators (FS)Catch Basin Inserts (FS)Manufactured Systems (FS) 3.7 - Porous Pavements infiltration regular maintenance essential to prevent clogging Porous Pavement (FS) Nonstructural BMPs 3.8 - Streetsweeping physical removal of surface build-up Street Sweepers (FS) (CS) 3.9 - Other Nonstructural BMPs source control can be implemented as part of a community-wide program New and Innovative Practices 3.10 - New and Innovative Practices various under development Alum Injection Systems, Multi-Chamber Treatment Train (MCTT), Vegetated Rock Filters, Vertical Filter Systems IMAGE 5: Bioswales help manage and treat runoff before it leaves the site. Source: Portland Community Watershed Stewardship Program IMAGE 3: Porous paving used in park- ing lots. Source:http://bp3.blogger. com/_XEQbaTzjzsw/SIfciqucolI/ AAAAAAAACLw/_UltStHbjNM/s1600-h/ ous+Pavement+Cross_Section.JPG IMAGE 4: Bioretention areas can be beautiful landscape resources. Source: http://www.fcwc.org/ WEArchive/010203_wbj/bio_retention_apart- ments.jpg Source: Stormwater Best Management Practices in an Ultra-Urban Setting: Selection and Monitoring, Federal Highway Administration, May 2002: http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/ultraurb/index.htm Integrated Management Practices (IMPs) and Best Management Practices (BMPs) which aim to provide on site features for stormwater quality treatment and flow control. A combination of BMPs can be used to increase permeability, encourage on site filtration of runoff, and address proper management of stormwater discharge associated with the development of station areas. Several of these methods are listed in the following chart describing BMPs for an Ultra-Urban Setting, by the Federal Highway Administration. Puget Sound, WA: http://www.psat.wa.gov/Publications/ LID_tech_manual05/LID_manual2005.pdf
    • “Green” Stations SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 7158 Environmental Sustainability for the Landscape: Basic requirements for a sustainable landscape include “an attractive environment that is in balance with the local climate and requires minimal resource inputs, such as fertilizer, pesticides, and water. Sustainable landscape begins with an appropriate design that includes functional, cost-efficient, visually pleasing, environmentally friendly and maintainable areas.”1 1. Plant using native plant species and/or species that have acclimated to the South Florida region. The goal is to use plants with low to no watering requirements. 2. Avoid plants listed on the Florida Invasive Plant Species list. Additional information can be found on http://www.fleppc.org/list/07list.htm. 3. Minimize turf areas. Where turf areas are required, choose varieties that are drought tolerant, well-adapted to the microclimate and have low watering and maintenance requirements. 3. Use a planting palette that is suitable to the specific microclimate of the area. Plants should be selected based on the requirements of light exposure (sun/shade), wind, water requirements and quality, and soil requirements. Careful selection of plants will ensure a longer lasting and lower maintenance landscape. Local guides for building 1 Bousselot, Colorado State University, Extension horticulture agent, Douglas County; K. Badertscher, Extension horticulture agent, Boulder County; M. Roll, Extension horticulture agent, Arapahoe County. <http://www.ext.colostate.edu/pubs/garden/07243. html> and planting materials should be consulted for appropriate material selection. An integral reference for plant material selection in the South Florida region is “Waterwise-South Florida Landscapes: Landscaping to Promote Water Conservation Using the Principles of Xeriscape.”. This material has been included in Chapter 9, Appendix and can also be found on the South Florida Water Management District’s webpage, www.sfwmd.gov. 4. Use environmentally-certified, non-toxic, and organic/biodegradable fertilizers. Avoid the use of any toxic chemical susbstances that could potentially harm natural waterways and bioflora of the area. 6. Alternative sustainable and organic/natural solutions to pest control should be examined as solutions. Avoid the use of any pesticides unless a specific pest issue has been properly diagnosed by a pest control professional. 6. Use reclaimed water from municipal sewer lines or onsite water collection (rainwater harvesting systems, etc.) for irrigation of planting areas. 7. Increase efficiency of irrigation systems that reduce seepage loss and evaporation rates. Micro- irrigation methods such as drip, trickle, and spray are recommended for their water efficiency and should only be used as required. 8. Soil moisture levels should be maintained by using soils with higher organic content and by using natural organic mulches to prevent water loss. IMAGE 2: The United States Department of Agri- culture launched a labeling program to facilitate the identification and the use of biobased prod- ucts such as fertilizers among others. Source: http://www.usda.gov IMAGE 1: Coco plum is a Florida na- tive plant that is often used for its highly adaptable and drought resistance charac- teristic. Source: http://www.rareflowering- trees.com/ IMAGE 3: Increase efficiency of irriga- tion systems to reduce seepage loss and evaporation rates. Source: http://www.neighborhoodlink.com/
    • “Green” Stations SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 7 159 IMAGE 4: Rain gardens improve water quality by filtering run-off, provide local- ized flood control, and provide interesting planting opportunities Source:(same as diagram above) IMAGE 5-6: By composting on site the amount of waste sent to the landfills can be reduced. Plus, a useful product can be gained, reducing the amount of bought commercial compost. Source: http://www.huntingdoncounty.net/ The diagram above demonstrates how multiple ‘green’ strategies such as rooftop solar panels, green roofs, and rain collection and onsite treatment systems can be integrated into the site design to create a comprehensive and sustainable project. This particular design “manages all the wastewater generated by the building, as well as all the rain water that falls on the site.” The rain gardens, and wetlands also create natural playgrounds and environmental education opportunities for the students. Source: ByAndropogon Associates, Kieran Timberlake Associates and Natural Systems International. Image by Andropogon Associates.), http://pruned.blogspot.com/2009/06/wetland-machine-of-sidwell.html IMAGE 6: Rain and runoff contain fertilizers and pesticides that are harmful to our surface and ground water. Source: http://www.sbprojectcleanwater. org/wqathome.html 9. Encourage onsite composting of landscape trimmings and other organic waste. 10. Utilize high efficiency, climate based irrigation controllers.
    • “Green” Stations SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 7160 Environmental Sustainability for Structures: In addition to establishing architectural style and character, the buildings within the station area should incorporate environmentally-sustainable features where possible. All station buildings should seek certification by LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design). LEED NC (New Construction) addresses new construction whereas LEED EB (Existing Building) can be employed where existing structures are to be refurbished for SFECC transit-related use. Detailed information for sustainable development practices and building standards can be found in USGBC’s LEED Reference Guide. Additional information and links to green building and consumer resources that are specific to South Florida can be found on USGBC’s South Florida Chapter website (http://www.usgbcsf.org/usgbc). Fundamental ‘green’ elements should be highlighted for implementation in all structures at SFECC train stations (as appropriate). Based on the local climate and conditions, some elements may be considered more appropriate than others; however, the following list will provide an overview of some of the methods available for the implementation of a green transit system. • Building Design: All buildings should be oriented on their sites to bring abundant natural daylight into the interior to reduce lighting requirements and to take advantage of any prevailing breezes. Windows, clerestories, skylights, light monitors, light shelves and other strategies should be used to bring daylight to the interior of the buildings. The exterior should have shading devices (sunshades, canopies, 6 5 4 3 2 1 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEM TRENCH DRAIN SYSTEM RECYCLING TRASH BINS BUILDING-INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC MEMBRANE SYSTEM ON CANOPY ROOF ENERGY-EFFICIENT LIGHT FIXTURES (POWERED BY SOLAR ENERGY) RECYCLED MATERIAL BENCH RECYCLED LIGHT COLORED PAVING MATERIALS RECYCLED PLASTIC RAILROAD TIES 8 SLOPE TODRAIN The diagram above illustrates general ‘green’ elements that can be incorporated into most station platform areas to help achieve higher sustainability standards for the SFECC Transit System.
    • “Green” Stations SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 7 161 • Onsite Renewable Energy Sources: Onsite renewable energy supplies should be used in order to reduce environmental and economic impacts associated with fossil fuel energy use. Integrated photovoltaics and wind turbines can be installed on station roofs and on platform canopies. Energy collected from the solar panels can be used to power electrical systems such as lighting, HVAC, irrigation controllers, and so forth. RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEM BUILDING-INTEGRATED PHOTOVOLTAIC MEMBRANE ENERGY-EFFICIENT LIGHT FIXTURES (POWERED BY SOLAR ENERGY) TO FILTRATION SYSTEM FOR NON-POTABLE BUILDING WATER USAGE OR LANDSCAPE IRRIGATION UNDERGROUND CISTERN FOR WATER STORAGE & CONVEYANCE PAVEMENT SLOPE MIN. 1% TOWARDS DRAIN 6 6 5 5 4 4 3 3 22 1 1 Water collected through rain harvesting systems such as platform roof gutters and drains can be filtered on site through mechanical or natural filtration systems such as bioretention areas. green screens and trees), particularly on the southern and western facades and over windows and doors, to block hot summer sun. • Dual-glaze windows reduce heat gain in summer and heat loss during cold winter months. The roof should be a light-colored, heat-reflecting Energy Star roof, or a green (landscaped) roof, to reduce heat absorption. • Rain-water harvesting: With the heavy rainfall received in the region, rainwater captured from the roofs of buildings, such as the central station building and the platform canopy, can be used for other water needs in the station. Collected water can also be stored in cisterns or cleansed in bioswales or raingardens before being redirected to other uses or returned to the municipal greywater supply.
    • “Green” Stations SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 7162 • Heat-island Reduction: Structures should utilize strategies which reduce heat islands to minimize impacts on the microclimate and any nearby communities or wildlife habitats. Effective insulation and use of materials that absorb less heat are recommended in all structures. A non-toxic insulation, derived from materials like soybean or cotton, with a high R (heat resistance) factor in a building’s walls and roof will help prevent cool air leakage in the summer and warm air leakage in the winter. • Green Walls: Larger stations with structured parking and other supporting buildings should utilize vertical vegetated screens to shade walkways and other hardscape (garage walls) which not only reduce the heat-island effect, but also provide an aesthetically appealing alternative. • Windows and Doors: Windows and exterior doors should have ENERGY STAR® ratings, and their openings should be tightly sealed to avoid heat gain in summer and heat loss in winter. • Indoor Environmental Quality: Natural daylight should reach at least 75% of the building’s interior. Natural ventilation (via building orientation, operable windows, fans, wind IMAGE 2: Wind turbines as an alternate source of energy. Source: http://www.conserving- green.com/images/products/ detail/windmax600.jpg IMAGE 3: Green roof. Fukuoka Prefectural International Hall in Fukuoka, Japan Source: http://www.lotuslive.org/buildings/green- roof.php IMAGE 1: Vegetal screen, Avignon France Source: http://www.virtualtourist.com/ chimneys and other strategies) should bring fresh air inside the building. The HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) system should filter all incoming air and vent stale air to the outside. • Energy Efficiency: Green buildings have energy- efficient lighting, heating, cooling and water- heating systems. Appliances should have ENERGY STAR® ratings. • Green Building Materials: A green building will have been constructed or renovated with healthy, non-toxic building materials and furnishings, like low- and zero-VOC (volatile organic compound) paints and sealants, and non-toxic materials like strawboard for the sub- flooring. Wood-based elements should come from rapidly renewable sources like bamboo, however, if tropical hardwoods are used, they must be certified by the Forest Stewardship Council. A green building uses salvaged materials like tiles and materials with significant recycled content. Station sites should also use regionally available materials for construction and site furnishings that are cost-efficient, durable, and easy to maintain. • Use of Recyclable/Biodegradable Materials for construction and site furnishings.
    • “Green” Stations SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 7 163 • Water Efficiency: A green building has a water- conserving irrigation system and water-efficient water/restroom fixtures. A rainwater collection and storage system should be provided, particularly in drier regions where water is increasingly scarce and expensive. • Integration of appropriate Waste-Disposal and Recycling Programs. • Employment of cost-effective and environmentally-sensitive site work and construction methods. • Use of energy-efficient lighting systems such as LED or Induction Lighting which reduce maintenance costs, consumption, and waste production. • Other renewable energy resources include biomass, biogas, hydro and cogeneration energy resources, renewable energy credits, etc., can be employed where available to reduce the station area’s carbon footprint and external energy load needs. • Buildings and gathering places should have containers for recycling. • Buildings should be designed to take advantage of natural ventilation. The form and IMAGE 1: Solar roof at the Coney Island subway terminal station. Source: http://www.lotuslive.org/buildings/greenroof.php IMAGE 3: Shared bicycle rentals in Paris. Source: http://janeporter.files.word- press.com/2008/09/mini-bikesatthere- ady.jpg IMAGE 2: Solar roofs can also allow for natural daylighting. Source: http://www.solarserv- er.de/solarmagazin/images/ gmp-Architekten orientation of structures should be designed to reduce impacts from weather. • Design building systems, such as heating- ventilation-air condition (HVAC) and lighting, to maximize energy performance (by requiring minimum LEED credits for energy performance). • Establish a goal for using building materials that contain recycled content and a goal utilizing rapidly renewable materials. • Consider using vegetated roofs, this reduces the ehat island effect and provides for stormwater treatment. Roof gardens can also be an attractive amenity. • Specify high efficiency water and wastewater fixtures.
    • 8Maintenance Guidelines
    • Maintenance Guidelines SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 8166 Maintenance guidelines are provided to present a series of general criteria and specific requirements for maintaining all interior and exterior building and site elements for the light rail stations. Most areas on the stations are subject to high visibility and use. The areas to be maintained include: buildings, platforms and walkways including site furnishings, parking lots and access roads, landscape areas, irrigation systems. It is recommended that the SFECC Transit Agency pre-select vendors or manufacturers of transit station furnishings and landscaping/irrigation parts to narrow the list to one or two maximum of each category of products. This will save countless days of delay while searching for and waiting for ordered replacement parts. If all stations have the same equipment, parts can be stockpiled in a maintenance warehouse and replacement parts can be easily interchanged. These guidelines provide recommendations for specific problems that might occur, however other unexpected problems may arise and need to be accounted for. Buildings Lobby, hallways, ticket booths, waiting rooms will require cleaning each evening, seven days a week. Cleaning shall include removal of trash from all waste containers and relined with a new bag. The floors shall be swept clean and damp mopped, including the side molding and floor runners inside the doors. Public restrooms shall be cleaned once daily seven days a week. The following changes should be completed semi- annually. Any accumulation of debris, trash, leaves, or staining shall be removed from all building roofs. Check all drainage cleanouts for clogs or debris. Stem clean or pressure clean any building surfaces that have any accumulation of dirt, algae, mold or other staining or debris. Restroom cleaning shall included daily removal of trash from all waste containers and each relined with a new bag. The floors shall be swept clean and damp mopped with disinfectant. Windows and mirrors shall be wiped clean of marks and fingerprints. Toilet tissue, soap and paper towels shall be replenished daily by maintenance contractor. In addition, privacy stalls and partitions shall be wiped clean weekly of any graffiti using necessary cleaning products. Any damage, scratching or marring off the surfaces shall be repaired. On a monthly basis, all plumbing fixtures and plumbing should be checked. Platforms, tracks, walkways, and site furnishings are kept clean and free of trash and grafitti buildup Source: http://international.stockholm.se/; http://www.gecarch.com/
    • Maintenance Guidelines SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 8 167 Hardscape Surfaces Porous cement concrete walks, parking stalls and porous cement concrete streets serve to reduce stormwater runoff by capturing rainwater in voids of the pavement’s gravel sub-base and allowing it to infiltrate. Keeping the porous pavement surfaces clean and free of plants decreases sediment clogging and lengthens their functional life. Porous cement concrete pavement (see image 5-6 below) is cement concrete pavement without the sand in the mix which allows water to filter through the pavement section into the underlying gravel sub- base layer below the pavement section. Porous gravel pavement is a grid cell system filled with gravel and placed over a gravel sub-base layer below the grid cells.1 On a monthly basis all walkways, concrete, porous concrete, stone pavers or unit pavers, shall be swept clean and checked for uneven of lifting in sections. Expansion joints will need re-caulking and must match existing color. Gum, food or other spills shall be cleaned with proper detergents and disinfectants. On a reported basis, powerwash all hardscape surfaces, particularly to remove graffiti (see image 4 below). The following changes should be completed semi- annually. All hard surfaces shall be steam cleaned or pressure cleaned to remove algae, mold or stains from pavements. If walkways need repair: 1 SvR Design Company. High Point Community Landscape Maintenance Guidelines • Replace concrete or porous concrete by saw cutting along existing score lines and replace with matching concrete. Score and finish to match existing. • Replace unit pavers or stone pavers if stones loosen from the pathway. The stones should be reset and resealed. For general maintenance, re-sealant should be added to the stones every 2 years. Specifically for porous pavement: • If porous system has been clogged by debris, when dry, gather up gravel from pavement section and properly dispose of waste material. Replace and fill cells with clean crushed gravel and bring back up to grade. • If gravel has worn away exposing grid cells of gravel pavement, refill cells with approved gravel to top of geogrid surface. Note: Unlike horizontal surfaces, it is recommended that non-porous and graffiti-proof materials be used in vertical walls and structures so that they are easy to steam-clean if vandalized by graffiti. IMAGE 4: A good pressure washing will make concrete, wood and siding look new Source: http://www.lawnbarber.net/services.html IMAGE 5-6: Pervious pavement is designed to accept precipitation only and is typically thicker than traditional contrete to support the same loads. Source: http://belmont.sd62.bc.ca/; http://www.cetco.com/
    • Maintenance Guidelines SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 8166 Site Furnishings and Lighting Site furnishings on platforms and walkways will be cleaned with water or a mild, non- phosphorous soap to remove food, gum, graffiti, bird feces, and dirt. Inspect for chipped or cracked paint and rust spots. Inspect all hardware, and tighten if necessary. Specifically examine metal parts for chipped paint and rust spots. Replace with the same make and model, if available, if deemed necessary. Light filaments will be replaced the same day as failure occurs. Cleaning the fixture should include the lens, refractor and photo control; and the wiring and fuses should be checked. Anything that obscures or lowers light intensity, for example bugs, must be removed from the fixture. Time clock and contractor control may be recommended to reduce the light levels during non-use hours. Replace irreparable furnishings with the same makes and models. Drinking fountains should be cleaned and polished weekly, and water pressure should be checked monthly and adjusted according to manufacturer’s instructions. Each morning, roadways and parking lots should be visually inspected and all trash picked up and removed from site. All light fixtures will be maintained as outlined under platform section. Landscape Areas Landscape maintenance activities include planting, mowing, trimming, weeding, and fertilizer application. All of these maintenance activities have the potential to contribute pollutants to the storm drain systems, and potentially pollute surrounding watersheds. The following major objectives of this section are: 1. Highlight sustainable ways the public and the employees can be educated to minimize the discharge of pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers, and prevent the disposal of landscape waste into the stormwater drainage systems. 2. Maintain an attractive and user friendly landscape 3. Protect and enhance the natural landscape and native planting - (see image 2-3 below) 4. Minimize water and material waste Source: http://www.sfwmd. gov/ Use of native plants promotes sustainable growth by reducing use of water for irrigation and pesticides. Source: http://greengirlgardens.com
    • Maintenance Guidelines SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 8 167 Lawn Areas: A. Mowing: Proper mowing is one of the most important factors contributing to an attractive lawn. Proper mowing means that the grass is cut at the optimum height on a regular basis to keep it healthy and attractive. Mowing too low weakens the grass causing the sod to thin out; encourages invasion of weeds; makes the grass more susceptible to pests; and can eventually cause the lawn to die. Mowing too high produces a ragged, unattractive lawn and encourages build-up thatch. Mowing with a dull or poorly adjusted mower or weed whip causes severe damage to the grass and leaves it very unsightly after cutting. The height of the lawn should never be drastically or suddenly changed. If the grass becomes too high, the recommended height should be regained by gradually lowering the mowing height on successive cuttings. Mowing wet grass should be avoided. Dry grass cuts easily, does not clog the mower and gives a finer appearance after being cut. Grass suffering from lack of water should be watered, allowed to dry, then mowed. Because mowing shocks the grass, the lawn should not be mowed under dramatic changes in climatic conditions. Trash Removal: All landscape areas shall be kept clear of trash as outlined in the Parking Lot and Access Roads Chapter. All trees, palms shrub areas, groundcovers and lawn areas should be kept clean of dead limbs, palm fronds, and twigs. Leaves, trash and branches can prevent water and light from reaching landscaped areas. Mildew and various pests can develop within excessive leaf litter. Removal of this debris can enhance the appearance and success of planted areas. Biodegradable landscape debris should be collected for onsite composting, green waste pick up or off-site disposal to a recycling facility. If space allows, create an onsite multi-bin compost system to dispose of clippings, thatch, leaves, branches, annuals, dead plant material, etc. Use the composted material to mulch the vegetated swales and other planting beds. Collect and properly dispose of all litter (once a week) from the following areas making sure limbs and branches are also removed from waterways: • Culverts • Trench grates • Gutters and depressions • Walks • Lawn areas • Planting beds • Bio-retention swales and rain gardens Source: http://www.lawnbarber.net/services.html Source: http://www.stripes.com/
    • Maintenance Guidelines SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 8168 Grass which is growing in the shade should be mowed slightly higher than normally recommended. Shade reduces photosynthetic production of food by the grass, but this can be partially overcome by higher mowing heights, which allow for greater leaf surface. Mowing schedule should be as follows: • Maximum 7 days between mowings in the months of April through November • Maximum 12 days between mowings in the months of December through March • Edging should be done on alternative mowing days Large areas of lawn: Alternate mowing directions each mowing cycle Small strips of lawn: Alternate mowing directions one (1) time per month B. Trimming: When mowing is complete, trim lawn with using a power or hand trimmer, at perimeters, trees zones, and other areas inaccessible by mower. Always trim to the same height as the mowed lawn, and never trim within two (2) feet of tree trunks to avoid scarring. C. Edging: Edging of lawn areas reduces migration of lawn onto walkways and into planted areas. Areas to be edged include lawn perimeters, tree zones and other areas where the spread of lawn is not desired. Refine lawn edges with mechanical blade- type edger four (4) times a year (see image 2-3 below). If plants overhang lawn at lawn/planting area edge, making it difficult to trim the grass, it is acceptable to increase the planting area slightly by creating a new edge and removing excess grass. Do not use edger within two (2) feet of trees to avoid accidental trunk damage. Source: http://russellstrimlawn.com/ html/about.html IMAGE 2-3: Keep lawn edges clearly defined with a mechanical edger Source: http://florida.mainscape.com/; Source: http://www.simpsonlawncare.com/
    • Maintenance Guidelines SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 8 169 Tree Pruning: Pruning is performed to promote plant health, enhance the natural character of trees and shrubs, meet clearances for vehicular and pedestrian traffic and for visual safety. Improper or excessive pruning can increase vulnerability to pests and disease resulting in unnatural, oddly shaped plants (see image 4-5 below). Properly timed pruning will help to preserve the landscape’s water efficiency. In South Florida, tree pruning, specifically with palm trees, pruning should take place before hurricane season. Tree pruning should consist of the removal of dead, dying, diseased, decayed, interfering, objectionable, and weak branches as well as selective thinning to lessen wind resistance. Tree trimming should always be done by thinning, never by reducing the canopy. All cuts should be made as close as possible to the trunk or parent limb, without cutting into the branch or protruding stub. All branches too large to support with one (1) hand should be precut to avoid splitting or tearing of the bark. Hat-racking is stubbing a branch, far from a bud or a new leader. For a plant to ‘heal’ or compartmentalize the pruning wound, the cut needs to be made at a point where the plant tissue can grow over or engulf the injury. This is not possible when dealing with, essentially, a broken-off twig. The plant tissue is not able to grow over the stub. It may attempt to grow over the cut stub, and result in a weak flap that will break out easily. Or it may result in a domino affect, that is, the cut end will decay, which will progress to internal twig rot, which will lead to trunk rot, which will result in an unstable (hazard) or sickly tree that will be unsightly. Poorly placed cuts will also lead to competing laterals sprouting into an unnatural looking ‘witch’s- broom’ appearance. There should be one (1) dominant leader (one [1] main trunk), depending on the species. A. Conifer Pruning: Maintain a 3’ clearance from grade for the first three (3) years after planting. Limb up as growth allows to eventually achieve a 6’ to 7’ clearance. Thin internal branches as appropriate for species, and never top prune conifer trees. IMAGE 4-5: A good pruning cut leaves the branch bark ridge intact. The ridge is the dark line you can see along side and over the top of the crotch. In poor cuts, decay rapidly follows in some trees, and forms an oval scar, see image on right. Source: http://enhtest.ifas.ufl.edu/woody/flushcut.html Source: http:// oasisirrigationsystems.com/ Source: http://www.gardening.sg/
    • Maintenance Guidelines SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 8170 Tree Staking: Stake newly planted trees or replacement trees to stabilize and prevent leaning during establishment (see images 1-3 below). Grooming Perennials and Ornamental Grasses: Maintaining perennials not only keeps a tidy appearance, it also keeps plants healthy from one growing season to the next. Grooming includes cutting off dead blooms and leaves, and hand- raking back grasses. Flowering plants: Remove spent flowers by cutting just above the nearest branch or bud Perennials: Cut back dying or dead and fallen foliage and stems Grasses: Do not cut back. Hand rake with a small rake or fingers to remove dead growth Mulch: Mulch type differs depending on the application. Mulch all newly planted and replacement plants to reduce the growth of weeds, and to help keep the soil moist for long periods of time. If possible, use composted mulch for natural drainage areas (see image 4 below), and medium bark for non-natural drainage areas and top dressing (see image 5 below). Make sure to mulch to a depth of 2” immediately after planting, and wet the area to decrease the chance of erosion. After watering, rake mulch to provide a uniform finished surface. At least one (1) carving and mulching per season is recommended, preferably in the spring because this helps neaten the property and creates a better overall appearance. Excessive moisture can wash away a great deal of mulch and also expedite the decay factor, leaving a lot of plant beds bare where a normal season would not. A second mulching (in the fall) each season would not only enhance the appearance of the property, but would also provide additional plant protection during the cooler winter months when applied properly. It is also beneficial to turn the mulch beds at least two (2) times during a season outside of the turning that takes place during mulching. This helps loosen the mulch, makes it look fresh and reduces the amount of mold and mildew that can accumulate in thick, compacted mulch. This is another way of renewing the appearance of mulch beds without the level of expense involved in another mulching. IMAGE 1-3: Soft staking materials can grow and move with the tree and allow some swaying, which encourages the tree to grow stronger roots. Support materials used for staking newly planted trees should be removed after the first year’s growth, otherwise deformed growth will occur, see image to right Source: www.123rf.com/; Source: http://www.homedepot.com/ IMAGE 4: Incorporating finished compost mulch into landscape beds amends the soil and allows water and air to better filter through the soil Source: http://www.gardening123.com
    • Maintenance Guidelines SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 8 171 Fertilizer and Pesticide Management: Avoid drift of pesticides to adjacent areas or to plants that may be eaten by man or animals. Do not allow pesticides to get into pools or water supplies. Store pesticides under lock and key in their original labeled containers, out of reach from children. The pesticides should only be used if there is an actual pest problem, meaning a regular preventative schedule should be avoided. Soils should be periodically tested to determine if pesticides are necessary, and if applied to soil, the chemicals need to be worked into the earth, rather then dumped on top of it. If pesticides must be used, do not apply if rain is expected or wind speeds are higher than 5 mph. Do not mix or prepare pesticides near storm drains. Also, prepare only the minimum amount of pesticide needed for the job and the lowest create that will effectively control the pest. If the litter collected is recyclable, such as bottles and cans, dispose within onsite recycling bins. Coordinate the emptying of recycling bins with the City’s waste management/recycling pick-up schedule. Once the pesticide application has been applied make sure to sweep pavement and sidewalk if fertilizer is spilled on these surfaces before applying irrigation water. The education and training of employees on the correct use of pesticides will not only help the environment, but will also set a standard, a sustainable approach to managing pests, which can be utilized by other people and cities. Lime Application: Acidic conditions may allow moss to establish itself in lawn areas. Lime can be used periodically to correct soil conditions by raising the pH. This adjustment improves the lawn’s ability to absorb nutrients. Weeding: Properly timed weeding also helps preserve the landscape’s water efficiency. Weeding, therefore, should de done a minimum of one (1) time per month, trees trimmed in mid summer during the month of July or August, and palms pruned of dead fronds a minimum of four (4) times a year. IMAGE 5: Medium bark mulch, sized 2” to 3,” is used as decorative ground cover to control weeds, retain moisture and beautify an area Source: http://www.sutherlandscape.com/prod- Source: http://recycling.facilities.txstate. edu/ Source: http://recycling.facilities. txstate.edu/
    • Maintenance Guidelines SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 8172 Irrigation: The amount of water, which a plant requires, depends on many factors such as: • Type and aeration of soil • Sun exposure • Establishment of plant • Size of leaves on plant “As a general rule younger and newly installed plants require more water than established ones. The test is to dig down 6”-9”; gather a handful of soil; and squeeze it. If the soil sticks together, the plants have adequate moisture; if it crumbles, the plant needs water. Repeat this test often enough in different areas (sun, shade, etc.) to determine the correct amount of watering required.”1 One way to improve the water absorption and compaction rate within planting beds, is the addition of organic matter to the soil. For all annual beds and pot plantings, the soil must be reconditioned yearly to help maintain maximum absorption and compaction rates. All irrigation heads should be inspected weekly to assure proper sparkler coverage, and locate missing heads for replacement. Cut around each lawn area head to insure proper clearance and rotation. Trimming should be performed by hand. 1Riverbend Lodge and model Park, Landscape Maintenance guidelines. Del Webb’s Sun City Hilton Head IMAGE 1: Removing weeds. Source: http://wdbo.com/ IMAGE 2: Hand- watering of plants. Source: http:// friendlygardener.com/ IMAGE 3: Irrigation of turf areas using rotors. http://salslandscapeandtree.liveonatt.com/ Missing irrigation heads will affect the watering coverage of the entire section, thus heads must be replaced as soon as found missing or broken before the wrong amount of water affects the plant materials. If irrigation heads are damaged during mowing then heads are to be replaced the same day. Review the watering schedule monthly, and check all watering zones to ensure they are working properly and at the correct times. Adjust clocks as necessary. Check all valve boxes for accumulation of debris and vandalism. A. Lawn Irrigation: Water should never be applied at a rate faster than it can be absorbed by the soil. The time of watering is also important. During dry periods, it may be necessary to water during the heat of the day. Water will cool the grass and prevent damage. When daytime watering is not possible, water whenever convenient. Late afternoon or early morning water which keeps the grass wet for any hours longer than normal can be detrimental. Extended wet periods encourage lawn diseases. “Water when the lawn is under stress from lack of water. There are several ways to tell when grass needs water: 1. Spots in the lawn which first turn a bluish- gray, and then turn brown. (see image 4 on the next page)
    • Maintenance Guidelines SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 8 173 2. If footprints remain in the grass long after walked upon, water is needed. If the plant is full of water, it will be resilient and withstand foot traffic. (see image 5 below). 3. If soil sample is taken in the grass long after walked upon, water is needed. 4. If prolonged dry periods of high temperatures and strong winds, all of the preceding symptoms may be seen. During these periods, plants may lose water faster than it is absorbed and will wilt. ”2 B. Extreme Drought Conditions In the event of extreme drought conditions where water regulations are set by a city wide irrigation reductions, cut back irrigation are in the following order: 3 1. Cut back water to level lawn areas (not swales/natural drainage areas). 2. Cut back water to trees and other level planted areas (not swales/natural drainage systems). 2 Riverbend Lodge and model Park, Landscape Maintenance guidelines. Del Webb’s sun City Hilton Head 3 SvR Design Company. High Point Community Landscape Maintenance Guidelines 3. Continue limited irrigation to maintain health and function of all swale/natural drainage areas. Drainage Facilities Modifications Bio-retention ponds, rain gardens (see image 1 below), and drainage swales require special ongoing maintenance and may warrant field modifications. Drainage facility problem areas can result from grading issues, improper material use, plant growth and establishment, intensive rain events or user impacts. Often with drainage swales, excessive and repeated erosion is currently an issue (see image 2 below). To avoid erosion, install cobbles at top or erosion channel. Cobble area should be 3 times the width of the erosion channel and at least 12 inches minimum length. IMAGE 4: After drought stress in lawns Source: http://www.agry.purdue.edu/ IMAGE 5: Over irrigated lawn Source: http://www.flickr.com
    • Maintenance Guidelines SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 8174 Equipment: The following equipment is recommended for use (purchase or rental) by maintenance personnel. Power Equipment 1. Truck 2. Riding Mulch Mower: To be used for lawn areas where feasible 3. Power Trimmer: To be used for cutting grass where a mower cannot reach 4. Power Edger: For redefining lawn edge along walks, driveways and planted areas 5. Power Core Aerator: To be used for aeration of lawn areas 6. Power Lawn Vacuum: For vacuuming up aeration of lawn areas 7. Power Thatcher: For thatch removal of lawn areas 8. Chipper: For breaking down woody material to be composted onsite or hauled away as green waste Manual Equipment: 1. Bypass Pruner: For shrub and perennial pruning and deadheading (see image 3 below) 2. Cultivator/Fork: For turning material at onsite compost facility 3. Gloves: Leather and cloth (see image 4 below) 4. Hand Tamper: For compacting natural drainage area soils, particularly in swales 5. Long-reach Pruners: For areas not easily accessible. Choose pruners with a 4’ to 5’ long handle and ‘cut and hold’ feature. 6. Loppers: For pruning shrubs and smaller tree branches 7. Manual Edgers: For redefining lawn edge where power edger is not possible 8. Manual Seed Broadcaster: For applying lawn seed following aeration, in place of power overseeder 9. Pincer-Type Weeders: Longhandled weeder IMAGE 1: Typical rain garden diagram Source: http://www.co.brown.mn.us/ IMAGE 2: Organic yard debris from erosion will cause an increase in ‘organic load’ in the water and promote algae blooms. Source: http://www.tomgoetz.com/ IMAGE 3: Bypass pruner Source: http://www. jamiedurie.com/
    • Maintenance Guidelines SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 8 175 for pulling weeds with their roots. 10. Blade Sharpeners 11. Pruner Grease or Lubricant 12. Push Broom 13. Rakes: Metal construction, seeding rakes and lawn rakes, including narrow width 14. Shovels: Flat, spade, transplanting spade in various widths and lengths 15. Tree Pruner: For trimming branches 16. Wheelbarrow: For transporting soil, mulch, plants and other landscape materials as needed. Specialty Items 1. Small Onsite Composting Bins: Smaller than residential bins (see image 5-6 below) IMAGE 4: Leather garden gloves Source: http://www. globalmr.com/ IMAGE 5-6: By composting on site the amount of waste sent to the landfills can be reduced. Plus, a useful product can be gained, reducing the amount of bought commercial compost. Source: http://www.globalmr.com/
    • 9Appendix
    • Appendix SFECC Station Design GuidelinesChapter 9178 The following documents have been included in the appendix for further reference: 1. Federal Register, July 1, 1994 Department of Justice 28 CFR Part 36 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Disability by Public Accommodations and in Commercial Facilities ADA Standards for Accessible Design 2. Waterwise: South Florida Landscapes- Landscaping To Promote Water Conservation Using the Principles of Xeriscape, South Florida Water Management District (www.sfwmd.gov) 3. Drought-tolerant Plants of Florida (from www.floridata.com) 4. Best Management Practices for Landscape Maintenance 5. Typical Lighting (Illuminance) Standards, Time-Saver Standards for Landscape Architecture Other referenced documents: • Accessibility Handbook for Transit Facilities: US Department of Transportation’s Federal Transit Administration, July 1992 • Guidelines for Station Site and Access Planning, Final Draft: Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority’s Department of Planning and Information Technology Office of Business Planning and Project Development, August 2005 • Amtrak Station Program and Planning Standards and Guidelines, Version 2.2: National Railroad Passenger Corporation, March 2008 • Tri-County Commuter Rail Authority’s Station Site Planning Guidelines, September1994 • Gannett Fleming Technical Memorandum on Station Guidelines, 2009
    • Appendix SFECC Station Design Guidelines Chapter 9 179 ADA Compliance: Federal law requires compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). The following is a list of items typically required for transportation and public facilities under the Americans with Disabilities Act. • Accessible parking • Curb cuts • Accessible entrance • Accessible telephones • TTY telephones • Train information display system • Visual paging system • Accessible restrooms • ADA compliant elevator • ADA compliant signage • Flashing/audible safety alarm system • Drinking fountains • Accessible boarding • Accessible ticket counter • Accessible Customer Service office Related Information: 1. Code of Federal Regulations Title 49-Part 37-Transportation Services for Individuals with Disabilities Subpart C Transportation Facilities, http://www.fta.dot.gov/civilrights/ada/ civil_rights_5936.html 2. Code of Federal Regulations Title 49-Part 38-Accessibility Specifications for Transportation, http://www.fta.dot.gov/ civilrights/ada/civil_rights_3905.html 3. Americans with Disabilities Act, Specifically the ADA Standards for Accessible Design (ADAAG), http://www.ada.gov/stdspdf.html