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Imperialism
 

Imperialism

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    Imperialism Imperialism Presentation Transcript

    • SOUTH ASIA COLONIALISM, NATIONALISM, INDEPENDENCE, AND VIOLENCE
    • Background to British rule
      • The Mughals invaded India and established a dynasty. (1526)
      • Muslim Mughal rulers began to persecute Hindus (1630s) . Hindus resisted Muslim rule and the empire began to crumble.
      • Maharajas (princes) broke away and formed independent states.
      • The East India Company traded with the princely states of the maharajas . (1600-1850s)
      White areas represent independent princely states ruled by maharajas.
    • The East India Company Gained Influence
      • British East India Company merchants traded with the maharajas and the company became powerful in India.
      • Maharajas got rich through trade with the East India Company.
      • The British government let the East India Company run affairs in India.
      • The Company hired and trained Indian soldiers called Sepoys to work for them.
    • The Sepoy Mutiny
      • British East India Company ignored Hindu and Muslim religious beliefs.
      • Sepoys’ cartridges were greased with beef and pork fat.
      • Full-scale rebellion broke out in 1857.
      • Maharajas supported East India Company.
    • British Government Takes Full Control
      • British defeated the sepoys.
      • India became a colony, ruled directly by a British viceroy. Princely states remain independent.
      • Queen Victoria became empress of India. (1877)
      • British built railroads to carry raw materials to the coast.
      • Some Indians received British education, but are treated as second-class citizens.
    • Nationalist Movements Grow
    • Gandhi Leads Nonviolent Resistance
      • Hindu religious leader, British educated
      • “ Mahatma” (Great Soul)
      • Civil disobedience (disobeying an unjust law to protest it)
      • Passive resistance (refusing to cooperate, but without violence)
    • Muhammad Ali Jinnah Led the Muslim League
      • At first, Jinnah cooperated with Indian National Congress to work for independence.
      • Later he demanded an independent Muslim state.
    • India Became Independent
      • After World War II, the British gave up their claims to India and granted independence. (1947)
      • Rather than one unified Indian nation, two nations were created: a Hindu nation of India, and a Muslim nation of Pakistan.
      India’s National Flag Pakistan’s National Flag
    • Migration and Massacres
      • Hindus in Pakistan began moving to India.
      • Muslims in India began moving to Pakistan.
      • Violence broke out in cities; groups of emigrants attacked one another; hundreds of thousands of people were killed.
    • National Boundaries
      • At first, Pakistan included both gray areas on the map: West Pakistan (today’s Pakistan) and East Pakistan (which today is Bangladesh).
      • India later helped the people of Bangladesh fight to gain independence from Pakistan. (1971)
    • Violence Continues...
      • India and Pakistan continue fighting over territory they both claim in Kashmir .
      • Both countries possess nuclear weapons to defend against each other.