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Ionic compounds notes Presentation Transcript

  • 1. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Chapter 7 Ionic and Metallic Bonding 7.1 Ions 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds 7.3 Bonding in Metals 1 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 2. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > CHEMISTRY & YOU Where does table salt come from? In some countries, salt is obtained by the evaporation of seawater. In other countries, salt is mined from rock deposits deep underground. 2 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 3. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Formation of Ionic Compounds Formation of Ionic Compounds What is the electrical charge of an ionic compound? 3 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 4. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Formation of Ionic Compounds Sodium chloride, or table salt, is an ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and chloride anions. • An ionic compound is a compound composed of cations and anions. 4 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 5. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Formation of Ionic Compounds Although they are composed of ions, ionic compounds are electrically neutral. • The total positive charge of the cations equals the total negative charge of the anions. 5 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 6. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Formation of Ionic Compounds Ionic Bonds Anions and cations have opposite charges and attract one another by means of electrostatic forces. • The electrostatic forces that hold ions together in ionic compounds are called ionic bonds. 6 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 7. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Formation of Ionic Compounds Ionic Bonds When sodium and chlorine react to form a compound, the sodium atom transfers its one valence electron to the chlorine atom. • Sodium and chlorine atoms combine in a one-toone ratio, and both ions have stable octets. 7 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 8. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Formation of Ionic Compounds Ionic Bonds Aluminum metal (Al) and the nonmetal bromine (Br2) react violently to form the ionic solid aluminum bromide (AlBr3). • Each bromine atom has seven valence electrons and readily gains one additional electron. • Three bromine atoms combine with each aluminum atom. 8 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 9. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Formation of Ionic Compounds Formula Units A chemical formula shows the numbers of atoms of each element in the smallest representative unit of a substance. • NaCl is the chemical formula for sodium chloride. 9 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 10. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Formation of Ionic Compounds Formula Units Ionic compounds do not exist as discrete units, but as collections of positively and negatively charged ions arranged in repeating patterns. 10 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 11. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Formation of Ionic Compounds Formula Units The chemical formula of an ionic compound refers to a ratio known as a formula unit. • A formula unit is the lowest wholenumber ratio of ions in an ionic compound. 11 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 12. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Formation of Ionic Compounds Formula Units For sodium chloride, the lowest wholenumber ratio of the ions is 1:1 (one Na+ ion to each Cl– ion). • The formula unit for sodium chloride is NaCl. • Although ionic charges are used to derive the correct formula, they are not shown when you write the formula unit of the compound. 12 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 13. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Sample Problem 7.1 Predicting Formulas of Ionic Compounds Use electron dot structures to predict the formulas of the ionic compounds formed from the following elements: a. potassium and oxygen b. magnesium and nitrogen 13 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 14. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Sample Problem 7.1 1 Analyze Identify the relevant concepts. • Atoms of metals lose valence electrons when forming an ionic compound. • Atoms of nonmetals gain electrons. • Enough atoms of each element must be used in the formula so that electrons lost equal electrons gained. 14 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 15. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Sample Problem 7.1 2 Solve Apply the concepts to this problem. a. Start with the atoms. •• •• • and • O K • 15 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 16. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Sample Problem 7.1 2 Solve Apply the concepts to this problem. a. In order to have a completely filled valence shell, the oxygen atom must gain two electrons. These electrons come from two potassium atoms, each of which loses one electron. K• K+ •• O •• 2– •• •• 16 •• K• + •• •O • K+ Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 17. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Sample Problem 7.1 2 Solve Apply the concepts to this problem. a. Express the electron dot structure as a formula. • The formula of the compound formed is K2O (potassium oxide). 17 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 18. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Sample Problem 7.1 2 Solve Apply the concepts to this problem. b. Start with the atoms. • • • 18 •• Mg and • N • Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 19. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Sample Problem 7.1 2 Solve Apply the concepts to this problem. b. Each nitrogen atom needs three electrons to have an octet, but each magnesium atom can lose only two electrons. Three magnesium atoms are needed for every two nitrogen atoms. • • Mg • 19 •N • Mg2+ •• N •• 3– •• N •• 3– •• •• Mg • •• • • + •N • Mg2+ •• •• • • •• Mg Mg2+ Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 20. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Sample Problem 7.1 2 Solve Apply the concepts to this problem. b. Express the electron dot structure as a formula. • The formula of the compound formed is Mg3N2 (magnesium nitride). 20 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 21. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Use electron dot structures to determine the formula of the ionic compound formed when calcium reacts with fluorine. 21 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 22. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Use electron dot structures to determine the formula of the ionic compound formed when calcium reacts with fluorine. • Ca – Ca2+ •• F •• – •• •• •• F • •• •• • + •• F •• •• •• •• •• •• F • CaF2 22 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 23. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Properties of Ionic Compounds Properties of Ionic Compounds What are three properties of ionic compounds? 23 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 24. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Properties of Ionic Compounds Most ionic compounds are crystalline solids at room temperature. • The component ions in such crystals are arranged in repeating threedimensional patterns. The beauty of crystalline solids comes from the orderly arrangement of their component ions. 24 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 25. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Properties of Ionic Compounds Each ion is attracted strongly to each of its neighbors, and repulsions are minimized. • The large attractive forces result in a very stable structure. 25 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 26. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Properties of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds generally have high melting points. 26 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 27. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > CHEMISTRY & YOU Would you expect to find sodium chloride in underground rock deposits as a solid, liquid, or gas? Explain. 27 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 28. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > CHEMISTRY & YOU Would you expect to find sodium chloride in underground rock deposits as a solid, liquid, or gas? Explain. Sodium chloride is found in underground rock deposits as a solid. Like most ionic compounds, sodium chloride has a high melting point (about 800°C). 28 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 29. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Properties of Ionic Compounds The coordination number of an ion is the number of ions of opposite charge that surround the ion in a crystal. • In NaCl, each ion has a coordination number of 6. – The coordination number of Na+ is 6 because each Na+ ion is surrounded by six Cl– ions. – The coordination number of Cl– is also 6 because each Cl– ion is surrounded by six Na+ ions. 29 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 30. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Properties of Ionic Compounds In CsCl, each ion has a coordination number of 8. • Each Cs+ ion is surrounded by eight Cl– ions. • Each Cl– ion is surrounded by eight Cs+ ions. 30 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 31. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Properties of Ionic Compounds Titanium dioxide (TiO2), or rutile, forms tetragonal crystals. • The coordination number for the cation (Ti4+) is 6. – Each Ti4+ ion is surrounded by six O2– ions. • The coordination number of the anion (O2–) is 3. – Each O2– ion is surrounded by three Ti4+ ions. 31 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 32. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Properties of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds can conduct an electric current when melted or dissolved in water. 32 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 33. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Properties of Ionic Compounds When sodium chloride is melted, the orderly crystal structure breaks down. Power source • If a voltage is applied across this molten mass, cations migrate freely to one electrode and anions migrate to the other. Current meter Flow of electrons Inert metal electrodes Flow of electrons Cl– Na+ To (+) electrode To (–) electrode • This movement of electrons allows electric current to flow between the electrodes through an external wire. 33 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 34. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Properties of Ionic Compounds This solar facility uses molten NaCl for its ability to absorb and hold a large quantity of heat, which is used to generate electricity. 34 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 35. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Properties of Ionic Compounds Ionic compounds also conduct electric current if they are dissolved in water. • When dissolved, the ions are free to move about in the solution. 35 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 36. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > When can ionic compounds conduct an electric current? A. Only when melted B. When melted or dissolved in water C. Only when dissolved in water D. When solid or melted 36 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 37. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > When can ionic compounds conduct an electric current? A. Only when melted B. When melted or dissolved in water C. Only when dissolved in water D. When solid or melted 37 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 38. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Key Concepts Although they are composed of ions, ionic compounds are electrically neutral. Most ionic compounds are crystalline solids at room temperature. Ionic compounds generally have high melting points. Ionic compounds can conduct an electric current when melted or dissolved in water. 38 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 39. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Glossary Terms • ionic compound: a compound composed of positive and negative ions • ionic bond: the electrostatic attraction that binds oppositely charged ions together • chemical formula: an expression that indicates the number and type of atoms present in the smallest representative unit of a substance 39 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 40. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > Glossary Terms • formula unit: the lowest whole-number ratio of ions in an ionic compound; in magnesium chloride, the ratio of magnesium ions to chloride ions is 1:2 and the formula unit is MgCl2 • coordination number: the number of ions of opposite charge that surround each ion in a crystal 40 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 41. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > BIG IDEA Bonding and Interactions • The electrostatic forces between the oppositely charged ions hold the cations and anions together in an ionic compound. • Ionic compounds generally have high melting points and can conduct an electric current in solution and in the molten state. 41 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.
  • 42. 7.2 Ionic Bonds and Ionic Compounds > END OF 7.2 42 Copyright © Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved.