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The Weimar Republic
 

The Weimar Republic

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    The Weimar Republic The Weimar Republic Presentation Transcript

    • Weimar Germany 1919- 1933
      • By Keila Munz and Alex Salvatore
    • Versailles Treaty
      • Drafted by Britain (George), France (Clemenceau), Italy (Orlando), and the US (Wilson)
      • Germany lost land
        • creation of “mandates”
      • was forced to pay for war reparations, “war guilt”
    • tan- annexed by neighboring countries after WWI Green- taken by the League of Nations red- Weimar Republic 1919-1933
    • Weimar Constitution
      • Drafted by the National Assembly of Germany
      • Turned Germany into a parliamentary [Reichstag] Democracy whose members were elected by the people
      • President Freidrich Ebert monitered the Reichstag
    • Berlin Culture
      • Development of German Expressionism
      • Developed architecture, literature, film, painting, music, philosophy, psychology and fashion
      • The humboldt university of Berlin was the center of intellectual activity in Germany, Europe and the World
      • Albert Einstein worked for the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute of Physics
    • German expressionism
      • art movement reflected in many different types of media
      • demonstrates a distorted reality as well as a depiction the artists mental state of being
      • three subdivisions of the movement were the “die Brucke”, the “blaue reiter”, and the Rhenish Expressionists
      • Die Brucke- influenced by Freudian theories, create art to challenge the accepted taste
      • Blaue Reiter- disdained every principle of the die brucke, portrayed the world as it existed
      • The Rhenish Expressionists- thoughts and ideas best portayed through form, people had become a collective group of individuals who fell to the mercy of their society and its politics
    • Bauhaus Architecture
      • The Bauhaus school of architecture was founded in weimar in 1919
      • Founded by walter Gropius
      • one of the main goals was to renew architecture and develop creative minds for architecture and industry
      • means “the building of the future”
      • motto: “art and technology-a new unity”
    • Literature
      • Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956)- poet, playwright, and theatrical performer
      • developed epic theater form of drama
      • attended Ludwig maximilian University of Munich
      • studies Karl Marx’s, later adapted Communist beliefs
      • his books and plays were banned from germany in the 1930’s
      • went into exile and didn’t return to germany until after WWII
    • literature continued
      • Thomas Mann
        • german essayist, cultural critic and novelist
        • won nobel prize for literature in 1929
        • Buddenbrooks-1901- most famous work
        • Der Kleine Herr Friedmann- 1898
        • influenced by Schopenhauer and Nietzsche
        • called German intellectuals to support the new weimar state
      • “ all Quiet on the Western Front” by Erich Maria remarque-1924
      • Like in Art, Berlin became the world leader in cinema. It made more films in the 1920s than all of Europe put together
      • Fritz Lang- “Master of Darkness” his most famous films are metropolis and M
      • Joseph von Sternberg- had influence on the film noir period and is known for his mastery of the mise-en-scene, lighting and the soft lens
        • collaborated with Marlene Dietrich
      film
    • Dadaism
      • anti-art movement
      • rejected the way art was appreciated and defined in contemporary art scenes
      • started in switzerland
      • George Grosz- savage caricature drawings of 1920s berlin- beginning of political cartoons- associated with the left wing
    • Music
      • Liszt School of music- first orchestral school in Germany founded in 1872
      • Kurt Weill- prominent Jewish composer- collaborated with Bertolt Brecht on the Beggar’s Opera and The Seven Deadly Sins ballet
      • Otto Klemperer- Jewish composer and conductor- fled Germany in 1933 and became music director of the LA Philharmonic
    • Wall Street Crash-1929
      • help trigger the collapse of the world economy
        • world trade and industrial production dropped dramatically
      • under the Dawes plan, the US provided loans to germany, when the US economy crashed, so did the German economy
      • Weimar government increased taxes and lowered wages of government officials which only made things worse
    • The Depression Unemployment shot up. By 1932 unemployment figures stood at a missive 6 million German businesses closed down as loans were repaid and trade dramatically slumped Millions of Germans became homeless, and set up camps on the outskirts of towns. They became reliant on charity food and soup kitchens
    • Inflation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hfSDPY5rYZE
    • the Rise of the Nazis
      • once the stock market crashed, people began to blame the weimar government
        • they began to look at the Nazi party who promised hope
      • earlier attempted to overthrow the government in the Beer Hall Putsch of 1923
      • in 1933 the Nazis were the biggest Political party in Germany later that year, hitler was elected Chancellor of Germamy
      • By the end of 1933, hitler had seized power and proclaimed the third reich