Learning in the City
through Pervasive
Gaming
Nikolaos Avouris
[Univ. Patras, GR]
rePLAYCE:theCITY, Gessnerallee, Zürich, ...
Our point of view
Interaction design –>study of humancomputer interaction-> learning technologies
design of mobile applica...
Mobile Games
• Multiplayer games in which the play is
affected by the players’ location. They
involve embedding location-s...
Mobile games: examples
• The most cited (first generation) location
based games: Savannah [Benford, 04], [Benford, 05a],
[...
Mobile games: examples
• The most cited (first generation) location
based games: Savannah [Benford, 04], [Benford, 05a],
[...
Hybrid game spaces
Game space

Physical space
6
Hybrid game spaces
Game space

Virtual (Digital)
space
Physical space
7
Intra-spaces connections
• QR codes/ NFC scanning
• Image recognition
• Gestures
• Location-based instructions
encoding
8
Intra-spaces connections

QR codes (quick response codes)

NFCtags (Near Field
Communication)
9
Gesture interaction modalities

Scan an image

Invaders Zone using Vuforia
framework

Source: RExplorer
(Youtube)

Gesture...
Location-based instructions encoding
for progressing narration
• Ruyi from

whaiwhai

http://www.whaiwhai.com/en

11
Primitive player actions
The players - through a mobile device perform actions (selection of an item, reply to
a quiz, etc...
Examples of actions meaning
•
•
•
•
•
•

Collecting a piece of information
Unlocking next part of a story
Receiving furthe...
Our cities contain an invisible
layer of cultural heritage

TimeMachine project

14
Gap between “high” and
“popular” culture
• Young generations are attracted by “popular”
cultures, like the game culture
• ...
Can mobile city games
lead to learning ?

16
Mobile games & learning
De Souza & Delacruz (2006) claim that these
games facilitate learning :
• Social learning
– Multiu...
Mobile games & learning
Schrier (2006) identified an evaluation
framework for location-based games based
on so called 21st...
Pervasive fun vs learning games
peadic
Museum Role
Playing Games
Museum
Interactive
Guides
Situated
Language
Learning
Muse...
Examples of learning in the city
• Learning about the city (tourists,
discovery of new facts)
• Learning through the city ...
Examples

• CityScrabble (linking game)
• InvisibleCity (party game
made city game)
• Who Killed Hannae (fiction in
the ci...
CityScrabble

A

B

C
22
CityScrabble: Connect spots
to keys/themes

By scanning an object
you can select it. By
pressing the lock the
object may b...
CarnivalScrabble : large
scale implementation of
CityScrabble

24
Patras’ Carnival: the treasure hunt game

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patras_Carnival

25
CarnivalScrabble
• Based on the CityScrabble idea
(linking places-themes)
• An activity in the 2013 Treasure
Hunt game of ...
Learning in CityScrabble
• The game was designed with a top-down
strategy in mind, where the players pursue
their goal by ...
CityScrabble: disconnected places
Places as cut out letters just factual
disconnected information (Klopfer et al.,
2005) e...
Preference for visual keys

Visual vs cognitive hints: preference to visual hints that
were consumed faster in the first p...
Invisible City:
Rebels vs Spies (RvS)
Inspired by: Mafia game,
aka Night in Palermo, Werewolves,
Assassins...

Asymmetrica...
Invisible city
Rebels Vs Spies: Expanding the concept

Rebels → Uninformed majority
Spies → Informed minority
31
Invisible city
Rebels Vs Spies: Expanding the concept

At the beginning of a round
the players gather together and
choose ...
Invisible city
Rebels Vs Spies: Expanding the concept

A leader is elected who decides the
missions for each player
33
Invisible city
Rebels Vs Spies: Expanding the concept

The leader sends the missions to the players
and becomes a normal p...
Invisible city
Rebels Vs Spies: Expanding the concept

Each player proceeds to find the location
mentioned in the assigned...
Invisible city
Rebels Vs Spies: Expanding the concept

The players can choose to either
succeed or fail

36
Invisible city
Rebels Vs Spies: Expanding the concept

After completing the mission players
proceed to the location for th...
Invisible city
Rebels Vs Spies: Expanding the concept

Spatial expansion
From the room → To the city
Locations are spread ...
RvS: a session of play

39
Game evaluation study

40
Invisible cities: familiar places seen
through a new perspective
[ Extract 1 ]
R. Did you learn something about the city t...
Historic layer
[ Extract 2 ]
R: So, what would you say that you learned?
S. That the church of Pantocratoras was an
ancien...
Visitors vs locals learning
[ Extract 3 ]
R: Do you think that the game would be useful for
a visitor who doesn’t know the...
Selective attention
[ Extract 4 ]
R: Did you have the chance to look around when
you were playing?
K: I knew the surroundi...
Fragmented experience

• More interesting the meeting
points where all players gathered
than the executing the tasks
when ...
Who Killed Hannae
(fiction in the city)
• A mystery story in the
city of Aalborg (Paay et
al. 2008) – existing novel
• Epi...
Who Killed Hannae
• The story is delivered in the
form of newspaper, digital
character interactions
• Users collect key ev...
Learning in “Who killed Hannae”
Participants all enjoyed walking through the
city of Aalborg; in fact current residents of...
Frequency 1550 (education game)
• The Place: Medieval Amsterdam
• The story: Players have to gain
366 points or days of ci...
Frequency 1550
• The headquarters monitor the mobile team and
guide them through the tasks, they receive
information from ...
Learning in Frequency 1550
• Active experience of history adds to historical
awareness, knowledge and appreciation of the ...
Learning in Frequency 1550
• Players did not pay attention to the
backstory, the technology drew their
attention
• Not rea...
Learning in Mobile city games

Games mostly focus on factual
information → games as vehicles for
transferring new informat...
Learning in Mobile city games
However information is all there is to
learn about a city?
Embodied experience
City narrativ...
… discussion
• in the context of this type of games
places or buildings are treated as a
bunch of disconnected and deconte...
… discussion
• Narrative is lost because attention is
drawn to physical activity, city life
distraction, etc
• No reading ...
Players as game designers
Contribution of new
objects, in InvisibleCity
Mission tasks can be
contributed through a web
sit...
Players as Designers
• Contributing content
• Modifying game elements
• Using existing design patterns
– Previous design k...
Learning through participation
in game design
• Active –constructive learning (users: cocreators of new ideas, knowledge a...
Designing CityScrabble
• Choosing from a set of different types of links:
(i.e. Stars: One to many, Chains:A is linked to ...
Playing by constructing your game

Two teams compete by creating questions
relating to modern art gallery exhibits
Di Lore...
Open Design Patterns
Deriving Design Patterns through a game
design workshop
Similar to: Pervasive Games Design Patterns
D...
Pompeii Game
Design Workshop
• The task is to design a game for the
archaeological site of Pompeii, given
design material ...
Pompeii Game Design Workshop
The aim of the activity is each group to
design a game where the players move
in the archaeol...
The Pompeii Design Workshop

65
The Pompeii Design Workshop

66
Pompeii Design Workshop

: the Worksheet

The objective
What is the aim of the game? What
The rules
will you explain basic...
32 game designs were produced in 6
workshops in 4 different countries

Zakynthos, GR :
Summer School
on Technologies
for C...
Design workshops

Pecs, HU,
Erasmus IP on
cultural heritage
management
69
Games: the titles

70
Deriving design patterns
By applying methods from content
analysis and grounded theory we
identified codes in the design
d...
Design Patterns

http://hci.ece.upatras.gr/l-bags/ (soon in English)

72
Cooperation
Information awareness
Competition

The cooperation and competition between players/groups is adjusted by
contr...
Experimental use of design patterns

74
Using design patterns
Using it as a checklist
Getting new ideas
Refining an initial idea
Checking old solutions to new
pro...
The Pompeii workshop
An open repository of design
knowledge for city mobile games
hci.ece.upatras.gr/pompeiigame/

Sintori...
thanks

hci.edu.gr
77
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Learning in the city through pervasive gaming

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This is the slides of an invited talk at a very interesting event in Zurich on November 7 to 9. Put up my trans4mator
http://www.trans4mator.net/styled-2/page9/index.html

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Learning in the city through pervasive gaming

  1. 1. Learning in the City through Pervasive Gaming Nikolaos Avouris [Univ. Patras, GR] rePLAYCE:theCITY, Gessnerallee, Zürich, Nov 7-9/2013 1
  2. 2. Our point of view Interaction design –>study of humancomputer interaction-> learning technologies design of mobile applications->design of mobile games MuseumScrabble BenakiMS CityScrabble Invaders Zone Invisible City RvS 2
  3. 3. Mobile Games • Multiplayer games in which the play is affected by the players’ location. They involve embedding location-specific contextual information in physical space, defining an interlinked physical and digital space through the use of mobile devices, wireless and sensing technologies. • Alternative terms used are hybrid reality games (emphasis in the interlinking of physical and digital realities), augmented reality games, or pervasive games (emphasis on the extension of game in temporal, spatial and social dimensions). 3
  4. 4. Mobile games: examples • The most cited (first generation) location based games: Savannah [Benford, 04], [Benford, 05a], [Benford 05b], FeedingYoshi [Bell, 06], Mobilegame [Schwabe 05], [Göth, 04], UncleRoy [Benford, 06], Camelot [Verhaegh, 06], [Soute, 07], [Soute, 10], CitiTag [Vogiazou, 07], [Vogiazou, 05], Relive the Revolution (RTR), [Schrier 06], [Schrier 05], CityExplorer [Matyas 07], [Schlieder 06], Hitchers [Drozd 06], Mogi [Licoppe 08], [Licoppe 05], Jindeo [Licoppe 06], Riot! [Blythe 06], Frequency1550 [Raessens 07], MobileHunters [Lonthoff 07] and AlienRevolt [De Souza 08]. From [Avouris&Yiannoutsou 2012] 4
  5. 5. Mobile games: examples • The most cited (first generation) location based games: Savannah [Benford, 04], [Benford, 05a], [Benford 05b], FeedingYoshi [Bell, 06], Mobilegame [Schwabe 05], [Göth, 04], UncleRoy [Benford, 06], Camelot [Verhaegh, 06], [Soute, 07], [Soute, 10], CitiTag [Vogiazou, 07], [Vogiazou, 05], Relive the Revolution (RTR), [Schrier 06], [Schrier 05], CityExplorer [Matyas 07], [Schlieder 06], Hitchers [Drozd 06], Mogi [Licoppe 08], [Licoppe 05], Jindeo [Licoppe 06], Riot! [Blythe 06], Frequency1550 [Raessens 07], MobileHunters [Lonthoff 07] and AlienRevolt [De Souza 08]. From [Avouris&Yiannoutsou 2012] 5
  6. 6. Hybrid game spaces Game space Physical space 6
  7. 7. Hybrid game spaces Game space Virtual (Digital) space Physical space 7
  8. 8. Intra-spaces connections • QR codes/ NFC scanning • Image recognition • Gestures • Location-based instructions encoding 8
  9. 9. Intra-spaces connections QR codes (quick response codes) NFCtags (Near Field Communication) 9
  10. 10. Gesture interaction modalities Scan an image Invaders Zone using Vuforia framework Source: RExplorer (Youtube) Gesture-based interaction 10
  11. 11. Location-based instructions encoding for progressing narration • Ruyi from whaiwhai http://www.whaiwhai.com/en 11
  12. 12. Primitive player actions The players - through a mobile device perform actions (selection of an item, reply to a quiz, etc.) that affect the state of the game. The context of actions in game & physical space, and the player identity, give meaning to the actions. e.g. proximity of two players may allow some possible interactions between them, based on the fact that they belong to the same or competing teams. 12
  13. 13. Examples of actions meaning • • • • • • Collecting a piece of information Unlocking next part of a story Receiving further instructions Replying to a question, doing a puzzle Linking objects (action as part of a sequence) Transporting “virtual objects” between positions (action as part of a sequence) • Modifying the state of an object, i.e. locking or unlocking it 13
  14. 14. Our cities contain an invisible layer of cultural heritage TimeMachine project 14
  15. 15. Gap between “high” and “popular” culture • Young generations are attracted by “popular” cultures, like the game culture • It has been observed that there is a distance of young generations from “high culture”, e.g. the official cultural institutions, monuments, heritage * • This gap may be bridged by mobile city games with learning potential * EC. Access of Young People to Culture, Final Report EACEA/2008/01 15
  16. 16. Can mobile city games lead to learning ? 16
  17. 17. Mobile games & learning De Souza & Delacruz (2006) claim that these games facilitate learning : • Social learning – Multiuser activities content is created through communication and collaboration • Experiential learning – The game provides opportunities for action and reflection on action • Situated learning – Activity takes place in relevant physical location 17
  18. 18. Mobile games & learning Schrier (2006) identified an evaluation framework for location-based games based on so called 21st century learning skills: http://www.p21.org/ 18
  19. 19. Pervasive fun vs learning games peadic Museum Role Playing Games Museum Interactive Guides Situated Language Learning Museum Guides Partcipatory Simulators Role Playing Games Fiction in the City Adventure Games Treasure Hunts Action games ludic Avouris N., Yiannoutsou N. (2012) A review of mobile location-based games for learning across physical and virtual spaces Journal of Universal Computer Science, vol 18. 19
  20. 20. Examples of learning in the city • Learning about the city (tourists, discovery of new facts) • Learning through the city (learning inspired by landmarks, historic sites, etc.) • Learning to live in the city (citizens’ skills, solving everyday problems) Int. Observatory for Smart City Learning 20
  21. 21. Examples • CityScrabble (linking game) • InvisibleCity (party game made city game) • Who Killed Hannae (fiction in the city) • Frequency 1550 (education city game) 21
  22. 22. CityScrabble A B C 22
  23. 23. CityScrabble: Connect spots to keys/themes By scanning an object you can select it. By pressing the lock the object may be connected to a key, thus points may be gained if the connection is correct. 23
  24. 24. CarnivalScrabble : large scale implementation of CityScrabble 24
  25. 25. Patras’ Carnival: the treasure hunt game http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patras_Carnival 25
  26. 26. CarnivalScrabble • Based on the CityScrabble idea (linking places-themes) • An activity in the 2013 Treasure Hunt game of Patras’ Carnival • Over 80 competing groups using their mobile phones for following instructions • over 200 points in the city of Patras, the players where asked to access and relate them to 28 themes. 26
  27. 27. Learning in CityScrabble • The game was designed with a top-down strategy in mind, where the players pursue their goal by selecting a topic, searching for objects of interest, creating links and so on. • However, some of the teams switched to bottom-up strategies, first scanning an object and then flipping through the topics searching for a hint that can be used in a meaningful link. Based on Sintoris et al. 2012, evaluation of MuseumScrabble 27
  28. 28. CityScrabble: disconnected places Places as cut out letters just factual disconnected information (Klopfer et al., 2005) e.g. 28
  29. 29. Preference for visual keys Visual vs cognitive hints: preference to visual hints that were consumed faster in the first part of the game 29
  30. 30. Invisible City: Rebels vs Spies (RvS) Inspired by: Mafia game, aka Night in Palermo, Werewolves, Assassins... Asymmetrical information, informed minority VS un-informed majority a social game of trust, deception, observation and performance www.invisiblecity.gr 30
  31. 31. Invisible city Rebels Vs Spies: Expanding the concept Rebels → Uninformed majority Spies → Informed minority 31
  32. 32. Invisible city Rebels Vs Spies: Expanding the concept At the beginning of a round the players gather together and choose a leader 32
  33. 33. Invisible city Rebels Vs Spies: Expanding the concept A leader is elected who decides the missions for each player 33
  34. 34. Invisible city Rebels Vs Spies: Expanding the concept The leader sends the missions to the players and becomes a normal player Some missions are critical, some are not If a critical mission fails, the round goes to the spies 34
  35. 35. Invisible city Rebels Vs Spies: Expanding the concept Each player proceeds to find the location mentioned in the assigned mission 35
  36. 36. Invisible city Rebels Vs Spies: Expanding the concept The players can choose to either succeed or fail 36
  37. 37. Invisible city Rebels Vs Spies: Expanding the concept After completing the mission players proceed to the location for the next round 37
  38. 38. Invisible city Rebels Vs Spies: Expanding the concept Spatial expansion From the room → To the city Locations are spread out Players cannot observe each other Meaning and storyline is fragmented Situated play and contextual knowledge Incorporate contextual information Engagement through physical involvement Integrate a coherent narrative 38
  39. 39. RvS: a session of play 39
  40. 40. Game evaluation study 40
  41. 41. Invisible cities: familiar places seen through a new perspective [ Extract 1 ] R. Did you learn something about the city that you didn’t know before playing the game? A: We didn’t know any of it…. it was all new. S: Yes, everything was new …. M: …. we walk every day by these sites but we had no idea of all these things about them 41
  42. 42. Historic layer [ Extract 2 ] R: So, what would you say that you learned? S. That the church of Pantocratoras was an ancient temple before. M: I was impressed with the information about the Mayor (information about an ex Mayor during the period 1949-1967) 42
  43. 43. Visitors vs locals learning [ Extract 3 ] R: Do you think that the game would be useful for a visitor who doesn’t know the city? A: The game is not about “getting to know” the city, it is about “discovering the city”. The game is not designed for a visitor who wants to learn what the characteristic sites of this city are. The questions are about discovering the invisible citythings that were hidden and not obvious when you look at the buildings for example. 43
  44. 44. Selective attention [ Extract 4 ] R: Did you have the chance to look around when you were playing? K: I knew the surroundings more or less. …. They missed the no-game related parts of activity, they used the “game lens” to look into the city 44
  45. 45. Fragmented experience • More interesting the meeting points where all players gathered than the executing the tasks when learning about the city takes place. • Tasks interrupted by other events • Tiring experience 45
  46. 46. Who Killed Hannae (fiction in the city) • A mystery story in the city of Aalborg (Paay et al. 2008) – existing novel • Episodes of the book are linked to sites of the city. • Players play the role of a detective • Two players collaborate to solve the mystery 46
  47. 47. Who Killed Hannae • The story is delivered in the form of newspaper, digital character interactions • Users collect key evidence (i.e. pictures of objects or responses from digital characters When they are successful they are rewarded with a half sign. When two half signs are combined the next stop appears on the map and the story continues 47
  48. 48. Learning in “Who killed Hannae” Participants all enjoyed walking through the city of Aalborg; in fact current residents of Aalborg claimed that they had learned new things about their city. For example, the existence of the Aalborg Convent, hidden near the central city shopping precinct, and its historical associations with the Danish resistance during World War II had not previously been known to any of the participants.” (Paay et al., 2008, p. 128). 48
  49. 49. Frequency 1550 (education game) • The Place: Medieval Amsterdam • The story: Players have to gain 366 points or days of citizenship (a year and a day rule to earn civil rights • Two teams in each group: Headquarters (HQT) and mobile City Team (CT) • Mobile groups undertake the role of merchants, beggars, priests with different status order in the game 49
  50. 50. Frequency 1550 • The headquarters monitor the mobile team and guide them through the tasks, they receive information from the mobile team and make further investigations (Directing the game) • The mobile team implements the tasks: go to this place and take a picture or a video. Involve specific places of interest (Play the game) • Six areas of medieval Amsterdam linked to different assignments: labor, trade, religion, rules, government, knowledge, defense 50
  51. 51. Learning in Frequency 1550 • Active experience of history adds to historical awareness, knowledge and appreciation of the city and its history (constructionist approach, Raessens, 2007) • [Akkerman, 09] observed that ... the city teams who enacted the story, were often distracted by all that was happening in real time in the street, so while trying to find their way through the city, they lost the sight of the overall structure of the game and its narrative and learning effect • Directors (HQT) learned more than Actors (CT) Akkerman, eta l. 2009 51
  52. 52. Learning in Frequency 1550 • Players did not pay attention to the backstory, the technology drew their attention • Not reading the texts that delivered them historic information and advanced the story, they were more triggered to complete the assignments Akkerman, eta l. 2009 52
  53. 53. Learning in Mobile city games Games mostly focus on factual information → games as vehicles for transferring new information to the players Yet searching for this information in an intriguing, engaging and pleasant activity. 53
  54. 54. Learning in Mobile city games However information is all there is to learn about a city? Embodied experience City narrative Balance is needed between exhausting players with “making” activities and more cognitive problem solving activity 54
  55. 55. … discussion • in the context of this type of games places or buildings are treated as a bunch of disconnected and decontextualized things • Game vs Fun: Players observed that the needed attention on the place and on factual information is “the price they had to pay” in order for the fun to continue 55
  56. 56. … discussion • Narrative is lost because attention is drawn to physical activity, city life distraction, etc • No reading instructions, backstories, background information, the players were eager to complete the assignments 56
  57. 57. Players as game designers Contribution of new objects, in InvisibleCity Mission tasks can be contributed through a web site (e.g. a school teacher can design a specific version of the game for a school party) Rubén Muñoz and Christos Sintoris, 2012 57
  58. 58. Players as Designers • Contributing content • Modifying game elements • Using existing design patterns – Previous design knowledge is re-used in new design problems 58
  59. 59. Learning through participation in game design • Active –constructive learning (users: cocreators of new ideas, knowledge and products, public meta-artifacts) • Rich learning opportunities: analysis and synthesis around the city space and the spatial content that is going to be integrated in the game • Ownership of information • Participation in design communities 59
  60. 60. Designing CityScrabble • Choosing from a set of different types of links: (i.e. Stars: One to many, Chains:A is linked to B, B is linked to C etc, Thematic lists: linking concepts to objects ) • Content – Selecting the places of the city that will become part of the game – analyzing them according to the structure of the game • Events (bonus elements, dangerous zones etc) • Rules: When do you win (score) 60
  61. 61. Playing by constructing your game Two teams compete by creating questions relating to modern art gallery exhibits Di Loreto et al. 2013, Conference on Intelligent Environments 61
  62. 62. Open Design Patterns Deriving Design Patterns through a game design workshop Similar to: Pervasive Games Design Patterns Davidsson, Peitz, & Björk, 2004, Björk &Peitz, 2007 Game Ontology Project (Hochhalter, Lichti, & Zagal, 2005) 62
  63. 63. Pompeii Game Design Workshop • The task is to design a game for the archaeological site of Pompeii, given design material and a design framework • Objective is to observe design activity of different design groups and deduce common design patterns for this class of games 63
  64. 64. Pompeii Game Design Workshop The aim of the activity is each group to design a game where the players move in the archaeological site and use mobile devices (e.g. smartphones) in order to: – have fun – discover the site and learn – interact with each other 64
  65. 65. The Pompeii Design Workshop 65
  66. 66. The Pompeii Design Workshop 66
  67. 67. Pompeii Design Workshop : the Worksheet The objective What is the aim of the game? What The rules will you explain basic rules? How are the players that What are the to & technology Use to do? How will the player they have of tools they guide the game to will be used? As How will the mobile the end? Are know about success? a narrative? Mechanisms there roles? Is there information screens, communication, How are the rules enforced? How is the barcodeLocation and real-world objects scanners, GPS, maps, radar, game paced? Is there immersion in the compass, flashlight...?involved in the game? How are they game? What about atmosphere of the and aesthetic result Behaviors How are the players interacting with player communication? Awareness of to How do you expect the game the them? actions of the other time? How will the players evolve over players? Competion? Cooperation? Deception? feel playing it? 67
  68. 68. 32 game designs were produced in 6 workshops in 4 different countries Zakynthos, GR : Summer School on Technologies for Cultural Heritage 68
  69. 69. Design workshops Pecs, HU, Erasmus IP on cultural heritage management 69
  70. 70. Games: the titles 70
  71. 71. Deriving design patterns By applying methods from content analysis and grounded theory we identified codes in the design documents and used these codes to extract what patterns and strategies the designers followed 71
  72. 72. Design Patterns http://hci.ece.upatras.gr/l-bags/ (soon in English) 72
  73. 73. Cooperation Information awareness Competition The cooperation and competition between players/groups is adjusted by controlling information provided to them. Information Awareness regulates competition. In a same-place game, there is the possibility of information because the players are close (e.g. see and hear the opponent ) . Information can flow accidentally (eg a sound from the device other players may reveal some information ) . Wrong information may be deliberately delivered (see patterns bluff, sabotage). If the mobile devices are personal telephones of players, they can be used as phones for coordination and information exchange, bypassing or expanding information channels of the game. Information awareness concerns management of the information that is known to the players, it may concern actions of other players or teams or information about them (such as their score, position in space, etc.). One example is the fog of war , where the actions of the opponent is hiding behind a veil . Can be combined with diversification of players (two players with different characteristics have access to more information if found close together, see also co-location). Associated with heuristics 3.7 Control bluffing sabotage Co-located players Fog of war Players diversification 73
  74. 74. Experimental use of design patterns 74
  75. 75. Using design patterns Using it as a checklist Getting new ideas Refining an initial idea Checking old solutions to new problems Relating structure of the game to game elements 75
  76. 76. The Pompeii workshop An open repository of design knowledge for city mobile games hci.ece.upatras.gr/pompeiigame/ Sintoris et al. (2014) on Design patterns 76
  77. 77. thanks hci.edu.gr 77
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