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On Design of Location-based Games for Learning

On Design of Location-based Games for Learning
(Invited Talk at EEE Workshop, Barcelona,

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Avouris eee 2012b Avouris eee 2012b Presentation Transcript

  • EEE Project Workshop, Univ. Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, September 12, 2012 On Designing Location-basedGames for Learning Nikolaos Avouris University of Patras, Greece 1
  • The UPatras HCI Group • Activity: Emphasis on Interactive Software Design and Evaluation • Size: 15+ researchers and support group • Infrastructure: Tools for interactive applications design, development and evaluation (Usability Laboratory ) 2
  • Location-based games• Multiplayer games in which the play is affected by the players’ location. They involve embedding location specific and contextual information in physical spaces, so to create an interlinked physical and digital space . This is achieved through the use of mobile devices, wireless and sensing technologies.• Alternative terms used are hybrid reality games (emphasis in the interlinking of physical and digital realities), augmented reality games, or pervasive games (emphasis on the extension of game in temporal, spatial and social dimensions). 3
  • Location-based games & learning De Souza & Delacruz (2006) claim that location- based games facilitate learning : • Social learning – Multiuser activities content is created through communication and collaboration • Experiential learning – The game provides opportunities for action and reflection on action • Situated learning – Activity in relevant physical locationterm used= augmented reality games 4
  • Location-based games & learningSchrier (2006) proposed an evaluation framework for location-based games based on so called 21st century learning skills: 5 http://www.p21.org/
  • Location based games architectureuser profiles, user profiles,historical data historical data Game Engine Game Engine Virtual VirtualRun-time support Run-time support information information space space 3 (1) Interaction between Object jj Object Object ii Object players (2) Interaction with objects in physical space (3) Interaction with game 1 engine 2 Physical Space 6 From [Avouris&Yiannoutsou 2012]
  • Interactivity modalities for location- based games• QR codes/ NFC scanning• Image recognition• Gestures• Location-based instructions encoding 7
  • Scanning interaction modalitiesQR codes (quick response codes) (From Derby Museum, Connection to QRPedia) NFCtags (Near Field Communication) Source: NFC at Museum of London, Nokia (Youtube) 8
  • Gesture interaction modalities Source: RExplorer (Youtube)Scan an image(GoogleGoggles) Gesture-basedSource: Google Goggles at the interactionGetty Museum (Youtube) 9
  • Location-based instructions encoding for progressing narration • Ruyi from whaiwhai (youtube, TGR) 10http://www.whaiwhai.com/en
  • Location-based games spaces Narrative space or game spacethe game- virtual- Virtual physical (digital) space spaces are linked Physical space through technology 11
  • Location-based games: examples• The most cited (first generation) location based games: Savannah [Benford, 04], [Benford, 05a], [Benford 05b], FeedingYoshi [Bell, 06], Mobilegame [Schwabe 05], [Göth, 04], UncleRoy [Benford, 06], Camelot [Verhaegh, 06], [Soute, 07], [Soute, 10], CitiTag [Vogiazou, 07], [Vogiazou, 05], Relive the Revolution (RTR), [Schrier 06], [Schrier 05], CityExplorer [Matyas 07], [Schlieder 06], Hitchers [Drozd 06], Mogi [Licoppe 08], [Licoppe 05], Jindeo [Licoppe 06], Riot! [Blythe 06], Frequency1550 [Raessens 07], MobileHunters [Lonthoff 07] and AlienRevolt [De Souza 12 08]. From [Avouris&Yiannoutsou 2012]
  • Location Based Games Classification Ludic tradition Treasure Hunts Action games Role Playing Games Pedagogic tradition Participatory Simulators Situated Language Learning Educational action games Hybrid tradition Museum Games Mobile fiction 13 From [Avouris&Yiannoutsou 2012]
  • Location-based games: examples• The most cited (first generation) location based games: Savannah [Benford, 04], [Benford, 05a], [Benford 05b], FeedingYoshi [Bell, 06], Mobilegame [Schwabe 05], [Göth, 04], UncleRoy [Benford, 06], Camelot [Verhaegh, 06], [Soute, 07], [Soute, 10], CitiTag [Vogiazou, 07], [Vogiazou, 05], Relive the Revolution (RTR), [Schrier 06], [Schrier 05], CityExplorer [Matyas 07], [Schlieder 06], Hitchers [Drozd 06], Mogi [Licoppe 08], [Licoppe 05], Jindeo [Licoppe 06], Riot! [Blythe 06], Frequency1550 [Raessens 07], MobileHunters [Lonthoff 07] and AlienRevolt [De Souza 08]. 14 From [Avouris&Yiannoutsou 2012]
  • Savannah [Benford, 04], [Benford, 05]Role playing simulation game, players move in theSavannah, try to survive as a lion 15
  • Savannah [Benford, 04], [Benford, 05] Reflection phase interface 16
  • Location-based simulation games: Environmental Detectives A place-based game created by MITtargeted at high school and university students. Students played the role of environmental engineers presented with an environmental emergency. The goal was to locate the source of a spill, identify the responsible party, design a remediation plan, and brief the authorities on any health and legal risks -all within two hours 17http://education.mit.edu/ar/ed.html
  • Situated Language Learning HELLO [Liu &Chu, 2010]The students played a game in which they used amobile device to practice listening and speaking duringtheir free time, to perform a treasure hunt game in the 18campus.
  • Educational action games: MobileMath [Wijers, 2010]• Like an action game: This game involves teams of players who compete on a playing field, with the goal to cover as much area as possible by constructing squares, rectangles or parallelograms using mobile phones with GPS receivers. This is done by physically walking to and clicking on each vertex (point). 19
  • Games with not explicit pedagogical goal (e.g. in sites of culture) Ghost of a Chance• Role Playing Game, Players were asked to interpret weekly challenges by creating and mailing artifacts to the Museum.• Entered into the museum’s collection, these items represented a player-generated gallery collection that unlocked further clues in the game’s narrative.http://ghostsofachance.com/ 20
  • Ghost of a ChanceSmithsonian American Art MuseumUser-submitted images from the "Ghost of a Chance" interactive multimedia game at the Smithsonian American Art Museum 21
  • Harnessing the social power: Crowdsourcing games• Crowdsourcing is the act of sourcing tasks traditionally performed by specific individuals to an undefined large group of people or community (crowd) through an open call 22
  • Freeze Tag! 23
  • http://tagger.steve.museum/ 24
  • Dora’s lost data http://museumgam.es/dora/ 25
  • Crowd sourcing tasks• Stating preferences, voting on interesting objects, comments etc.• Tagging: unstructured text associated with objects• Debunking, criticizing: arguing against other peoples’ ideas, tags etc.• Recording personal stories: personal memories associated to a museum object• Linking objects or categorising: grouping of objects or associating them with themes (e.g. card sorting, museumscrabble)[M.Ridge, Everyone wins: Crowdsourcing games & Museums, MuseumNext, May 2011] 26
  • Crowdsourcing games • They are fun and engaging • They are productive • Have high learning potential with sense of ownership of new knowledge (information and skills) • The museums learn too and adapt to their audience • Help players acquire, test and master new skills[M.Ridge, Everyone wins: Crowdsourcing games & Museums, MuseumNext, May 2011] 27
  • Ookl mobile app http://www.ooklnet.com 28
  • Ookl tell your own story 29
  • ookl: citizen curator 30
  • Location-based GamesDesignGuidelines[Ardito et al. 2011] 31
  • Collaborative study of U.Patras andU.Bari 2010-2011 (network TwinTide)• Followed a ‘case study methodology’• Analysis of published papers of 3 mobile games• Identified game design issues (317 issues)• Through focus group analysis the issues were reduced to 94 related to design of location- based games and learning• Card sorting techniques for grouping the issues in 5 design dimensions 32
  • Design Dimensions (Ardito et al. 2011)• Game General Design, which refers to issues related to the overall game design process;• Control/Flexibility, which is a basic dimension of system usability, that with respect to the games considered in this paper, also refers to helping players to be aware of the effects of their choices on the game execution;• Engagement, which informs on how to provide an experience that captivates the players, by providing hints on how to structure the game, which tools to adopt, etc.;• Educational Aspects, which informs on interweaving of learning content into the game context, so that the game can have a valid learning influence on the players;• Social Aspects, which concerns the interaction among the players, role allocation etc. (the underlying assumption is that social activity, e.g. competition, can act as a motivational factor). 33
  • #1. Game General Design1.1 Exploit metaphors from real-life games, activities, stories Minimize changes to the physical place (e.g. modifications to the1.2 physical structure, installation of special equipment like projectors, big displays, etc.) Create a multidisciplinary design team (including e.g. HCI, cultural1.3 heritage, educational experts) Perform formative evaluations and pilot studies to check if tasks’1.4 difficulty is appropriate for the intended players Consider the social conventions of the place (e.g. not laughing in a1.5 church) Consider to extend the game experience beyond the game session1.6 (e.g. participating in a web community) Consider to include activities/events that are not part of the game,1.7 but happen in the real world (e.g. the ceremony of change of the guard at noon)1.8 Consider to include a game master (e.g. tutor, supervisor, coordinator) and her role: e.g. enforcing the rules, narrating the story 34
  • #4. Educational Aspects Consider to include a pre-game activity to prepare players (e.g. some4.1 lessons in classroom explaining the historical context in which the game is set) Game should emphasize either vertical or horizontal exploration of a place/topic, i.e., deeply exploring a limited space (or few objects or a4.2 specific topic) vs. more superficially exploring a broad space (or many objects or several topics) Tasks should require players to link areas, locations, physical objects to4.3 concepts, topics, etc.4.4 Balance between competition and knowledge acquisition. Too much competition may have a negative impact on knowledge acquisition Include a debriefing phase after the game to allow players to reflect on the game experience. Design it as an individual/collaborative4.5 game/activity that supports players to clarify and consolidate the game experience 35
  • Validation of the guidelines: The Pompeii Design Workshop 36
  • The Pompeii Design WorkshopA location-based game designworkshop structured in order tofollow the use of guidelines and otherbackground designers’ knowledge forstructuring design activity oflocation-based games 37 http://hci.ece.upatras.gr/pompeiigame/
  • The Pompeii Design Workshop• The participants were organized in groups of 3to 5. Each group worked out the idea anddescription of design for a location-based gamefor the site of Pompeii. They used theworksheet and supporting background material.• The workshop so far has been run in 4 cases inGreece, Italy and France.•26 (3 to 14) designs were produced during thesesessions. [Sintoris et al. forthcoming, 2013] 38 http://hci.ece.upatras.gr/pompeiigame/
  • The Pompeii Design WorkshopMaterialOne instruction card for the participantsOne map of Pompeii, showing the location of siximportant placesA description of the six places, in the form of text withphotos (print on single-sided A3 sheet)Two concepts cards, that describe in some detailconcepts that might be intersting learning topicsA Worksheet, where the designers record their design.The instructions printed on the worksheet are intentedas guides and one should insist on "filling" them outwith vigor. 39
  • Pompeii workshop: The worksheet• Title Have you thought about a title?• What are the components of the game. The actions of the players, the rules and mechanisms. The tools the players have, the aims and behaviours. As an example think of scrabble: The tiles with the letters, the points according to rarity of a letter, the board, tha randomness of the tiles.• The objective• What is the aim of the game? What will you explain to the players that they have to do? How will the player know about success?• The rules What are the basic rules? How are the guide the game to the end? Are there roles? Is there a narrative?• Use of tools & technology How will the smartphones be used? As information screens, communication, barcode scanners, GPS, maps, radar, compass, flashlight...?• Mechanisms How are the rules enforced? How is the game paced? Is there immersion in the atmosphere of the game? What about player communication? Awareness of the actions of the other players? Competion? Cooperation? Deception?• Location and real-world objects How are they involved in the game? How are the players interacting with them?• Behaviours and aesthetic result How do you expect the game to evolve over time? How will the players feel playing it? 40
  • Design of location based gamesReflection on our own experience:• MuseumScrabble – museum game• InvisibleCity RvS – city game 41
  • MuseumScrabble: linking exhibits• Task to build connections between exhibits and themes/concepts that can be linked to more than one exhibit with different strength according to its relevance to the theme• The concepts may be embeded in a narrative that the players have to follow• Game is played by groups playing against each other• Players fight for resources (exhibits) as they capture the exhibits not allowing the opponents to use it. 42 http://hci.ece.upatras.gr/museumscrabble/
  • MuseumScrabble link exhibits to themes/concepts[Youtube:museumscrabble] 43
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  • Design rationale• MuseumScrabble is based on the idea of the popular Scrabble word game. In Scrabble, the aim is to arrange tiles (letters) in meaningful sequences (words). 47
  • From a board game to location-based game• In MuseumScrabble, the constructs letters that can be arranged to form words, have been replaced by topics and exhibits. They can be linked using special sentences, the hints.• A topic is a concept or field of knowledge or category, related to parts of the museum collection or the themes of the museum. Examples are geography, feminism, religion, art etc.• Each topic contains several hints. A hint is a short sentence that can be applied to exhibits in the museum related to the topic.• The challenge to the players is to link an exhibit to a relevant topic by discovering which exhibit fits the particular topic- hint pair in a meaningful way.Evaluation of MuseumScrabble: [Sintoris et al. 2010] 48
  • New version: Benaki Museum Scrabble• New game flow [Karpathiotaki et al. 2012]• New narrative• Different kind of exhibits – historic period• Strong link to non exhibited objects http://hci.ece.upatras.gr/bms/ 49
  • http://www.invisiblecity.gr/ 50
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  • Flow of Mafia game 53
  • Flow of RvS game 54
  • Flow of RvS game 55
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  • à Learning 57
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  • Adding digital content in the city 59
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  • Real-world testing 67
  • contribution of tasks/riddles by theplayers Mission tasks may be contributed through a web site (e.g. a school teacher can design a specific version of the game for a school party) [Sintoris et al. 2011 ] 68
  • Game content editor (google+ app) 69Rubén Muñoz and Christos Sintoris, 2012
  • Active participation of the public is a mission for institutions of culture Nina Simon: The Participatory Museum 70
  • Player-created/adapted GamesBy developing their own Games students canshow what they have learned, and they canalso “explore various hypotheses” using thegame (Klopfer, 2008).Director view vs Actor view in Frequency 1550(Akkerman et al. 2009)User configuration of game elements is a toolfor learning (Yiannoutsou et al. 2011). 71
  • New authoring tools to involve playersin game creation adaptatione.g. Taleblazer • TaleBlazer is a new rich Internet application from MITs STEP lab to author smartphone location-based augmented reality (AR) games. For location-based AR game building. • Features : – Visual blocks-based scripting – Interactive data layers and sampling - create models for player exploration and discovery of scientific topics. – Conditional dialog creator - interact with characters in new ways http://education.mit.edu/projects/taleblazer 72
  • The way ahead• Patterns for migration of traditional games to location-based games• Narrative dimension in contextualizing digital space and linking to physical space• User participation in game design and adaptation, methods and tools, the social trail 73
  • http://hci.ece.upatras.gr/lmmgs2013/ 74
  • refsC. Ardito, R. Lanzilotti, D. Raptis, C. Sintoris, N. Yiannoutsou, N. Avouris, M.F. Costabile, (2011). "Designing pervasive games for learning", Proceedings, HCI International 2011, July 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA. LNCS-6770 (PART 2) pp. 99-108, Springer.Sintoris, C., Dimitriou, S., Yiannoutsou, N., Avouris, N.: Invisible City: Rebels Vs Spies. http://www.webcitation.org/5xE2OsK8U (2010)Sintoris C., Stoica A., Papadimitriou I., Yiannoutsou N., Komis V., Avouris N. (2010). MuseumScrabble: Design of a mobile game for childrens interaction with a digitally augmented cultural space, International Journal of Mobile Human Computer Interaction, 2(2), 53-71, April-June 2010.de Souza e Silva, A., Delacruz, G.C.: Hybrid Reality Games Reframed: Potential Uses in Educational Contexts. Games and Culture 1(3), 231–251 (2006)Avouris N., Yiannoutsou, N., (2012), A review of mobile location-based games for learn-ing across physical and virtual spaces, Journal of Universal Computer Science, vol 18.Schrier, K.L. “Using Augmented Reality Games to Teach 21st Century Skills.” ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Educators Program. SIGGRAPH ’06. New York, USA: ACM, 2006.Yiannoutsou, N. & Avouris, N. (2010). Reflections on use of location-based playful narra-tives for learning. Proc. of Mobile Learning (pp. 149–156). Porto, Portugal: Iadis Press.Yiannoutsou, N., Avouris, N., (2012). Mobile games in Museums : from learning through game play to learning through game design, ICOM Education, vol. 23 (2012).Huizenga, J., Admiraal, W., Akkerman, S., & Dam, G. T., Mobile game-based learning in secondary education: engagement, motivation and learning in a mobile city game. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, Vol. 25, (4), 2009, pp. 332-344.Klopfer, E. (2008) Augmented Learning: Research and Design of Mobile Educational Games. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.Yiannoutsou N., Sintoris C., Avouris N, End User configuration of game elements: Game construction as learning activity, IS-EUD 2011Akkerman S. et al, Storification in History Education: A mobile game in and about medieval 75 Amsterdam, Computers & Education 52 (2009)
  • ευχαριστώhci.ece.upatras.gr/avouris 76