Technological Environment


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Technological Environment

  1. 1. Technological Environment
  2. 2. Relationship between business and technology exist J.K. Galbrath : Technology is systematic application of scientific or other organized knowledge to practical task. 1983- As yeas of Scientific Successes Photography : 112 Yrs Telephone : 85 Yrs Steam engine : 42 Yrs Radar : 18 Yrs Transistor : 5 Yrs Technology feed itself. Technology makes more technology possible
  3. 3. Social Impact of Technology 1 Technology reaches people through business 2 High expectation of consumer 3 System complexity 4 Social change 5 Technological Phases
  4. 4. Phase Time period Activity Primary skill Nomadic Untill 1650 Harvest Manual Agarian Agarian 1650-1900 Plant and Manual Harvest Industrial 1900-1960 Material Manual & Good Machine Service 1960-75 Focused Machine & Services Intellectual Knowledge 1975-90 Abstractive Intellectual Work and Electronic
  5. 5. Technology and Economy 1. Increased Productivity Technology Productivity Quality and Quantity
  6. 6. 2. Need to Spend on Research & Development 3. Technology transfer 4. Jobs tend to become more intellectual 5 Problem of techno structure : ESOP 6 Need for multi professional 7 Increased regulation & stiff opposition 8 Rise and decline of product & organization 9 Insatiable demand of capital
  7. 7. Technology at plant level 1. Technology and organization structure 2. Resistance to change 3 Problems for importing technology 4 Inability to absorb technology 5 T.Q.M. / B.P.R.E. / F.M.S. 6 Fear of risk
  8. 8. R & D Expenditure in India India currently spends about 1% of G.D.P. on R & D and Science and technology policy (January 2003) has the target to raise to 2% by 2007. Public Sector= 80%($ 3.2 billion) In developed country 60-80% is by private sector.
  9. 9. Global evidence suggest that there are great advantage from R&D activity in the long run. In Finland total expenditure on R&D as proportion of GDP rose from 1.5% in 1985 to 3.2% in 2001. During this period ,its export/GDP ratio doubled to 39%, the share of high tech exports in total exports rose from 6% in 1990 to 24% in labour productivity 2001 rose from 40% to 100%
  10. 10. Various state agencies involved in the clearing Foreign collaboration Agreement for technology Agency Main feature FIPB To increase F.D.I. through transparent and effective policies FIPC To facilitate FDI & identify area of FDI FIIA To deal with the problems faced by foreign investor in project implementation (IP & ID) To disseminate information about foreign investment climate in country, to coordinate and monitor project for FI SIA To guide the prospective entrepreneurs on foreign collaboration and capital good import RBI To facilitate, promote, and clear FDI in selected area of national importance Business To deal with complains regarding delay in Ombudsman The clearances in approval of projects.
  11. 11. Main problems and issues facing technology environment and policy in India  Heavy dominance of government in technology dept.  Condition of stagnation in technology research  Low rate of technology commercialiation  Weak intellectual regime  Limited import of technology due to restriction  Inferior proposition of Indian partner  Import of outdated and inappropiate technology  Little emphasis on technology assimilation and absorption