soil pollution


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soil pollution

  1. 1. By Batch-1
  2. 2.  Definition of soil pollution Cause of soil pollution Effects of soil pollution Preventions of soil pollution Laws of soil pollution Examples of soil pollution
  3. 3. Soil pollution is the contamination of soil withharmful substances that can adversely affectthe quality of the soil and the health of thoseliving on it.
  5. 5. SOIL EROSION It occurs when top soil movesfrom one place to another as aresult of various natural andman-made factors. Leads to decrease in the soil’scapacity to retain water. When the soil is eroded, thecrops grown are affectedresulting in an indirect effect onthe environment
  6. 6. SALTY WATER Use of water with high salinitycauses soil pollution. Salts present in the wateraccumulates at the top layer ofthe soil. This salty water present in thesoil becomes a cause forstudded growth of the crops.
  7. 7. URBAN WASTE Both domestic and commercial waste are known as urban waste It contains garbage and rubbish material like papers , fibers ,plastics,glasses , bottles and dried sludge of sewage As this rain water runs from top of the this uncovered garbage this causessoil pollution
  8. 8. INDUSTRIAL WASTE Most of the industrial waste rejected materials like calciumcarbonate , magnesium , sulphate. This industrial waste are all dumped over the soil surface byalmost all industries This causes toxicity of soil
  9. 9. POLLUTION OFUNDERGROUND WASTE Deposition of many agriculturalchemicals in the underground layershas disturbed the normal activities. Living of earthworms ,centipede,millipede ,frogs and ratsunderground has greatly disturbedthe ecological equilibrium is badlyaffected
  10. 10. RADIOACTIVE WASTE Storage and disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear power plantscauses soil pollution They gets deposited on the top soil and emits continuously gammaradiations. Examples : strontium 90, iodine 131, barium 140Radioactive waste
  11. 11. ACID RAIN It is caused by air pollution. The acidic water falls on the soil and pollutes it by making the soilacidic. Soil looses its nutrient due to high solubility in acidic water
  12. 12. WASTE FROM MINING Huge holes are dug in the ground. Waste obtained from mining left on site in the form of spoil heaps. This waste contain toxic and poisonous substances which then leach intothe soil due to rainfall.Waste obtained fromcoal mining
  13. 13. LEAKAGE OF TOXINS Faulty landfills. Bursting of underground bins. Seepage from faulty sewagesystems
  14. 14. DUMPING OF SOLID WASTE Solid waste includesgarbage, domestic refuse. Discarded solid material fromcommercial, industry &agricultural operation. These degrades the appearanceof an area and pollute the soil.
  15. 15. OIL & PETROLEUM SPILLS Petroleum spills from gasstations, fuel tanks or otheractivities can result in elevatedlevels of contaminants in the soil. Such as Benzene, Toluene, andXylene. Oil spills cause poor grow ofplants.
  16. 16. EFFECT ON MICRO-ORGANISMSLoss of variety of micro-organisms due to : Change in genetic make-up of the soil. Certain animals die. Loss of supply of food chain. Imbalance in food chain.EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION…
  17. 17. EFFECT ON SOIL:- It leads to soil fertility. Decrease in soil yield. It results in loss of nutrients present in the soil
  18. 18. EFFECT ON BIO-ACCUMULATION PLANTS : Grown in polluted soil absorbs moleculesof the pollutants. Pollutants accumulate in the plants. ANIMALS : By eating these polluted plants, animalstake on all the pollution. HUMANS : By eating such plants or animals largeamount of pollutants may cause poison inhuman body.EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION…
  19. 19. ORGAN DAMAGE Presence of heavy metals in the soil. High concentrations of lead andmercury. Leads to irreversible developmentaldamage in children. Causes damage to the developingbrains of young children. Leads to neurological problems. May also suffer kidney or liver damage.EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION…
  20. 20. ECONOMIC LOSS Soil pollution can cause economic damage. Polluted soil with heavy metals is not used to grow grains. Grains are often polluted which grow in this soil which cannot beconsumed. Farmers are hence in a great loss.EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION…
  21. 21. EFFECT ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS Soil polluted by acid rain have animpact on plants. Disrupts the soil chemistry. Reduces plant’s ability to take upnutrients and undergoesphotosynthesis.EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION…
  22. 22. EFFECT ON AGRICULTUREWASTE High dose of Pesticide increases zinc, copper, such metals in soil. Produces hazards pollutants to water & soil. Pollutants added by burning of any fuel reduces soil fertility.EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION…
  23. 23. EFFECT ON INDUSTRIAL WASTE Destroy bacteria & beneficialmicroorganisms present in thesoil. Compound accumulated in thesoil for long time destroy theliving organism. Product such as syntheticfiber, plastic produce toxicvapourEFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION…
  24. 24. EFFECT ON CROP Soil pollution reduces crop yields. 30% of irrigated land of world isaffected by salinity of the soil. It decreases nutritive values ofsoil as well as crops.EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION…
  25. 25.  Reduce use ofpesticides, insecticides &fungicides. Overuse of these chemicalsleads to soil pollution. Manures & biofertilizers likerhizobium can be used toincrease fertility of soil.
  26. 26.  Waste should be disposed off properlyto avoid pollution. Acidic & alkaline waste should beneutralized before they are disposedof so they don’t contaminate the soil. Biodegradable waste should be brokendown before disposing it off.
  27. 27.  Bioaugmentation is the practice ofinoculating contaminated soil withlarge numbers of appropriatemicroorganisms. Its cheaper than pollution clean upmethods which involve physicallymoving the soil. This may not work in some typesof soil as it requires plenty ofsoil, moisture & oxygen to workeffectively.
  28. 28.  BIO-REMEDIATION.
  29. 29. Proper disposal ofindustrial waste.Waste reductiontechniques.Recycling.
  30. 30.  Proper drainage system. Large holes. Renovation of drains. Keep clear.
  31. 31.  Reforestation, i.e. planting more trees. Animal waste to be used as manure.
  32. 32.  3R’s should be implemented i.e. ‘Recycling of paper : waste paper can be recycled instead ofthrowing it. ‘Reuse plastic wastes. ‘Reduce toxic wastes.
  33. 33. Proper waste disposal at home.E.g. Segregate wet and dry waste.
  34. 34. There is no specific legislation which deals withregulation of soil pollution or gives it a definitescope and meaning.
  35. 35. Unlike air pollution & water pollution there is no perfect direct lawwhich deals with soil pollution. Unlike, EPA (EnvironmentProtection Act) which deals with all aspects of environment.
  36. 36. IN GENERAL…The Environment Protection Act – 1986.The Municipal Solid Waste, Management and HandlingAct – 2000.
  37. 37.  60 % untreated water. Incapable treating plants. Bio-composting : a major source. Technologies.
  38. 38. Laws.Greener technologies.Biological remedial process.Bio-composting.
  39. 39.  Soil pollution has been reported along the wetland of thane creek. Due to the depositions by Thane-Belapur Industrial Complex inSouth Bombay. Heavy metal pollution and physiochemical characteristic is detected. pH level, bulk density, alkalinity and chlorinity is recorded highduring dry season.
  40. 40. Wet waste thatdecomposes &releases bad odor.Poisonous gasesleak like Ch4(toxic).Depletion ofmangroves.Attractsinsects, rats & fliesthat spreaddiseases.PROBLEMSStagnant water inrainy is breedingground fordiseases.Pollution/damage ofroad/property.Plastic problem.Effects plants &animals.
  41. 41. Waste workers areaffectedHospital & industrialwaste create majorhealth hazardsDecrease in oxygenlevel causingbreathing problemMosquitoes cancarry life threateningdiseases likedengue , yellowfever , malariaBirds/small animalsdie after ingestingwasteIMPACTS
  42. 42. PREVENTIVEMEASURESPropermethod ofwastedisposalAthouseholdlevel propersegregationof wastePlasticshould notbe usedWheelcleaningfacility
  43. 43. Largest and oldest dumping ground in Mumbai.Extend over 132 hectre.Recieves 5500 metric tonnes of garbage.600 metric tonnes of silts and 25 tons of bio-medical waste daily.
  44. 44. Include: Chemicals and biological properties. Agriculture waste. Discarded solid material.
  45. 45.  Hazard 90% of soil pollution and health on human being whichliving on it. E.g. residents of Chembur ,Govandi ,Mankhurd and ShivajiNager. Smoke affecting the asthma patients.
  46. 46.  Juhu is an affluent neighborhood of west Mumbai. Most of the celebrities live there, it is also a home to a significant portionof Mumbai’s Business Elite. Recently, it has been noticed that Juhu has become a place for disposalof waste. All sorts of waste are dumped there. For example: plastic bags andbottles, paper plates, glass bottles and etc. This kind of garbage disposal has increased the number of mosquitoesand other insects which causes malaria, dengue. It may be fatal. The polluted soil stops the proper growth of plants and trees in thatparticular area.
  47. 47. Polluted soil which leads to various problems. Clean up session held by domino’s.The dirt that is beyond one’s ability to getwiped out completely.
  48. 48.  The Government of India should implementcertain laws to be followed strictly. We can create awareness by holdingmarathons, beach clean ups and also byraising posters. Reduce the use of plastics. The vendors can keep dustbins outside theirshops for the waste to be discarded.STOP WAITING FOR THINGS TOHAPPEN,GO OUT AND MAKE THEM HAPPEN!GREEN INDIA, CLEAN INDIA