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soil pollution

soil pollution






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    soil pollution soil pollution Presentation Transcript

    • By Batch-1
    •  Definition of soil pollution Cause of soil pollution Effects of soil pollution Preventions of soil pollution Laws of soil pollution Examples of soil pollution
    • Soil pollution is the contamination of soil withharmful substances that can adversely affectthe quality of the soil and the health of thoseliving on it.
    • SOIL EROSION It occurs when top soil movesfrom one place to another as aresult of various natural andman-made factors. Leads to decrease in the soil’scapacity to retain water. When the soil is eroded, thecrops grown are affectedresulting in an indirect effect onthe environment
    • SALTY WATER Use of water with high salinitycauses soil pollution. Salts present in the wateraccumulates at the top layer ofthe soil. This salty water present in thesoil becomes a cause forstudded growth of the crops.
    • URBAN WASTE Both domestic and commercial waste are known as urban waste It contains garbage and rubbish material like papers , fibers ,plastics,glasses , bottles and dried sludge of sewage As this rain water runs from top of the this uncovered garbage this causessoil pollution
    • INDUSTRIAL WASTE Most of the industrial waste rejected materials like calciumcarbonate , magnesium , sulphate. This industrial waste are all dumped over the soil surface byalmost all industries This causes toxicity of soil
    • POLLUTION OFUNDERGROUND WASTE Deposition of many agriculturalchemicals in the underground layershas disturbed the normal activities. Living of earthworms ,centipede,millipede ,frogs and ratsunderground has greatly disturbedthe ecological equilibrium is badlyaffected
    • RADIOACTIVE WASTE Storage and disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear power plantscauses soil pollution They gets deposited on the top soil and emits continuously gammaradiations. Examples : strontium 90, iodine 131, barium 140Radioactive waste
    • ACID RAIN It is caused by air pollution. The acidic water falls on the soil and pollutes it by making the soilacidic. Soil looses its nutrient due to high solubility in acidic water
    • WASTE FROM MINING Huge holes are dug in the ground. Waste obtained from mining left on site in the form of spoil heaps. This waste contain toxic and poisonous substances which then leach intothe soil due to rainfall.Waste obtained fromcoal mining
    • LEAKAGE OF TOXINS Faulty landfills. Bursting of underground bins. Seepage from faulty sewagesystems
    • DUMPING OF SOLID WASTE Solid waste includesgarbage, domestic refuse. Discarded solid material fromcommercial, industry &agricultural operation. These degrades the appearanceof an area and pollute the soil.
    • OIL & PETROLEUM SPILLS Petroleum spills from gasstations, fuel tanks or otheractivities can result in elevatedlevels of contaminants in the soil. Such as Benzene, Toluene, andXylene. Oil spills cause poor grow ofplants.
    • EFFECT ON MICRO-ORGANISMSLoss of variety of micro-organisms due to : Change in genetic make-up of the soil. Certain animals die. Loss of supply of food chain. Imbalance in food chain.EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION…
    • EFFECT ON SOIL:- It leads to soil fertility. Decrease in soil yield. It results in loss of nutrients present in the soil
    • EFFECT ON BIO-ACCUMULATION PLANTS : Grown in polluted soil absorbs moleculesof the pollutants. Pollutants accumulate in the plants. ANIMALS : By eating these polluted plants, animalstake on all the pollution. HUMANS : By eating such plants or animals largeamount of pollutants may cause poison inhuman body.EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION…
    • ORGAN DAMAGE Presence of heavy metals in the soil. High concentrations of lead andmercury. Leads to irreversible developmentaldamage in children. Causes damage to the developingbrains of young children. Leads to neurological problems. May also suffer kidney or liver damage.EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION…
    • ECONOMIC LOSS Soil pollution can cause economic damage. Polluted soil with heavy metals is not used to grow grains. Grains are often polluted which grow in this soil which cannot beconsumed. Farmers are hence in a great loss.EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION…
    • EFFECT ON PHOTOSYNTHESIS Soil polluted by acid rain have animpact on plants. Disrupts the soil chemistry. Reduces plant’s ability to take upnutrients and undergoesphotosynthesis.EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION…
    • EFFECT ON AGRICULTUREWASTE High dose of Pesticide increases zinc, copper, such metals in soil. Produces hazards pollutants to water & soil. Pollutants added by burning of any fuel reduces soil fertility.EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION…
    • EFFECT ON INDUSTRIAL WASTE Destroy bacteria & beneficialmicroorganisms present in thesoil. Compound accumulated in thesoil for long time destroy theliving organism. Product such as syntheticfiber, plastic produce toxicvapourEFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION…
    • EFFECT ON CROP Soil pollution reduces crop yields. 30% of irrigated land of world isaffected by salinity of the soil. It decreases nutritive values ofsoil as well as crops.EFFECTS OF SOIL POLLUTION…
    •  Reduce use ofpesticides, insecticides &fungicides. Overuse of these chemicalsleads to soil pollution. Manures & biofertilizers likerhizobium can be used toincrease fertility of soil.
    •  Waste should be disposed off properlyto avoid pollution. Acidic & alkaline waste should beneutralized before they are disposedof so they don’t contaminate the soil. Biodegradable waste should be brokendown before disposing it off.
    •  Bioaugmentation is the practice ofinoculating contaminated soil withlarge numbers of appropriatemicroorganisms. Its cheaper than pollution clean upmethods which involve physicallymoving the soil. This may not work in some typesof soil as it requires plenty ofsoil, moisture & oxygen to workeffectively.
    • Proper disposal ofindustrial waste.Waste reductiontechniques.Recycling.
    •  Proper drainage system. Large holes. Renovation of drains. Keep clear.
    •  Reforestation, i.e. planting more trees. Animal waste to be used as manure.
    •  3R’s should be implemented i.e. ‘Recycling of paper : waste paper can be recycled instead ofthrowing it. ‘Reuse plastic wastes. ‘Reduce toxic wastes.
    • Proper waste disposal at home.E.g. Segregate wet and dry waste.
    • There is no specific legislation which deals withregulation of soil pollution or gives it a definitescope and meaning.
    • Unlike air pollution & water pollution there is no perfect direct lawwhich deals with soil pollution. Unlike, EPA (EnvironmentProtection Act) which deals with all aspects of environment.
    • IN GENERAL…The Environment Protection Act – 1986.The Municipal Solid Waste, Management and HandlingAct – 2000.
    •  60 % untreated water. Incapable treating plants. Bio-composting : a major source. Technologies.
    • Laws.Greener technologies.Biological remedial process.Bio-composting.
    •  Soil pollution has been reported along the wetland of thane creek. Due to the depositions by Thane-Belapur Industrial Complex inSouth Bombay. Heavy metal pollution and physiochemical characteristic is detected. pH level, bulk density, alkalinity and chlorinity is recorded highduring dry season.
    • Wet waste thatdecomposes &releases bad odor.Poisonous gasesleak like Ch4(toxic).Depletion ofmangroves.Attractsinsects, rats & fliesthat spreaddiseases.PROBLEMSStagnant water inrainy is breedingground fordiseases.Pollution/damage ofroad/property.Plastic problem.Effects plants &animals.
    • Waste workers areaffectedHospital & industrialwaste create majorhealth hazardsDecrease in oxygenlevel causingbreathing problemMosquitoes cancarry life threateningdiseases likedengue , yellowfever , malariaBirds/small animalsdie after ingestingwasteIMPACTS
    • PREVENTIVEMEASURESPropermethod ofwastedisposalAthouseholdlevel propersegregationof wastePlasticshould notbe usedWheelcleaningfacility
    • Largest and oldest dumping ground in Mumbai.Extend over 132 hectre.Recieves 5500 metric tonnes of garbage.600 metric tonnes of silts and 25 tons of bio-medical waste daily.
    • Include: Chemicals and biological properties. Agriculture waste. Discarded solid material.
    •  Hazard 90% of soil pollution and health on human being whichliving on it. E.g. residents of Chembur ,Govandi ,Mankhurd and ShivajiNager. Smoke affecting the asthma patients.
    •  Juhu is an affluent neighborhood of west Mumbai. Most of the celebrities live there, it is also a home to a significant portionof Mumbai’s Business Elite. Recently, it has been noticed that Juhu has become a place for disposalof waste. All sorts of waste are dumped there. For example: plastic bags andbottles, paper plates, glass bottles and etc. This kind of garbage disposal has increased the number of mosquitoesand other insects which causes malaria, dengue. It may be fatal. The polluted soil stops the proper growth of plants and trees in thatparticular area.
    • Polluted soil which leads to various problems. Clean up session held by domino’s.The dirt that is beyond one’s ability to getwiped out completely.
    •  The Government of India should implementcertain laws to be followed strictly. We can create awareness by holdingmarathons, beach clean ups and also byraising posters. Reduce the use of plastics. The vendors can keep dustbins outside theirshops for the waste to be discarded.STOP WAITING FOR THINGS TOHAPPEN,GO OUT AND MAKE THEM HAPPEN!GREEN INDIA, CLEAN INDIA