Animal cell (project)


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Animal cell (project)

  1. 1. Holiday homework By : “Aviral Gupta”
  2. 2. Animal cell An Animal cell is a form of eukaryotic cell that makes up many tissues in animals. The animal cell is distinct from other eukaryotes, most notably plant cells, as they lack cell walls and chloroplasts, and they have smaller vacuoles. Due to the lack of a rigid cell wall, animal cells can adopt a variety of shapes, and a phagocytic cell (white blood cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells) can even engulf other structures.
  3. 3. Animal Cell
  4. 4.  Cell Membrane  Golgi Cytoplasm apparatus Nucleus  Lysosomes Endoplasmic  Mitochondria reticulum  Vacuoles
  5. 5. Cell Membrane The cell membrane or plasma membrane is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment. The cell membrane is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells. It basically protects the cell from outside forces. It consists of the lipid bilayer with embedded proteins.
  6. 6. Cytoplasm The cytoplasm is the gel-like substance residing between the cell membrane holding all the cells internal sub-structures (called organelles), except for the nucleus. All the contents of the cells of prokaryote organisms (which lack a cell nucleus) are contained within the cytoplasm. Within the cells of eukaryote organisms the contents of the cell nucleus are separated from the cytoplasm, and are then called the nucleoplasm. The cytoplasm is about 70% to 90% water and
  7. 7. Cytoplasm
  8. 8. Nucleus Nuclear membrane acts as a physical barrier, separating the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm. It is a semi permeable membrane and allows transport of substances in and out of nucleus. Its inner membrane is involved in protein synthesis. It acts as a filter in animal cell and it is brain like organ in animal cell. The nucleus serves as a storage and replication facility for DNA - the blueprint
  9. 9. Nucleus
  10. 10. Endoplasmic reticulum The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle of cells in eukaryotic organisms that forms an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles, and cisterna. The structure of an endoplasmic reticulum is a membranous network cisterna (sac-like structures) held together by the the cytoskeleton. The endoplasmic reticulum serves many general functions, including the facilitation of protein folding and the transport of synthesized proteins in sacs
  11. 11. Endoplasmic reticulum
  12. 12. Golgi apparatus The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex or Golgi body, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. It was identified in 1897 by the Italian physician Camillo Golgi and named after him in 1898. The Golgi is composed of stacks of membrane-bound structures known as cisternae. The function of the Golgi apparatus is to modify, sort, and package proteins and other materials from the cellular endoplasmic reticulum for storage within the Cell and (much more often) for the secretion of these proteinaceous bio-
  13. 13. Golgi apparatus
  14. 14. Lysosomes Lysosomes are cellular organelles that contain acid hydrolase enzymes that break down waste materials and cellular debris. These are non-specific. They can be described as the stomach of the cell. They are found in animal cells, while their existence in yeasts and plants are disputed. These organelles are responsible for digesting the macromolecules that pose a threat to the
  15. 15. Lysosomes
  16. 16. Mitochondria In cell biology, mitochondrion is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells. These organelles range from 0.5 to 1.0 micrometer (μm) in diameter. Mitochondria are sometimes described as "cellular power plants" because they generate most of the cells supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy. The most prominent roles of mitochondria are to produce the energy currency of the cell.
  17. 17. Mitochondria
  18. 18. Vacuoles A vacuole is a membrane- bound organelle which is present in all plants and fungal cells and some protist, animals and bacterial cells. Vacuoles are essentially enclosed compartments which are filled with water containing inorganic and organic molecules including enzymes in solution, though in certain cases they may contain solids which have been engulfed. It throws unwanted material.
  19. 19. Vacuole
  20. 20. AnimalCell
  21. 21. Deference betweenAnimal Cell And Plant Cell
  22. 22. Animal Cell Plant CellShape: Round (irregular shape) Rectangular (fixed shape)Cilia: Present It is very rareChloroplast: dont have chloroplasts Plant cells have chloroplasts because they make their own foodLysosomes: occur in cytoplasm. usually not evident.Vacuole: One or more small vacuoles (much One, large central vacuole smaller than plant cells). taking up 90% of cell volume.Centrioles: Present in all animal cells Only present in lower plant forms.Plastids: Absent PresentCell wall: Absent PresentPlasma Membrane: only cell membrane cell wall and cell membrane
  23. 23. Thank you