Facial recognition systems are computer-based security systems that are able to automatically detect and identify human faces. The development stage for facial recognition began in the late 1980s and commercially available systems were made available in the 1990s. While many people first heard about facial recognition after September 11th, 2001, football fans were introduced to it at the 2004 Super Bowl. Keyboard and/or Computer Joystick Viewer I
How Does It Works? The first step for a facial recognition system is to recognize a human face and extract it fro the rest of the scene. Next, the system measures nodal points on the face, (such as the distance between the eyes, the shape of the cheekbones and other distinguishable features.)
These nodal points are then compared to the nodal points computed from a database of pictures in order to find a match Standalone PTZ cam – Zoom out to overwatch the scene, and zoom in to track down an intruding object; – Easy installation and an ideal operation mode.
Template Matching Method Store a template – Predefined: based on edges or regions Deformable: based on facial contours (e.g., Snakes) Templates are hand-coded (not learned) Use correlation to locate faces
Pros Of Face Recognition System Typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems Face recognition systems can be installed to require a person to explicitly step up to a camera and get their picture taken, or to automatically survey people as they pass by a camera. The later mode allows for scanning of many people at the same time
Privacy V.S. National Security The main issue concerning face recognition is Privacy V.S. National Security Giving your consent to be scanned in order to live in a safer place.
Cons Of face Recognition SystemWavering Backgrounds Birds Flapping Crowd Rain Intelligent Video Surveillance, Penpower Technology
Such systems may be fooled by hats, beards, sunglasses and face masks Even changes of lighting and camera angle can have a significant effect on the accuracy of 2D systems Some people view mass-scale facial recognition cameras as the ultimate “big brother.”
Where Can You Find It? Mostly installed at (indoor) exits, entrances, passages; In addition to motion-sensitive analytics, also powered by face detection module for quick capture of human faces in the scene; ATM machines-Face recognition at ATM machines prevents fraud identification and eliminates the usage of a personal identification number (PIN)
Mission Impossible. Facial Disguise?-Only possible in Hollywood.-Also too expensive.
Recent Improvement In 2010, the performance of the latest face recognition algorithms were evaluated in the Face Recognition Grand Challenge (FRGC). High-resolution face images, 3-D face scans, and iris images were used in the tests. The results indicated that the new algorithms are 10 times more accurate than the face recognition algorithms of 2002 and 100 times more accurate than those of 1995. Some of the algorithms were able to outperform human participants in recognizing faces and could uniquely identify identical twins
Scene and Scenario Database Cameras: high sensitivity Illumination change: Cont. change v.s. sudden change, indoor and outdoor, partial and overall; Distance and range (view tilted from horizon 0~90o, object sized from tens of pixels to 90% of window. )