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Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
Male reproductive physiology
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Male reproductive physiology

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  • 1. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    1
    MALE REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY
    By
    Dr.M.Anthony David MD
    Professor of Physiology
  • 2. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    2
    THE MALE UROGENITAL TRACT
  • 3. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    3
    TESTIS: THE MALE GONAD
    VAS DEFERENS
    EPIDIDYMIS
    SEMENIFEROUS
    TUBULE
    RETE TESTIS
    EFFERENT
    DUCTULES
  • 4. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    4
    TESTIS: CROSS SECTION
    SEMENIFEROUS
    TUBULE
    SERTOLI CELLS
    SPERMATAZOON
  • 5. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    5
    PRIMARY SEXUAL ORGANS
    TESTES : ONE PAIR
    DUCTULAR SYSTEM
    GLANDS
    PENIS
  • 6. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    6
    TESTES: ONE PAIR
    HAS SEMENIFEROUS TUBULES:
    SERTOLI CELLS
    SPERMATOGONIA
    SPERM CELLS IN VARIOUS STAGES
    INTERSTITIAL CELLS OF LEYDIG:
    SECRETE TESTOSTERONE, THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE HORMONE
  • 7. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    7
    DUCTULAR SYSTEM
    RETE TESTIS
    EFFERENT DUCTULES
    EPIDIDYMIS
    VAS DEFERENS
    FUNCTION: TRANSPORT OF MATURE SPERMATOZOA.
  • 8. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    8
    GLANDS
    SEMINAL VESICLES
    PROSTATE GLAND:
    BOTH SECRETING SEMEN
    BULBO-URETHRAL GLANDS:
    SECRETE A MUCOID SUBSTANCE
  • 9. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    9
    PENIS
    ERECTILE:
    DUE TO SPONGIOUS TISSUES
    DUAL STATES:
    FLACCID
    ERECT
    DUAL FUNCTIONS:
    EXPULSION OF URINE
    EXPULSION OF SEMEN
  • 10. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    10
    PENIS: DUAL STATES
  • 11. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    11
    SPERMATOGENESIS: some definitions
    The production of spermatozoa which occurs in the sertoli cells of the semeniferous tubules is called as spermatogenesis.
    The conversion of the spermatids into spermatozoa is called as spermiogenesis.
    The release of the spermatazoon into the lumen of the semeniferous tubule is called as spermiation.
    The final maturation of the spermatazoon which occurs in the female genital tract is called as capacitation.
  • 12. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    12
    SPERMATOGENESIS: SCHEMA
    SPERMATOGONIA (DIPLOID)
    MITOSIS
    PRIMARY
    SPERMATOCYTES
    (DIPLOID)
  • 13. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    13
    SPERMATOGENESIS Contd.
    PRIMARY SPERMATOCYTES
    MEIOSIS I
    SECONDARY SPERMATOCYTES
    (HAPLOID)
    MEIOSIS II
    SPERMATIDS (HAPLOID)
    SPERMIOGENESIS
    SPERMATOZOA (HAPLOID)
  • 14. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    14
  • 15. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    15
    FROM SPERMATID TO SPERM: SPERMIOGENESIS…
  • 16. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    16
  • 17. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    17
    MALE REPRODUCTION: HORMONAL REGULATION
    HYPOTHALAMUS
    - ve feedback
    GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE
    ANTERIOR PITUITARY
    - ve feedback
    FSH
    LH
    TESTES
    S
    E
    R
    T
    O
    L
    I
    CELL
    LEYDIG CELL
    TESTOSTERONE
    REP.TRACT
    & OTHER ORGANS
    SPERMATOGENESIS
    INHIBIN
  • 18. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    18
    TESTOSTERONE : THE MALE SEX HORMONE
  • 19. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    19
    TESTOSTERONE - FUNCTIONS
    INITIATION & MAINTAINANCE OF SPERMATOGENESIS.
     GnRH FROM THE HYPOTHALAMUS
    INHIBITS LH SECRETION VIA ANTERIOR PITUITARY.
    DIFFERENTIATION & MAINTAINANCE OF MALE SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS:Facial Hair & Body Habitus.
  • 20. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    20
    TESTOSTERONE - FUNCTIONS
    5. INDUCES DIFFERENTIATION & MAINTAINS ACCESSORY REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS.
    6. STIMULATES PROTEIN ANABOLISM, BONE GROWTH & IT’S CESSATION.
    7. ENHANCES LIBIDO & AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR BY MASCULINIZING THE BRAIN.
    8. STIMULATES SECRETION OF ERYTHROPOIETIN FROM THE KIDNEYS
  • 21. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    21
  • 22. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    22
    SERTOLI CELL
  • 23. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    23
    FUNCTIONS OF SERTOLI CELLS
    PROVIDE THE BLOOD TESTES BARRIER, WHICH IS ALSO CALLED AS SERTOLI CELL BARRIER.
    NOURISH DEVELOPING SPERMS DURING SPERMATOGENESIS.
    SECRETE ANDROGEN BINDING PROTEIN & LUMINAL FLUID.
    SECRETE PARACRINE AGENTS STIMULATING SPERM PROLIFERATION & DIFFERENTIATION.
  • 24. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    24
    FUNCTIONS OF SERTOLI CELLS
    5. SECRETE THE REGULATORY PROTEIN INHIBIN.
    6. SECRETE PARACRINE AGENTS FACILITATING LEYDIG CELL FUNCTION.
    7. PHAGOCYTOSIS OF DEFECTIVE SPERM.
    8. SECRETE MULLERIAN INHIBITING SUBSTANCE(MIS) DURING INTRA UTERINE LIFE.
  • 25. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    25
    MATURE SPERMATOZOON
  • 26. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    26
    SEMEN ANALYSIS
    IS A TEST FOR INFERTILITY.
    SEMEN HAS:
    SPERMS
    SECRETIONS:
    SEMINAL VESICLES
    PROSTATE
    COWPER’S GLANDS
    BULBO-URETHRAL GLANDS
  • 27. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    27
    SEMEN ANALYSIS
    VOLUME: 2.5 to 3.5 ml PER EJACULATE.
    SPERM COUNT: 100 Millions/ml.
    <20% CAN BE ABNORMAL.
    IF THE COUNT IS <20 Million/ml, IT INDICATES THAT HE IS STERILE.
    SPEED OF SPERMS: 3mm/min.
    REACH FALLOPIAN TUBE 30- 40 MINUTES AFTER COITUS.
  • 28. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    28
    SEMEN: COMPOSITION
    COLOR: WHITE, OPALESCENT
    SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 1.028
    Ph : 7.35 – 7.50
    OTHER CONSTITUENTS:
    SEMINAL VESICLES: 60% VOLUME.
    PROSTATE GLAND: 20% VOLUME
  • 29. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    29
    SEMEN
    IS LIQUID WHEN EJACULATED
    COAGULATES BOTH:
    IN VITRO &
    IN THE VAGINA
    UNDERGOES SECONDARY LIQUEFACTION AFTER 15 minutes.
  • 30. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    30
    SPERMATOZOA
    ARE FERTILE UPTO 24 to 48 hrs AFTER DEPOSITION.
    ARE MOTILE, HOWEVER FOR 48 – 60 hrs.`
  • 31. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    31
    PENILE ERECTION: REFLEX PATHWAYS
    INPUT FROM
    MECHANORECEPTORS
    OF PENIS
    THOUGHTS
    EMOTIONS
    SIGHT, SMELL
    NEURONS TO PENIS
    NEURONS RELEASE GASEOUS
    NEUROTRANSMITTER NITRIC OXIDE
    INHIBITION ON SYMPATHETIC NEURONS DECREASED
    PENIS
    ARTERIAL DILATATION + VENOCOMPRESSION
    = ERECTION
  • 32. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    32
    FUNCTION OF PENIS IN COITUS (SEXUAL INTERCOURSE)
    ERECTION
    EJACULATION
  • 33. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    33
    ERECTION
    VASCULAR:
    SMALL ARTERIAL DILATATION
    VENOCONSTRICTION
    PARASYMPATHETIC FACILITATION (Point)
    SYMPATHETIC INHIBITION
    SMOOTH MUSCLES RELAX
  • 34. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    34
    EJACULATION
    SYMPATHETIC FACILITATION (“Shoot”)
    SKELETAL MUSCLES CONTRACT
    HAS TWO EVENTS:
    EMISSION: SMOOTH MUSCLES CONTRACT & SEMEN SENT INTO URETHRA
    EXPULSION: RAPID CONTRACTION OF URETHRAL SMOOTH MUSCLES & SEMEN IS SENT OUT OF THE PENIS.
  • 35. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    35
    MALE REPRODUCTIVE ABNORMALITIES
    CRYPTORCHIDISM (UNDESCENDED TESTES)
    THE DESCENT OF TESTES IS INCOMPLETE IN 10% OF NEONATES
    SPONTANEOUS DESCENT OCCURS LATER
    INCIDENCE: 2% AT INFANCY & 0.3% AFTER PUBERTY
    COMPLICATIONS: INCREASED INCIDENCE OF TESTICULAR MALIGNANCIES & INFERTILITY.
  • 36. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    36
    CRYPTORCHIDISM
  • 37. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    37
    MALE HYPOGONADISM
    HYPERGONADOTROPIC:
    IN THIS CONDITION THE GONADOTROPINS ARE INCRESED IN CIRCULATION
    THE LESION IS AT THE TESTES.
    HYPOGONADOTROPIC:
    A PITUITARY OR HYPOTHALAMIC DISORDER
    KALLMAN’S SYNDROME.
  • 38. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    38
    EUNUCHOIDISM
    DEFICIENCY OF LEYDIG CELLS FROM CHILDHOOD.
    TALL, NARROW SHOULDERS
    SMALL MUSCLES
    FEMININE HABITUS
    SMALL GENITALIA
    HIGH PITCHED VOICE
    FEMALE PATTERN PUBIC HAIR
  • 39. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    39
    PENILE ABNORMALITIES
    HYPOSPADIAS: URETHRAL ORIFICE VENTRAL TO THE SHAFT.
    EPISPADIAS: ORIFICE DORSAL TO THE SHAFT.
    COMPLICATIONS: INFERTILITY
  • 40. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    40
    HYPOSPADIAS
  • 41. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    41
    KLINEFELTERS SYNDROME
    ALSO CALLED SEMENIFEROUS TUBULE DYSGENESIS
    MOST COMMON SEX CHROMOSOMAL DISORDER
    EXTERNAL GENITALIA LIKE NORMAL MALES
    TESTOSTERONE ENOUGH FOR SEC.SEXUAL FEATURES
    SEMENIFEROUS TUBULES ARE ABNORMAL
    INFERTILITY
    INCIDENCE OF MENTAL RETARDATION MORE
  • 42. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    42
    K
    L
    I
    N
    E
    F
    E
    L
    T
    E
    R
    S
    S
    Y
    N
    D
    R
    O
    M
    E
  • 43. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    43
    THANK YOU
  • 44. Popad Rep Physiol MRP
    44
    LET’S GO FOR A BREAK!

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