Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Victimization of senior_citizens-_a_study_in_Delhi_Metropolis_city_from_Human_Rights_perspactives

194

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
194
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 LOK NAYAK JAYAPRAKASH NARAYAN NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF CRIMINOLOGY AND FORENSIC SCIENCE Ministry of Home Affairs Government of India RESEARCH PROJECT ON “VICTIMIZATION OF SENIOR CITIZENS: A STUDY IN DELHI METROPOLIS CITY FROM HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPECTIVES” Under Supervision of: Submitted By: Prof. (Dr.) B.N. Chattoraj AVINASH (Dean Academics) M.A. Criminology 4th semester Ms. Minakshi Sinha (Reader Sociology) Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 1
  • 2. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 TABLE OF CONTENTS     Table of contents Certificate Declaration Acknowledgement 2 3 4 5 Chapter -1 1. Introduction 2. Constitutional and Legal Protections o Protections under Indian Constitution o Legal Protections 6 9 10 Chapter - 2 1. Statement of the Problem 18 Chapter – 3 2. Literature Review 3. Theoretical Framework 19 26 Chapter – 4 1. 2. 3. 4. Objectives Scope of the Study Research Methodology Limitation of the Study 28 28 29 30 Chapter – 5 1. Data analyses 31 Chapter – 6 1. Findings of the Study 64 Chapter - 7 1. Suggestions 66 Chapter - 8 1. Conclusion 68 Chapter - 9 1. Appendix-1 – Interview Schedule for Senior Citizens 2. Appendix-2 – Interview Guide for Police 3. Appendix-3 – Reference Senior Citizens and Present Scenario 69 73 74 Page 2
  • 3. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the current study entitled “VICTIMIZATION OF SENIOR CITIZENS: A STUDY IN DELHI METROPOLIS CITY FROM HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPACTIVES” is an original piece of work carried out by Mr. AVINASH for the partial fulfillment of degree in M.A. Criminology from Lok Nayak Jayprakash Narayan National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science, MHA, Government of India, New Delhi. The study has been conducted under my guidance and supervision and has not been submitted elsewhere for publication or any other purpose. Prof. (Dr.) B.N. Chattoraj (Dean Academics) LNJN NICFS (MHA) Ms. Minakshi Sinha (Reader Sociology) Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 3
  • 4. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 DECLARATION I, AVINASH, hereby declare that the following research project entitled “VICTIMIZATION OF SENIOR CITIZENS: A STUDY IN DELHI METROPOLIS CITY FROM HUMAN RIGHTS PERSPACTIVES” is my own original work and no part of it has been duplicated from any previously submitted or published research study in the Institute or elsewhere. AVINASH 4th Semester M.A. Criminology Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 4
  • 5. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I consider it a great privilege to thank Prof (Dr.) B.N. Chattoraj, Course Director and Head of Department of Criminology, LNJN NICFS (MHA) and Ms. Minakshi Sinha (Reader Sociology), for their invaluable guidance, supervision and encouragement without which this research study would never have come to fruition. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all the police officers for helping me in completing my project. Finally, a big thank to all the respondents for their honesty and co-operation in providing the relevant data for the research. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 5
  • 6. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 CHAPTER - 1 INTRODUCTION Broadly speaking human rights may be regarded as those fundamental rights which are essential for life as human being. Human rights are the rights which possessed by every human being, irrespective of his or her nationality, race, religion, sex etc. Human rights are thus those rights which are inherent in our nature and without which we can‘t live as human being. Human rights and fundamental freedom allow us to fully develop and use our human qualities, our intelligence, our talents and our needs. Human rights are also called the fundamental rights, basic rights or natural rights. As fundamental or basic rights they are the rights which must not be taken away by any legislature or any act of government and which are often set out in a constitution. As natural rights they are seen as belonging to men or women by their very nature. As natural rights they are seen as belonging to men or women by their very nature. Human rights are also called ―common rights‖ for they are rights which are share by all men and women in the world. For example the common law in England was the body of rules and custom which, unlike local customs, govern the whole country. So, in short human rights means rights to be human. A person who is above 60 years is commonly considered as the Elderly. Recently, however, social scientists have begun to identify specific group within the growing population of older persons. People between the ages of 60 and 70, who are still inclined to be healthy an active, are called the‖ young old‖. Those who are 70 to 80, a group that is more likely to require support services, are the ―old-old‖. Those who are above the age of 80may be termed as the ―oldest-old‖. Another group, the ―frail elderly‖, consists of people over 60 who, because of poor health or economic problems, cannot carry out the basic activities of life without help. According to the Section 2(h) of The Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007, “senior citizens” means any person being a citizen of India, who has attained the age of 60 years or above. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 6
  • 7. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 The concept of victim dates back to ancient cultures and civilizations, such as the ancient Hebrews. Its original meaning was rooted in the idea of sacrifice or scapegoat -- the execution or casting out of a person or animal to satisfy a deity or hierarchy. Over the centuries, the word victim came to have additional meanings. Today, the concept of victim includes any person who experiences injury, loss, or hardship due to any cause. Also today, the word victim is used rather indiscriminately; e.g., cancer victims, holocaust victims, accident victims, victims of injustice, hurricane victims, crime victims, and others. The thing that all these usages have in common is an image of someone who has suffered injury and harm by forces beyond his or her control. Under the UN Declaration of the Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power 1985, “victim” means: Persons who individually or collectively, have suffered harm, which include physical or mental injury, emotional suffering or economic loss or substantial impairment of fundamental rights through acts or omissions that are in violation of criminal laws operative within member states, including those laws prescribing criminal abuse of power. According to Karman ―Victimization is the process of being victimized or becoming a victim. The term victim of crime generally refers to any person, group or entity who has suffered injury or loss due to an illegal activity. The harm can be physical, psychological or financial.‖ It has generally been accepted that with the growing elderly population there will be increased victimization of the elderly. Is this perception correct? What is the criminal justice system doing to prepare itself and the elderly population for the future? Law enforcement will play an important role in developing a comprehensive strategy that will meet the needs of the growing number of elderly in this country. Older citizens in our communities deserve and require a tailored law enforcement response to provide them with effective services. Law enforcement must understand the problems, characteristics, and needs of the burgeoning elderly population. All states have legislation that in some way affects the elderly, whether it is mandatory Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 7
  • 8. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 reporting laws, adult protection services laws, enhanced penalties for crimes against the elderly, or domestic violence laws. Law enforcement agencies across the country are shifting toward a community oriented approach to policing. A quality response to the needs of the elderly is going to be an integral part of any community policing effort. With the growing elderly population, the nation should also be experiencing a growing number of elderly victims. Since the elderly population has doubled since 1960, has the victimization of the elderly doubled as well? A study done by the Bureau of Justice Statistics found the following to be true. Persons age 65 or older are the least likely of all age groups in the nation to experience either lethal or nonlethal forms of criminal victimization; the elderly in this study comprised less than 2% of all victimization (Bachman, 1993). If the elderly comprise 13% of the population but only 2% of the victimization, then the rise in population has not been equal to the rate of victimization. Crime victimization rates among the elderly have been declining during the 1980's. Household crimes against the elderly in 1981 were 123 per 1000 households with heads of households over 65. In 1990 this figure dropped to 75 in 1000 (Bachman, 1993). Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 8
  • 9. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGAL PROTECTIONS A. PROTECTIONS UNDER INDIAN CONSTITUTION 38. State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people (1) The State shall strive to promote the welfareof the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice, social, economic and political, shall inform all the institutions of the national life. (2) The State shall, in particular, strive to minimise the inequalities in income, and endeavour to eliminate inequalities in status, facilities and opportunities, not only amongst individuals but also amongst groups of people residing in different areas or engaged in different vocations. 41. Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases - The State shall, within the limits of its economic capacity and development, make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, and in other cases of undeserved want. 42. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief - The State shall make provision for securing just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief. 46. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections - The State shall promote with special care the educational and economic interests of the weaker sections of the people, and, in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes, and shall protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. 47. Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health - The State shall regard the raising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties and, in particular, the State shall endeavour to bring Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 9
  • 10. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health. B. LEGAL PROTECTIONS 1. THE HINDU ADOPTIONS AND MAINTENANCE ACT, 1956 20. Maintenance of children and aged parents- (1) Subject to the provisions of this section a Hindu is bound, during his or her lifetime, to maintain his or her legitimate or illegitimate children and his or her aged or infirm parents. (2) A legitimate or illegitimate child may claim maintenance from his or her father or mother so long as the child is a minor. (3) The obligation of a person to maintain his or her aged or infirm parent or daughter who is unmarried extends in so far as the parent or the unmarried daughter, as the case may be, is unable to maintain himself or herself out of his or her own ealnings or other property 21. Dependents defined- For the purposes of this Chapter "dependents" mean the following relatives of the deceased (i) his or her father; (ii) his or her mother; (iii) his widow, so long as she does not remarry; (iv) his or her son or the son of his predeceased son or the son of a predeceased son of his predeceased son, so long as he is a minor; provided and to the extent that he is unable to obtain maintenance, in the case of a grandson from his father's or mother's estate, and in the case of a great-grandson, from the estate of his father or mother or father's father or father's mother; (v) his or her unmarried daughter for the unmarried daughter of his predeceased son or the unmarried daughter of a predeceased son of his predeceased son, so long as Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 10
  • 11. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 she remains unmarried; provided and to the extent that she is unable to obtain maintenance, in the case of a grand daughter from her father's or mother's estate and in the case of a great-grand daughter from the estate of her father or mother or father's father or father's mother; (vi) his widowed daughter; provided and to the extent that she is unable to obtain maintenance(a) from the estate of her husband; or (b) from her son or daughter, if any, or his or her estate; or (c) from her father-in-law or his father or the estate of either of them; (vii) any widow of his son or of a son of his predeceased son, so long as she does not remarry; provided and to the extent that she is unable to obtain maintenance from her husband's estate, or from her son or daughter, if any, or his or her estate; or in the case of a grandson's widow, also from her father-inlaw's estate; (viii) his or her minor illegitimate son, so long as he remains a minor; (xi) his or her illegitimate daughter, so long as she remains unmarried. 22. Maintenance of dependents- (1) Subject to the provisions of sub-section (2), the heirs of a deceased Hindu are bound to maintain the dependents of the deceased out of the estate inherited by them from the deceased. (2) Where a dependent has not obtained, by testamentary or intestate succession, any share in the estate of a Hindu dying after the commencement of this Act, the dependent shall be entitled, subject to the provisions of this Act, to maintenance from those who take the estate. (3) The liability of each of the persons who take the estate shall be in proportion to the value of the share or part of the estate taken by him or her. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 11
  • 12. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 (4) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-section (2) or sub-section (3), no person who is himself or herself a dependent shall be liable to contribute to the maintenance of others, if he or she has obtained a share or part, the value of which is, or would, if the liability to contribute were enforced, become less than what would be awarded to him or her by way of maintenance under this Act. 23. Amount of maintenance- (1) It shall be in the discretion of the court to determine whether any, and if so what, maintenance shall be awarded under the provisions of this Act, and in doing so, the court shall have due regard to the consideration set out in sub-section (2) or sub-section (3), as the case maybe, so far as they are applicable. (2) In determining the amount of maintenance, if any, to be awarded to a wife, children or aged or infirm parents under this Act, regard shall be had to- (a) the position and status of the parties; (b) the reasonable wants of the claimant; (c) if the claimant is living separately, whether the claimant is justified in doing so; (d) the value of the claimant's property and any income derived from such property, or from the claimant's own earning or from any other source; (e) the number of persons entitled to maintenance under this Act. (3) In determining the amount of maintenance, if any, to be awarded to a dependent under this Act, regard shall be had to- (a) the net value of the estate of the deceased after providing for the payment of his debts; (b) the provision, if any, made under a will of the deceased in respect, of the dependent; (c) the degree of relationship between the two; (d) the reasonable wants of the dependent; (e) the past relations between the dependent and the deceased; Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 12
  • 13. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 (f) the value of the property of the dependent and any income derived from such property, or from his or her earnings or from any other course; (g) the number of dependents entitled to maintenance under this Act. 24. Claimant to maintenance should be a Hindu- No person shall be entitled to claim maintenance under this Chapter if he or she has ceased to be a Hindu by conversion to another religion. 25. Amount of maintenance may be altered on change of circumstances- The amount of maintenance, whether fixed by a decree of court or by agreement either before or after the commencement of this Act, may be altered subsequently if there is a material change in the circumstances justifying such alteration. 26. Debts to have priority- Subject to the provisions contained in Section 27 debts of every description contracted or payable by the deceased shall have priority over the claims of his dependents for maintenance under this Act. 27. Maintenance when to be a charge- A dependent's claim for maintenance under this Act shall not be a charge on the estate of the deceased or any portion thereof, unless one has been created by the will of the deceased, by a decree of court, by agreement between the dependent and the owner of the estate or portion, or otherwise. 28. Effect of transfer of property on right or maintenance- Where a dependent has a right to receive maintenance out of an estate and such estate or any part thereof is transferred, the right to receive maintenance may be enforced agamst the transferee if the transferee has notice of the right or if the transfer is gratuitous; but not against the transferee for consideration and without notice of the right. 2. Muslim Law Children have a duty to maintain their aged parents even under the Muslim law. According to Mulla : Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 13
  • 14. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 (a) Children in easy circumstances are bound to maintain their poor parents, although the latter may be able to earn something for themselves. (b) A son though in strained circumstances is bound to maintain his mother, if the mother is poor, though she may not be infirm. (c) A son, who though poor, is earning something, is bound to support his father who earns nothing. According to Tyabji, parents and grandparents in indigent circumstances are entitled, under Hanafi law, to maintenance from their children and grandchildren who have the means, even if they are able to earn their livelihood. Both sons and daughters have a duty to maintain their parents under the Muslim law. The obligation, however, is dependent on their having the means to do so. 3. Christian And Parsi Law The Christians and Parsis have no personal laws providing for maintenance for the parents. Parents who wish to seek maintenance have to apply under provisions of the Criminal Procedure Code. 4. PROTECTIONS UNDER CRIMINAL PROCEDURE CODE, 1973 125. Order for maintenance of wives, children and parents, (1) If any person having sufficient means neglects or refuses to maintain— (a) his wife, unable to maintain herself, or (b) his legitimate or illegitimate minor child, whether married or not, unable to maintain itself, or (c) his legitimate or illegitimate child (not being a married daughter) who has attained majority, where such child is, by reason of any physical or mental abnormality or injury unable to maintain itself, or (d) his father or mother, unable to maintain himself or herself, a Magistrate of the first class may, upon proof of such neglect or refusal, order such person to make a monthly allowance for the maintenance of his wife or such child, father or mother, at Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 14
  • 15. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 such monthly rate not exceeding five hundred rupees in the whole, as such magistrate thinks fit, and to pay the same to such person as the Magistrate may from time to time direct: Provided that the Magistrate may order the father of a minor female child referred to in clause (b) to make such allowance, until she attains her majority, if the Magistrate is satisfied that the husband of such minor female child, if married, is not possessed of sufficient means (2) Such allowance shall be payable from the date of the order, or, if so ordered, from the date of the application for maintenance (3) If any person so ordered fails without sufficient cause to comply with the order, any such Magistrate may, for every breach of the order, issue a warrant for levying the amount due in the manner provided for levying fines, and may sentence such person, for the whole, or any port of each month's allowance remaining unpaid after the execution of the warrant, to imprisonment for a term which may extend to one month or until payment if sooner made: Provided that no warrant shall be issued for the recovery of any amount due under this section unless application be made to the Court to levy such amount within a period of one year from the date on which it became due: Provided further that if such person offers to maintain his wife on condition of her living with him, and she refuses to live with him, such Magistrate may consider any grounds of refusal stated by her, and may make an order under this section notwithstanding such offer, if he is satisfied that there is just ground for so doing (4) No wife shall be entitled to receive an allowance from her husband under this section if she is living in adultery, or if, without any sufficient reason, she refuses to live with her, husband, or if they are living separately by mutual consent (5) On proof that any wife in whose favour an order has been made under this section is living in adultery, or that without sufficient reason she refuses to live with Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 15
  • 16. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 her husband, or that they are living separately by mutual consent, the Magistrate shall cancel the order 5. National Policy For Older Persons 1999 In order to address the problems of the older persons The Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment has launched in the year 1999, A National Policy For Older Persons. Its main features are as fallows:  Old age Pension Scheme  Tax Exemption for Senior Citizens  Make PDS to reach older people  Subsidy in healthcar, geriatrics care, mental health services, counselling facilities  Grants, land grant at concessional rates to NGIs and private hospitals to provide economical and specialized care for the older person  Earmarking 10% of the houses in housing schemes and easy access to loans  Layout of housing colonies to be sensitive to the needs of the older persons  Quick disposal of cases of property-transfer, mutation, property tax etc  Assistance for constrction/maintenance of old age home, Daycare centers, multi-service citizens center, out reach services, supply of disability related aids and appliances etc  Setting up a welfare fund for plder persons 6. THE MAINTENANCE AND WELFARE OF PARENTS AND SENIOR CITIZENS ACT, 2007  Under the act, maintenance application can be filed by parents and senior citizens (above 60 years) unable to maintain himself/herself, against children (not minor) or relatives (who would inherit and are in possession of the property of the elderly ). Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 16
  • 17. Victimization of senior citizens 2013  The maintenance application can be filed by the senior citizen or a parent or any other person or organization authorized by him, if incapable of doing so himself.  The maintenance application can be filed either in the district where the elderly resides, or where the children or relatives resides. Notices would be sent and the proceedings should conclude within 90 days from the date of service of the maintenance applicationon the children or relatives.  The case would be referred for conciliation, if appropriate, before hearing. The findings of the conciliation officer (who can be the maintenance officer.NGO representative or anyone on behalf of the elderly) should be submitted to the tribunal within a month. If an applicable settlement has been reached, Tribunal shall pass an order according to that settlement.  If, children or relatives are ordered by the Tribunal to pay maintenance to the elderly, fail to comply, they are liableto a fine or imprisonment.  Abandonment of the elderly is now a cognizable offence. Anyone responsible for looking after or protecting the senior citizens, leaves him/her in any place with the intention of wholly abandoning, shall be punished and fined.  Role of NGO has also been legislated under the act e.g. for filling maintenance application on behalf of the elderly if he/she is unable to do so himself/herself, for reconciliation and reconciliation and representation of his/her case if unable to do so and authorized someone else to represent and facilitate. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 17
  • 18. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 CHAPTER - 2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLUM There are an estimated 100 million older people in Indian, by 2050 the figure is estimated to rise to 326 million (UN projections). In year 2011-2012 HelpAge received 974 calls relating to Abuse, Violence and Disputes. During 2010, 92,865 persons over the age of 65 were victims of violent crime. In 2010, 585 people age 65 or older were murdered, or 4.5 percent of all murder victims. With declining fertility, coupled with increase in life expectancy, the number of older persons in population of India is expected to increase more than double from 71 million in 2001 to 173 million by 2026. Normally, males out-number females in total population. But among population of elderly, the reverse is true. Population of metros is large. They have huge floating population. A large fraction of their population resides in ramshackle housing (slums) that surrounds high-rise prosperous clusters. These factors promote violence and crime. Total population (in lakh) of mega cities of Chennai, Delhi, Kolkata and Mumbai, for crime analysis purpose, as per 2001 census, is 64.25, 127.91, 132.17 and 163.68 respectively. United Nations (UN) statistics illustrate the explosive growth of aged populations around the world. By 2050, for example, nearly 33 percent of the people living in the world's most developed countries—those in North America, Western Europe, and parts of Asia—will be at least 60 years old, up from less than 12 percent in 1950. According to the data available with Delhi police, the total number of senior citizens registered with the Delhi police till June 15 this year is 13,147. The figure was 12,788 in the year 2011. Most of the people either are not aware of the registration procedure or do not pay attention. Consider this, out of every 10 elderly couples in India; more than 6 are forced by their children to leave their homes. With no place to go and all hopes lost, the elderly have to resort to old age homes, which do not guarantee first class treatment. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 18
  • 19. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 Every other day, we see news of parents being beaten up by their children, parents and in laws being forced to do the house hold chores, being made to live in small dungeon like rooms, their property being forcefully taken over by ambitious children. There are 81million older people in India-11 lakh in Delhi itself. According to an estimate nearly 40% of senior citizens living with their families are reportedly facing abuse of one kind or another, but only 1 in 6 cases actually comes to light. Although the President has given her assent to the Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act which punishes children who abandon parents with a prison term of three months or a fine, situation is grim for elderly people in India. Thus the children violets the various rights of their parents and the defense Mechanism of senior citizens are very weak, so their many Human Rights are violated. The main reason of this is the illiteracy and the unawareness of the law between them. Senior Citizens are the soft target so they can easily Victimized. Older adults are particularly vulnerable to certain types of crime, including elder abuse and financial fraud. Elder abuse refers to any knowing, intentional, or negligent act by a caregiver or any other person that causes harm or a serious risk of harm to a vulnerable adult. All 50 states have passed some form of elder abuse prevention laws. Elder abuse includes physical, sexual, and emotional abuse; neglect, abandonment, or financial exploitation; or failure to intervene when an older people fail to take care of themselves. These crimes are often unreported, particularly because the victims may be dependent on the abusers. Older people are also frequently targeted for financial fraud. In recent years, reports to the Federal Trade Commission and National Consumers League have significantly increased. Scams directed at seniors include fake check scams, the grandparent scam (in which the scammer pretends to be a grandchild in financial trouble), investment fraud, sweepstakes fraud, and identity theft. The crime situation in India, according to N.S. Sexena, knows that crime and violence against the aged are increasing. He further remarks that this statement can neither be proved nor disproved on the basis of official statistics of crime as police do not register a great deal of crime reported to it. A recent survey reveals that only 23 Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 19
  • 20. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 per cent of crime ever gets reported and even out of cases that are reported only 72 per cent get registered (By the BPRD Report). Thus the Senior Citizens are Victimized By the Police. Senior citizens are victims of crimes against body, crimes against property, economic crimes and even rape. According to Delhi police, relatives, domestic helps and persons known to victims commit around 40 per cent of heinous crime against senior citizens. In the present time victimization of Senior Citizens is increase day by day, so this study finds out the different forms of victimization of senior citizen and suggests the measures to reduce the victimization. This study finds out the living condition and socio-economic conditions of Senior Citizens. By studying this topic, it would be known that at what level the elderly are suffering due to crime. How the abuse becomes crime and its effect on them. Since the researcher belongs to police background, he is interested to do some study in this field. The researcher hopes that at the end of the study he will be able to contribute significantly to the protection of the elderly by suggesting simple measures that will keep them away from danger. The aim of the study is to search out the role of police in crime against senior citizens in Delhi. The study will also reveal the problems generally faced by senior citizens in daily life and the cause of their victimization. Questions will be covered under this study are as fallows. 1. What is the Socio – Economic Condition of Senior Citizens? 2. What is the living condition of Senior Citizens? 3. What are the different forms of Victimization of Senior Citizens? 4. How we can reduce the Victimization of Senior Citizens? 5. How many Senior Citizens are aware about their Human Rights? 6. How this study is useful in present time? Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 20
  • 21. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 CHAPTER - 3 LITERATURE REVIEW During last few decades‘ better healthcare facilities have led to significant increase in life expectancy. Improved life expectancy combined with high growth rate of population has contributed in increase in number of citizens not only in Delhi but also in whole world. A good of studies have been undertaken on the problem and human rights status of senior citizens. Rachel H. Pain (1995) published his on ‗elderly women and fear of violent crime‘. The study assesses existing explanations of the relationship between the risk and fear of crime amongst elderly people. These have tended to assume an incongruity between levels of fear and the chances of victimization. It is argued that the significance of gender has previously been understated, and that the temporal and spatial parameters to conceptualizations of ‗risk‘ have been unduly narrow. Study reveals that, elderly women were no more concerned about violent crime than younger women, and the nature of their concerns bore closer relation to risk. Moreover, it is contended that domestic violence against elderly people is considerably more prevalent than is generally acknowledged. It is argued that age structured relationships be retained in analyses of fear of crime as a determinant of actual rather than perceived risk. Tomstan (1995), freaks and Himes Andersons et. Al. (2002), martire (2002) conducted studies on family care givers, the relationship of care recipient with the care givers and the intensity of care giving have woman‘s participation in personnel family centered community activities. These studies applied theories from general work and literature to dual roles of work and care giving. McCoy (1996) presented a study on ―Life situation and older persons‘ fear of crime‖. The study was based on a survey of 1,448 elderly residents of Dade County (Miami), Florida. The impact of fear of crime on status characteristics, victimization experience, and various measures of life situation were assessed. The study concludes, firstly, in contrast to much academic and popular commentary, the elderly did not appear to have high levels of fear. Secondly, evidence exists that Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 21
  • 22. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 victimization experience increases, but is not the main determinant of fear. Thirdly, the inclusion of life situation variables markedly improved the explained variance for both measures of fear of crime, thus supporting the utility of this line of inquiry. Fourthly, consistent with previous studies, dissatisfaction with neighborhood and vulnerability were important correlates of fear of crime The study “Explaining Fear of Crime”, ( G. Andrews, 1998), construct a model for explaining "fear" of crime by using the relevant literature to identify possible factors and making out a prima facie case for each by examining data from the second British Crime Survey. Using Logic analysis this model is tested on data derived from the same survey. The study reveals that such factors as gender, age, race, neighborhood cohesion, confidence in the police, levels of local incivility, experience of victimization, and perception of risk and assessment of offence seriousness all combine to form a theoretical account of "fear" which has strong empirical support. On the basis of these findings, study concludes by making some suggestions for policies to reduce this "fear". According to N.S. Saxena (1999) in his study ‘Crime and Violence against the Aged ‗, all those who have anything to do with crime situation in India know that cases of crime and violence against the aged are increasing. The study covers subjects like Concealment and Minimization of Crime, Crimes and Weaker Sections, Increase in older people and their Problems, Misuse of Police (by politicians), Order according to the Politics and Not according to the Law, Criminalization of Politics, Increase in Corruption, Aged Safety Scheme etc. The study criticizes the official statistics which shows the continuous decreases in crime per lakh of the population. The study points out that, it is true that when crime increases the weaker sections in the population is hit hardest and the aged are one of those weaker sections who affected most. Owing to the decline in the joint family systems many old people have to live alone or with younger members of the family, who are out in day time due to their jobs. Thus the aged became a soft target to the criminals. Unfortunately the criminals have become very bold because the criminal justice system in India is so soft and dilatory that way few are punished. Approximately a lakh of persons are murdered every year in India but not even one hundred are hanged. While about 70% security of the aged depends on general Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 22
  • 23. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 improvement in the crime situation in India, yet a special scheme for the aged can be drawn up in the cities. The study suggests that there should be a close rapport between the Beat police and the Special Police Officers in the area. And, for this there should be a more honest police force, which is devoted to public service and is not oriented simply to serve the elite and politicians in power. Whitlaten et.al (2000) conducted a study about the stress process of family care giving in institutional setting. The purpose of study adapts the stress process modal of family care giving to examine the predictors of depression in a sample of caregivers with demented relatives receding in sub urban skilled nursing facilities. On 14 February 2000, the Ministry of Justice and Human Rights of Argentina created, under its auspices, the Latin American Crime and Justice Research Institute, IIDEJUAL. The IIDEJUAL has as its long-term goal the creation of a clearinghouse of data and information on crime and justice in the Latin American region and collaborates with CICP. J. A. Hollander (2001) in the study ‗Vulnerability and Dangerousness‘ suggests that beliefs and conceptions of gender are constructed and transmitted through conversation. Using data from 13 focus groups, the study demonstrates that ideas about gender and its relationship to vulnerability and danger are pervasive in talk about violence, and that this talk is further marked by ideas about age, race, social class, and sexual identity. These ideas are based, in part, on shared beliefs about human bodies, which reinforce the perceived naturalness (and therefore the invisibility) of these ideas. The study concludes with a discussion of the consequences of these ideas for the daily lives of the elderly. Penning (2001) conducted a study on health, social support and urbanization of health services among senior citizens. The findings reveal differences depending upon the type of support (instrumental, emotional) and type of services (medical, hospital, homecare) involved. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 23
  • 24. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 Krause (2001) conducted a study on the anticipated support, received support and economic stress among older people. This study examines the interface between anticipated support. Robert A. Butterworth (2001) , Florida attorney general and Donald reneva, chief executive officer of seniors vs crime project studied and concluded that ― with Florida‘s explosive growth and the increase of the age of state‘s population have come directed against senior citizens. Perhaps even important that raw numbers is the psychological and emotional impact of crime on senior citizens. Aswan educates law enforcement, social service, judiciary and other elements of our society, it is critical that we also educate our senior citizens. Sangmitra and Ilango (2002) conducted a study on the problems experienced by caregivers of elderly patients with neurological disorders. The purpose was to assess the types of care received and to analyze the problems experienced by caregivers of elderly patients with neurological disorders. It is found that the caregivers experience financial psychological physical social problems because of providing care for them. The Times of India survey (2004) reveal the fact that even the police personnel ignore the elderly. In new Delhi more than 3700 citizens live alone and in fear. Elderly think that they are surviving purely on God‘s mercy. Every day rings in a new sense of fear. They look themselves inside early in the evening what don‘ts open the door till late in morning. Senior police officers, however, refuse to believe that senior citizens are not being looked after. The study compares perceptions of insecurity and fear of crime in Scotland and Iceland (Kristiansen, 2007) and shows how these perceptions are related to social factors in the two countries. Independent samples t-tests and stepwise multiple linear regression models are used to analyze comparable data from surveys in the two countries. The regression models show that social integration and smaller differences between households and neighborhoods in terms of income and class are associated with greater perceptions of insecurity. The study therefore suggests that perceptions of insecurity are higher in Scotland than in Iceland because Iceland's population is more homogeneous, with stronger social integration, less pronounced Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 24
  • 25. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 class and income differentials, and less polarization between neighborhoods. The wider implications for understanding perceptions of insecurity at different levels of analysis (macro and meso) are also discussed. These studies are covering some surveys on crimes, research on fear of crime of elderly, legal support for the elderly, their vulnerable and dangerous situation, violence, insecurity and role of mass media in prevention of crime etc. These studies try to figure out the reasons for the crime against elderly. But the studies are not dealing much with the measures to minimize the crime against the elderly. It is the need of the hour to find adequate measures to prevent violence against the vulnerable group of elderly. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 25
  • 26. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK Crime against Senior citizens is the result of their life style, opportunities, and routine activities. Crime against Senior citizens whether it is due to lack of their care or due to their old age sickness that all can be explained by Routine Activity Theory. Routine Activity Theory was first articulated in a series of papers by Lawrence Cohan and Marcus Felson (1979). They concluded that the volume and distribution of predatory crime (violent crimes against a person and crime in which an offender attempts to steal an object directly) are closely related to the interaction of three variables that reflect the Routine Activities of the typical Senior citizens life style.  The availability of suitable targets, such as homes containing easily salable goods.  The absence of capable guardians, such as police, home honors neighbors, neighbor‘s friends, and relatives.  The presence of motivated offenders, such as a large number of unemployed teenagers. Routine activities theory provides a macro perspective on crime in that it predicts how changes in social and economic conditions influence the overall crime and victimization rate. Felson and Cohen (1980) postulate that criminal activities are a ―structurally significant phenomenon,‖ meaning that violations are neither random nor trivial events (390). In consequence, it is the routine of activities people partake in over the course of their day and night lives that makes some individuals more susceptible to being viewed as suitable targets by a rationally calculating offender. Routine activities theory relates the pattern of offending to the everyday patterns of social interaction. Crime is therefore normal and is dependent on available opportunities to offend. If there is an unprotected target and there are sufficient rewards, a motivated offender will commit a crime. In terms of suitable targets, the choice is influenced by the offender‘s perception of the target‘s vulnerability; the more suitable and accessible the target, the more likely that a crime will occur. The number of motivated criminals in the population also affects crime levels. It is held that offenders are less likely to commit crimes if Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 26
  • 27. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 they can achieve personal goals through legitimate means. This implies that criminal motivations can be reduced if offenders perceive that there are alternatives to crime. Routine Activity Theory is bound up in opportunity and life style. A person living arrangements can affect victim risk; people who live in unguarded areas are at the mercy motivated offenders. Life style affects the opportunity for because it controls a person‘s proximity to criminals, time of exposure to criminals, attractiveness as a target, and ability to be protected. The presence of capable guardians is also held to deter individuals from offending. Guardianship can be the physical presence of a person who is able to act in a protective manner or in the form of more passive mechanical devices such as video surveillance or security systems. These physical security measures help limit an offender‘s access to suitable targets. The essential aspect of routine activities theory is the interaction of motivation, opportunity and targets. In this way, the presence of guardians will deter most offenders, rendering even attractive targets off limits. Therefore, the presence of opportunity coupled with a lack of guardianship increases criminal motivations and the likelihood of an offence taking place. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 27
  • 28. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 CHAPTER - 4 OBJECTIVES I. To study the Socio – Economic Condition of Senior Citizens. II. To study the Living Condition of Senior Citizens.. III. To find out the different forms of Victimization of Senior Citizens. IV. To study the awareness and violation of Human Rights by Senior Citizens. V. To suggest remedial measures to minimize crimes against elderly. SCOPE OF THE STUDY The study covers only those Senior Citizens who are living either alone or with their own family members. The study purpose is to cover in its scope all the factors that are responsible for elderly problems and elderly victimization. The study covers the male Senior Citizens. The study covers Senior Citizens of different age for example- 60-70 years; those are called the young old,70-80 years; those are called the old old and 80 or above; those are called the oldest old. We are taking all the age groups because most of the crimes are committed against the senior citizen because they are the soft targets for committing crime. The study covers in its preview all aspects of the elderly problems and their victimization. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 28
  • 29. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY  Research Design: The present study is exploratory Research in nature, because the aim of the research is to discover the ideas and insights about this particular research topic.  Universe of the Study: Senior citizens, their Family members, Community Leaders and the Police officers constitute the universe of this study.  Locale of the study: Delhi is selected for the purpose of study because Delhi is a metropolitan city and the capital of our nation. A large number of old age home is running either by government of Delhi or by NGO‘s. The composition of the family in urban area like Delhi is becoming nuclear and smaller, as a result of which there are fewer people available in the house to provide care and comfort to the ageing. In this context, we see that the magnitude of the problem is more in Delhi. If we see according to a researcher this is a short time of research.  Sources of Data Collection: The study requires both the primary and secondary data. o Primary Data - Primary data has been collected by the method of Observation method and the interview schedule for Senior Citizens and the interview Guide is used for the Police Officers. o Secondary Data – Secondary data has been collected from various books authored by Indian as well as foreign writers, National and International journals, previous studies, articles, Internet and various government documents.  Sample Size: Sample size taken for the purpose of this study is 45. 40 senior citizens are taken from different parks randomly. 5 Police officers are taken Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 29
  • 30. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 from the Police station of Delhi because of the lack of the time and to see the study purpose and period. Probability sampling will be used in which we use the Random sampling for the collection of data which includes the senior citizens and the Police officers.  Research Tools for Data Collection: The following tool will be used for data collection:o Observation method is used for the senior citizens. o Interview schedule is used for the senior citizens. o Interview Guide is used for police officers.  LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: o The number of Senior Citizens & Police officers interviewed was so less that we can‘t generalize the outcomes of the study. o Since the data collection is done from different parks in Delhi where the senior citizens come, therefore the findings can‘t be generalized to all the senior citizens. o The proper observation and timely follow up was not possible because of the lack of time period for data collection, so this could be the major limitation of the study. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 30
  • 31. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 CHAPTER - 5 AGE GROUP OF SENIOR CITIZENS Table 1 Age Group 60-70 71-80 80+ Total Response 18 15 7 40 Percentage (%) 45 37 18 100 AGE GROUP 18 16 14 12 10 18 Series1 8 15 6 4 7 2 0 60-70 (45%) 71-80 (37%) 80+ (18%) 18 Senior Citizens is under the age of 60 to 70. 15 Senior Citizen is under the age of 71 to 80 and 7 senior Citizen is under the age of 80 and above 80. It means 45% senior Citizens is under the age of 60 to 70 who are young old. 37% senior Citizens is under the age of 71 to 80 who are old old and 18% are oldest old. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 31
  • 32. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 FAMILY SIZE Table 2 Total Members 1-3 4-6 7+ Total Response 14 17 9 40 Percentage (%) 35 42 23 100 FAMILY SIZE 18 16 14 12 10 Series1 17 8 14 6 9 4 2 0 1-3 (35%) 4-6 (42%) 7+ (23%) There are 1 to3 family members in the 14 senior citizens family, 4 to 6 family members in the 17 senior citizens family and 7 and above 7 family members in the 9 senior citizens family. According to this 35% senior citizens have the neculare family, 42% senior citizens have 4 to 6 members, and 23% senior citizens have the joint family. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 32
  • 33. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION Table 3 Education Illiterate Primary Elementary 10th 12th Graduate P.G. Total Response 4 0 0 6 10 15 5 40 Percentage (%) 10 0 0 15 25 37 13 100 EDUCATION 16 15 14 12 10 10 8 Series1 6 6 5 4 4 2 0 0 Illiterate (10%) 0 Primary Elementary 10th (15%) 12th (25%) Graduate P.G. (13%) (0%) (0%) (37%) 4 senior citizens is illiterate. 6 senior citizens are high school passed, 10 senior citizens are intermediate passed, 15 are graduate and 5 are post graduate. It means 10% Senior citizens are illiterate, 15% Senior citizens high school passed, 25% Senior citizens intermediate passed 37% are graduate and 13% are post graduate. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 33
  • 34. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 OCCUPATION Table 4 Occupation Government job Private job Business Agriculture Any other Total Response 12 10 9 3 6 40 Percentage (%) 30 25 22 8 15 100 OCCUPATION 15% 30% Government job(30%) 8% Private job(25%) Business (22%) Agriculture (8%) Any other(15%) 22% 25% 12 senior citizens are retired from Government Jobs, 10 senior citizens are doing the Private Job, 9 senior citizens have their own Business, 3 senior citizens are in Agriculture and 6 are in other jobs. According to this 30% senior citizens are retired from Government Jobs, 25% senior citizens are doing the Private Job, 22% senior citizens have their own Business, 8% senior citizens are in Agriculture and 15% are in other jobs. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 34
  • 35. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 INCOME Table 5 Monthly Income (Rs.) 1000-5000 5000-10000 10000-15000 15000+ Total Response 4 11 6 19 40 Percentage (%) 10 27 15 48 100 INCOME PER MONTH 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 19 Series1 11 4 6 4 senior citizens‘ income is between 1000 to 5000 per month, 11 senior citizens‘ income is between 5000 to 10000, 6 senior citizens‘ income is between10000 to15000 and 19 senior citizens‘ income is between 15000 and above 15000. According to this 10% senior citizens‘ income is between 1000 to 5000 per month, 27% senior citizens‘ income is between 5000 to 10000, 15% senior citizens‘ income is between10000 to15000 and 48% senior citizens‘ income is between 15000 and above 15000. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 35
  • 36. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 SHARE INCOME WITH FAMILY Table 6 Share income Yes No Total Response 23 17 40 Percentage (%) 57 43 100 SHARE INCOME 25 20 15 Series1 23 10 17 5 0 Yes(57%) No(43%) 23 senior citizens share their income with their family and 17 senior citizens don‘t share their income. According to this 57% senior citizens share their income with their family and 43% senior citizens don‘t share their income. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 36
  • 37. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 INTERACTIVE SOCIAL CIRCLE Table 7 Social circle Yes No Total Response 25 15 40 Percentage (%) 62 38 100 SOCIAL CIRCLE 15 Yes(62%) No(38%) 25 25 senior citizens said that they have a social circle of friends, nabourhood, and businessman. 15 senior citizens said that they don‘t have any social circle. According to this 62% senior citizens said that they have a social circle and 38% senior citizens said that they don‘t have any social circle. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 37
  • 38. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 KIND OF SOCIAL CIRCLE Table 8 Kind of Social circle Friends Businessman Nabourhood Total Response 11 5 9 25 Percentage (%) 44 20 36 100 Kind of Social Circle 12 10 8 6 11 Series1 9 4 5 2 0 Friends (44%) Businessman(20%) Nabourhood(36%) 25 senior citizens said that they have a social circle. Out of them 11 have the social circle of friends, 5 have the social circle of businessman and 9 have the social circle of nabourhood. According to this 44% have the social circle of friends, 20% have the social circle of businessman and 36% have the social circle of nabourhood. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 38
  • 39. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 MEMBER OF ANY SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OR RELIGIOUS INSTITUTION Table 9 Members of social org. Yes No Total Response 11 29 40 Percentage (%) 27 73 100 Member of any Org. 30 25 20 29 15 Series1 10 5 11 0 Yes(27%) No(73%) 11 senior citizens were the members of the social organization or the religious institutions and 29 senior citizens ware not the member of any social organization or the religious institutions. If we see according to this 27% senior citizen are the member of a social organization or the religious institutions and 73% senior citizen are not the member of a social organization or the religious institutions. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 39
  • 40. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 NATURE OF PARTICIPATION OF ORGANIZATION Table 10 Nature of org. Church Any social welfare Association Meditation club Particular own group Total Response 3 2 Percentage (%) 27 18 4 2 11 37 18 100 Nature of Org. 4.5 4 4 3.5 3 3 2.5 2 2 2 Series1 1.5 1 0.5 0 Church(27%) Any social welfare Association(18%) Meditation club (37%) Particular own group(18%) Total 11 senior citizens are the member of a social organization or the religious institutions. In these senior citizens 3 are the member of church, 2 are the member of any social welfare association, 4 are the member of meditation club and 2 are from particular own group. According to this 27% senior citizens are the member of church, 18% senior citizens are the member of any social welfare association, 37% senior citizens are the member of meditation club and 18% are the member of their own particular group. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 40
  • 41. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 OWN SHELTER Table 11 Own shelter Yes No Total Response 29 11 40 Percentage (%) 72 28 100 Own Shelter 35 30 25 20 15 Series1 29 10 11 5 0 Yes(72%) No(28%) 29 senior citizens have their own shelter and 11 senior citizens lives with their daughter, Close relatives and some senior citizens are going to the old age homes in day time. If we see these figures then we know that 72% senior citizens have their own shelter and 28% senior citizens lives with their daughter and close relatives. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 41
  • 42. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 YOU LIVING THERE Table 12 Living there Yes No Total Response 16 8 24 Percentage (%) 67 33 100 Living There 9 No(31%) Series1 20 Yes(69%) 0 5 10 15 20 29 out of 40 senior citizens have their own shelters. 20 senior citizens are living in their own shelters and 9 are not living there. To see this we know that 69% senior citizens are living in their own shelters and 31% are not living there. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 42
  • 43. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 YOUR WIFE IS A CO-OPERATIVE LADY Table 13 Co-operative wife Yes No Total Response 31 9 40 Percentage (%) 77 23 100 Co-operative Wife 23% 77% Yes(77%) No(23%) 31 out of 40 senior citizens said that their wife are the co-operative lady and 9 said that their wife not co-operate them some times. According to this 77% senior citizens said that their wives are co-operative lady and 33% said that some times their wife doesn‘t co-operate them. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 43
  • 44. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 PROBLUMS YOUFACING WITH YOUR WIFE Table 14 Problem facing Domestic violence Financial problems Problems related to children Total Response 2 4 3 Percentage (%) 22 45 33 9 100 Problum facing 4 3.5 3 2.5 4 2 3 1.5 1 Series1 2 0.5 0 Domestic violence(22%) Financial problems(45%) Problems related to children(33%) In the 40 senior citizens 9 have some problems with their wife. 2 senior citizens have the problem of domestic violence, 4 senior citizens have the financial problems and 3 have the problems related to their children. 22% senior citizens have the domestic violence problem, 45% have the financial problems and 33% have the problems related to their children. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 44
  • 45. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 RELATION WITH YOUR CHILDREN Table 15 Relation with children Very supportive Supportive Unsupportive Very Tensed Total Response 8 6 15 11 40 Percentage (%) 20 15 37 28 100 Relation with children 16 15 14 12 11 10 8 8 Series1 6 6 4 2 0 Very supportive(20%) Supportive (15%) Unsupportive (37%) Very Tensed(28%) 8 senior citizens said that they have very supportive relation with their children, 6 senior citizens have supportive relation, 15 senior citizens have unsupportive relation and 11 has very tensed relation with their children. To see this we can say that 20% senior citizens have very supportive relation with their children, 15% have supportive relation, 37% have unsupportive relation and 28% has very tensed relation with their children. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 45
  • 46. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 IF SUPPORTIVE DO THEY HELP YOU Table 16 Children help you Yes No Total Response 10 4 14 Percentage (%) 71 29 100 They Help You 4 No(29%) Series1 10 Yes(71%) 0 2 4 6 8 10 Total 14 senior citizens told that their children are very supportive and supportive. In this 10 senior citizens said that their children help them and 4 senior citizens said that their children don‘s help them. According to this 71% senior citizens said that their children help them when they need help and 29% senior citizens said that their children don‘t help them. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 46
  • 47. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 WHO ATTENDS YOU AT HOME Table 17 Attend at home Wife Son Daughter Total Response 23 11 6 40 Percentage (%) 57 28 15 100 Who attends You 6 Daughter (15%) 11 Son(28%) Series1 23 Wife(57%) 0 5 10 15 20 25 23 senior citizen said that when they are not well their wife attends them, 11 said that their son attend them and 6 said that their daughter attend them at home. To see this figure we can say that 57% senior citizens wife attend them, 28% senior citizens son attend them and 15% senior citizens daughter attend them at home when they are not well. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 47
  • 48. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 PROPER FOOD, CLOTHING & MEDICAL CARE Table 18 Proper food & clothing Yes No Total Response 29 11 40 Percentage (%) 72 28 100 Food and Clothing 28% Yes(72%) No(28%) 72% 29 senior citizens get proper food, clothing and medical care facilities but 11 senior citizens have the problems in these facilities. 72% senior citizens get proper food, clothing and medical care facilities but 28% senior citizens have the problems in these facilities. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 48
  • 49. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 FEEL LONLEY Table 19 Feel lonely Yes No Total Response 5 35 40 Percentage (%) 12 88 100 Feel Lonley 35 30 25 20 35 Series1 15 10 5 5 0 Yes(12%) No(88%) 5 senior citizens feel lonely some times and 35 senior citizens feel good in their life. According to this 12 % senior citizens feel lonely in their life and 88% are feeling good in their life. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 49
  • 50. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 WHOME DOSE YOU LIKE MOST Table 20 Like most Son Daughter Grandchildren Total Response 7 4 29 40 Percentage (%) 17 10 73 100 Like Most 30 25 20 29 15 Series1 10 5 7 4 0 Son (17%) Daughter (10%) Grandchildren(73%) 7 senior citizens said that they feel good to see his son, 4 senior citizens said that they like his daughter most and 29 (maximum) senior citizens said that they like their grandchildren very much. 17% senior citizens said that they like his son most, 10% senior citizens said that they fell good to see his daughter and 73% senior citizen said they like their grandchildren very much. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 50
  • 51. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 FACING PROBLEM WHILE TRAVELLING Table 21 Problem in travelling Yes No Total Response 13 27 40 Percentage (%) 32 68 100 Facing Problum in Travelling 30 25 20 Series1 15 27 10 13 5 0 Yes(32%) No(68%) 13 senior citizens are facing problem while travelling in the bus, metro, train and other public transport.27 senior citizens are not facing problem while travelling. It means 32% senior citizens are facing problem while travelling and 68%of senior citizens are not facing problem while travelling. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 51
  • 52. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 PUBLIC MISBEHAVE WITH YOU WHILE TRAVELLING Table 22 Public misbehave Yes No Total Response 8 32 40 Percentage (%) 20 80 100 Public Misbehave with you 32 No (80%) Series1 8 Yes (20%) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Only 8 senior citizens said that the public misbehave with them while travelling in the bus, metro and public transport. 32 senior citizens said those publics don‘t misbehave with them. Only 20% senior citizens said that the public misbehave with them while travelling in the bus, metro and public transport and 80% said that public don‘t misbehave while they travelling. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 52
  • 53. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 VICTIM OF CRIME Table 23 Victim of crime Yes No Total Response 14 26 40 Percentage (%) 35 65 100 Victime of crime 30 25 20 Series1 15 26 10 14 5 0 Yes (35%) No (65%) Out of 40 senior citizens 14 are the victim of crime and 26 are not the victim of crime. According to this 35% senior citizens are the victim of crime and 65% senior citizens are not the victim of crime. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 53
  • 54. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 SPECIFY THE NATURE Table 24 Nature of crime Theft Snatching Robbery Total Response 5 7 2 14 Percentage (%) 36 50 14 100 Nature of crime 8 7 7 6 5 5 4 Series1 3 2 2 1 0 Theft (36%) Snatching (50%) Robbery (14%) Out of 40 senior citizens 14 is the victim of crime in which 5 senior citizens registered the FIR in police station. In 14 victims 5 are the victim of theft, 7 are the victim of snatching and 2 are the victim of robbery. In which 36% are the victim of theft, 50% are the victim of snatching and 14% are the victim of robbery. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 54
  • 55. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 REGISTERED F.I.R. IN POLICE Table 25 Registered FIR Yes No Total Response 5 9 14 Percentage (%) 36 64 100 Registered FIR 36% Yes (36%) No (64%) 64% Out of 40 senior citizens 14 are the victim of crime. In the 14 senior citizens only 5 senior citizens registered the FIR in the police station, and the other 9 senior citizens don‘t register the FIR in the Police. If we see this then we know that only 36% senior citizens registered the FIR in the police station, and the other 64% senior citizens don‘t register the FIR in the Police station. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 55
  • 56. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 REACTION OF POLICE Table 26 Reaction of police Supportive Unsupportive Total Response 1 4 5 Percentage (%) 20 80 100 Reaction of Police 4 3.5 3 2.5 4 2 Series1 1.5 1 1 0.5 0 Supportive (20%) Unsupportive (80%) Out of 40 senior citizens 14 is the victim of crime in which 5 senior citizens registered the FIR in police station. In the 5 senior citizens only 1 find the supportive reaction of police and the other 4 don‘t find the supportive reaction of police. It means only 20% senior citizen find the supportive reaction of police and 80% finds the unsupportive reaction of police. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 56
  • 57. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 YOU KNOW YOUR RIGHTS Table 27 Know your rights Yes No Total Response 13 27 40 Percentage (%) 32 68 100 Know Your Rights 30 25 20 Series1 15 27 10 13 5 0 Yes (32%) No (68%) Out of 40 only 13 senior citizens know their rights and 27 senior citizens don‘t know their rights. Only 32% senior citizens know their rights and 68% don‘t know their rights. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 57
  • 58. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 RAISED VOICE AGAINST YOUR RIGHTS VIOLATED BY OTHERS Table 28 Raised voice Yes No Total Response 7 33 40 Percentage (%) 17 83 100 Raised Voice 33 No (83%) Series1 7 Yes (17%) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Out of 40 only 7 senior citizens raised voice for their rights. And 33 senior citizens don‘t raised voice against their rights, because most of them don‘t know their rights. So only 17% senior citizens rose voiced and 83% senior citizens don‘t raised voiced for their rights. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 58
  • 59. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 Police officers HANDLE ANY CASE OF SENIOR CITIZEN TABLE 29 Handle any case 1-3 3+ Total Response 4 1 5 Percentage (%) 80 20 100 Case Handle 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 Series1 4 1.5 1 1 0.5 0 1-3 (80%) 3+ (20%) 4 police officers handle 1 to 3 cases of senior citizens and 1 police officer handle 3 or above 3 cases related to senior citizens. It means that 80% police officers handle 1 to 3 cases of senior citizens and 20% police officer handle 3 and above 3 cases of senior citizens. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 59
  • 60. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 ANY MEETING CONDCTING FOR SENIOR CITIZENS TABLE 30 Meeting conducting Yes No Total Response 0 5 5 Percentage (%) 0 100 100 Meeating Conducting 0% Yes (0%) No (100%) 100% According to the police officers there is no routine meeting conducting for the senior citizens to give them the skills that how to prevent the crime and how to save themselves. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 60
  • 61. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 DIFFERENT SECTION OF POLICE FOR SENIOR CITIZENS TABLE 31 Different section of police Yes No Total Response Percentage (%) 2 3 5 40 60 100 Diffrent Section of Police 40% Yes (40%) No (60%) 60% 2 police officers told that there is a different section of police for the senior citizens. 3 police officers told that there is no separate section of police for the senior citizens. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 61
  • 62. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 ANY SPECIAL SECURITY PROGRAM FOR THEM TABLE 32 Security programs Yes No Total Response 4 1 5 Percentage (%) 80 20 100 Security Programes 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 Series1 4 1.5 1 1 0.5 0 Yes (80%) No (20%) 4 out of 5 police officers said that there are different security programs for the senior citizens, and 1 police officer said that there is no security program. 80% police officers said that there are different security programs and 20% police officers said that there is no security program. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 62
  • 63. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 ANY ARRANGEMENT OF COUNSELING TABLE 33 Counseling Yes No Total Response 2 3 5 Percentage (%) 40 60 100 Counseling 3 No (60%) Series1 2 Yes (40%) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3 Out of 5 police officers said that there are no counseling services provided to the senior citizens who are the 60% of total police officers interviewed. 2 police officers said that counseling service are provided to the senior citizens who are the 40% of total police officers. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 63
  • 64. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 CHAPTER - 6 FINDINGS OF THE STUDY  If we see the family type 35% senior citizens are from the nuclear family and 23% senior citizens are from the joint family. There are some senior citizens whose son are not living with them because of the jobs so they live with their daughters or any other relatives. If we see the education level then 37% senior citizens are graduate and 25% are intermediate. Most of the senior citizens are above intermediate.  30% senior citizens are retired from government jobs and 25% senior citizens are doing the private jobs. 48% senior citizens are getting15000 and above the monthly income and the 57% senior citizens are share their income with their family members like with their son and daughter or others members of the family.  62% senior citizens have their interactive social circle; mainly they have the friend‘s social circle which is 44%. They share some times their problems with their friends. 27% senior citizens are the members of a social or religious organization like church, any social welfare association or the meditation club etc, they go there and feel good.  72% senior citizens have their own shelter in which 67% senior citizens are living there, 33% senior citizens are living with their daughters and with some close relatives or sometimes they went to the old age homes in the day time.  Most of the wives are co-operative lady, 77% senior citizens said that their wife is a co-operative lady and only 27% senior citizens said that that their wife are not co-operative lady because of some reasons for ex. Domestic violence and some financial problems.  37% senior citizens don‘t have good relation with their children and 28% senior citizens have very tensed relation with their children only 35% senior citizens have good relation with their children. 71% senior citizens said that their children help them when they needed. Sometimes when they are not well mostly their wife (57%) take care them.  72% senior citizens get proper food, clothing and medical care when they are not well. Only 12% senior citizens are feeling lonely some times. Mainly 73% Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 64
  • 65. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 senior citizens are liked their grandchildren and want to spent their free time with their grandchildren.  Mostly the senior citizens travel by their own cars but sometimes when they travel by the bus, metro and public transport then 32% senior citizens facing problems in these transport. 20% senior citizens said that sometimes public misbehave with them.  35% senior citizens are the victim of different type of crime in which 36% senior citizens registered the FIR and the reaction of police was mostly unsupportive. Police do not support the senior citizens. 32% Out of 100% senior citizens know about their rights. Mostly 68% senior citizens don‘t know their rights. Only 17% senior citizens raised voice for their rights.  80% police officers handle 1 to 3 cases related to the senior citizens. There is no meeting conducting for the senior citizens. 40% police officers told that there is a different section of police for senior citizens. 80% senior citizens said that there are many security programs are running for the security of senior citizens. Only 40% police officer said that there is an arrangement for the counseling service for senior citizens. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 65
  • 66. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 CHAPTER - 7 SUGGESTIONS Analysis of crime against senior citizens has shown that they have been victimized by government organizations, their family members, relatives and other persons finding them easy targets for depriving them of their cash and valuables. Hence, it becomes imperative for the elderly to take precautions for the safety of their life and property. Some of the methods can be adopted to prevent crimes are:  Install good locks/auto locks on doors and windows. Also, use door chains, magic eye and strong grills on the doors and windows. The rear courtyard should be covered and front and rear lights should be switched on at night.  If any stranger enters the house (or found loitering around the house),first ensure personal safety by locking yourself inside a room and immediately inform the police control room and the local police station/beat staff giving clear address of your house. Mobile phone would be useful under such situation.  Give intimation to local police station or the beat staff.  Whenever alone in the house for a long period of time or out of town.  Take initiative for the police verification of servants, drivers, chowkidars, tenants etc.  Take services of causal laborers like painters, carpenters, plumbers, electrician, AC/Refrigerator/TV mechanics etc. only after prior personal verification or on the recommendation of any known person or the RWA.  If a person visiting you poses as a representative, salesman, etc., demand identification and credentials be slipped under the door. Call the employer to verify the business. Immediately inform the police if you find anything suspicious.  While sleeping, keep the door of your room locked from inside.  Never keep large amount of cash and jewellery at home. Keep caring attitudes towards your servants but never allow them to be very close.  Go for installation of neighborhood alarm system.  Maintain good neighborly relations for spontaneous help. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 66
  • 67. Victimization of senior citizens 2013  Keep watchful eyes over the activities of laborers working in your neighborhood.  Keep telephone numbers of local police/police Helpline/emergency services/neighbors etc. so that in case of any mishap immediate help could be sought.  Use a safety latch to allow only partial opening of the door.  Always go out in a group for evening/morning walk.  Be in touch with the beat police officer, keep his telephone number ready.  Keep photograph and finger prints of servants.  Keep an eye on visitors of your servant.  Don‘t boast of your prosperity to anyone.  Don‘t make an ostentatious display of cash and jewellery.  Don‘t trust strangers and don‘t open the door to unidentified people.  Don‘t ignore any suspicious incident. Inform police  Don‘t allow your servant‘s visitors to stay with him. Some other methods usually followed by various law-enforcing agencies around the globe to prevent crimes are mentioned here. Police Beats: Police Beats provide a strong, localized policing presence in residential areas, shopping centers and central business districts to prevent and reduce crime. It is a good factor that our police are also doing it but should be improved. Neighborhood Watch Neighborhood Watch is a programme organized by the community in order to reduce residential crime. Householders are encouraged to join together in small informal groups for the purpose of improving the safety of their families and other neighborhood residents Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 67
  • 68. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 CHAPTER - 8 CONCLUSION When we see the findings then we come to know that senior citizens are victimized at different stages. Senior citizens are victimized by their family members for example they are victimized by their son, daughter, and wife and sometimes by the close relatives. According to the findings when they was the victim of crime and they do not registered any FIR this is also a category of victimization and when they registered the FIR and the action of police was not supportive this is also a category of their victimization. Today senior citizens are victimized in the public transport and in the different organizations. Most of the senior citizens do not know their rights and they are victimized by this cause some times. Sometimes senior citizens know their rights but they do not raised voice when someone violated their rights. Senior citizens are the soft target so they victimized easily. Mainly the family members victimized to the senior citizens. Most of the senior citizens are good financially but they don‘t have their salary because the family members takes the salary from them so the financial condition of senior citizens are not good because they do not have their income so the economic condition of senior citizens are not good but the social condition is good. The living condition of senior citizens is not so good because they are victimized in their own house also. To reduce the victimization of senior citizens we should implement the law very strictly and there are some moral things also. If we fallow those morals then the victimization of senior citizens will be reduced. Children behave with their parents very rudely but they forgot that they also come in that age. But still a lot has to be done because in this cut throat competition children are forgetting that they have been brought in this world by them and they should not forget that some day they will be in their shoes. As said: “DON’T BE TOO HARD ON YOUR PARENTS, YOU MAY FIND YOURSELF IN THEIR PLACE........” By Compton Burnett Dame Lvy Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 68
  • 69. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 CHAPTOR - 9 Appendix - 1 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR SENIOR CITIZENS 1. Name 2. Age i. 60-70 ii. 71-80 iii. 80+ 3. No. of Education members Occupation Income level Self Wife Daughter Son Daughter in law 4. Do you share your income with your family members? i. Yes ii. No 5.1.Do you have your interact social circle? i. Yes ii. No 5.2.If yes, what kind of social circle? --------------------- Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 69
  • 70. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 6.1.Are you a member of any social organization or religious institution? i. Yes ii. No 6.2.If yes, please specify the nature of participation of organization? ----------------------7.1.Do you have your own shelter? i. Yes ii. No 7.2.Are you living there? i. Yes ii. No 8.1.Is your wife a co-operative lady? i. Yes ii. No 8.2.If no, what type of problems you are facing with your wife? ------------------------9.1.How do you assess your relation with your children? i. Very supportive ii. Supportive iii. Unsupportive iv. Very Tensed 9.2.If supportive do they help you ? i. Yes ii. No Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 70
  • 71. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 10.When you are not well who attends you at home? --------------------------11.Do you get proper food, clothing, and medical care? i. Yes ii. No 12.Do you feel lonely some time? i. Yes ii. No 13. Whom does you like most at home? -------------------------14.Do you face any problem while travelling? i. Yes ii. No 15.When you travelling in a public transport, public misbehave with you? i. Yes ii. No 16.1.Have you ever been a victim of crime? i. Yes ii. No 16.2.If yes, specify the nature of case? ------------------------------17.1.After victimization do you registered an FIR in police? i. Yes ii. No Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 71
  • 72. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 17.2.If yes, what was the reaction of police? i. Supportive ii. Unsupportive 18.Do you know as a senior citizen what are your rights? i. Yes ii. No 19.Did you ever raise voice against your rights violated by others? i. Yes ii. No Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 72
  • 73. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 Appendix - 2 INTERVIEW GUIDE FOR POLICE Name: Designation: Place/Area: 1. Do you handle any case related to the senior citizens? 2. Any meeting conducted for senior citizens? 3. Should there be a different section of police officers for senior citizens? 4. Any special security programs for them? 5. Any arrangement for counseling services? Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 73
  • 74. Victimization of senior citizens 2013 Appendix - 3 REFERENCE  Ahmad N.I., Abbas S. (1993), A Study on family care of elderly.  Bureau of Justice statistics, Department of Justice, a National Survey  Krause (2001), Study on the anticipated support and received support.  Penning (2001), A study on health, and health services.  Robert A. Butterworth, senior vs Crime Project 2001.  Sangmitra and ilango (2002) Problems experienced by caregivers.  Tomstan (1995), A Study on relationship of elderly caregivers.  Whitlaten et.al; (2000), A study on stress process of caregivers.  McCoy, H.V. (1996), ―Life situation and older persons' fear of crime‖, Journal of Criminal Justice, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp.191-205.  Saxena, N.S. (1999), ―Crime and Violence against the Aged‖, Understanding Graying People of India, ICSSR, Inter- India Publications, New Delhi,.  Hollander, J. A. ( 2001) ‖Vulnerability And Dangerousness‖, Gender & Society, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp.83-109.  Kristiansen, A. L.(2007), ― Social Equality and Perceptions of Insecurity-A Comparison Study between Two European Countries‖, European Journal of Criminology, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp.59-86.  Siegel, Larry J. Criminology: Theories, Patterns and Typologies, 9th edition, Thomson Wadsworth Publication.2007 p. 78.  http://legalservicesindia.com/article/article/victims-rights-in-india-1315-1.html  Kapoor S.K., International Law and Human Rights, Central Law Agency.  The Maintenance and Welfare of Parents and Senior Citizens Act, 2007.  Bare Acts, Cr.P.C. 1973, H.A.M.A. 1956, Indian Constitution.  Project on Rising Crimes against Elderly People and Responsibility of Police in Metros, Group for Economic & Social Studies, September 2009.  U.N. Department Bureau of Justice Statistics.  http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/Content/getdoc/93708052-3d8a-45b7-99b9 30dccb2289b8/Cross.aspx.  U N Declaration of Basic Principles of Justice for Victims of Crime and Abuse of Power. Senior Citizens and Present Scenario Page 74

×