Terrorism

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Terrorism

  1. 1. Terrorism Its Type,Nature and Prevention Avinash Rajput Criminology 1st Semester Lok Nayak Jayprakesh Narayana National Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science Ministry of Home Affairs
  2. 2. Definitions of Terrorism  “Terrorism is the unlawful use of force or violence against person or Property to intimidate or coerce o government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.” - F.B.I Definition  "calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear. It is intended to coerce or intimidate governments or societies ... [to attain] political, religious, or ideological goals." - U.S. Army Manual  “Terrorism is the use or threatened use of force designed to bring about political change.” - Brian Jenkins  “Terrorism constitutes the illegitimate use of force to achieve a political objective when innocent people are targeted.” - Walter Laqueur
  3. 3. Types of Terrorism  National Terrorism  International Terrorism
  4. 4. National Terrorism National Terrorism involves groups whose terrorist activities are directed at elements of our government without foreign involvement. Oklahoma City is a primary example.
  5. 5. International Terrorism International terrorism involves groups whose terrorist activities are foreign-based and/or directed by countries or groups outside the United States. Sept. 11 is an example of International Terrorism.
  6. 6. Other Types of Terrorism • • • • • • State Terrorism Bio Terrorism Cyber Terrorism Eco Terrorism NuclearTerrorism Narco Terrorism
  7. 7. State Terrorism  State terrorism may refer to acts of terrorism conducted by a state against a foreign state or people.  State terrorism refer to acts of violence by a state against its own people.  State terrorism is a system of political domination based on the spreading of terror in society.
  8. 8. Bio Terrorism  Bioterrorism is terrorism involving the intentional release or dissemination of biological agents. These agents are bacteria, viruses, or toxins.  Bioterrorism is the term used for terrorist activities in which biological substances are used to cause harm to other people. Example: They can be contaminated water, food, air and packages to create infection.
  9. 9. Cyber Terrorism In this Terrorist use Information Technology to attack civilians. In this Terrorist use Computer System and Telecommunications as a tool to attack. Example: The internet worms and viruses that are designed to take down some of the systems that the government uses.
  10. 10. Eco Terrorism Eco terrorism is a recently coined term describing violence in the interests of environmentalism.
  11. 11. Nuclear Terrorism "Nuclear terrorism" refers to a number of different ways nuclear materials might be exploited as a terrorist tactic. Nuclear terrorism is any different way that nuclear weapons might be used for terrorism. Example: Use of Radioactive materials through explosion. Use of nuclear reactor method.
  12. 12. Narco Terrorism  In Narco terrorism, terrorists making, transporting, and selling illegal drugs to fund terrorists activities.  Narco terrorism has denoted violence used by drug traffickers to influence governments or prevent government efforts to stop the drug trade. Example: Making, transporting, and selling illegal drugs to fund terrorists activities.
  13. 13. Characteristics of Terrorism It is exercised by organized groups It is inspired by Political Motive Use of Violence is intended to arouse fright or alarm There is systematic and indiscriminate use of violence and breach of Law
  14. 14. Psychological Impact of Terrorism Strong motivation to terminate terror Evokes classic ego defense mechanisms and displacement Often produces frustration-aggression reaction general increase in mental illness Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  15. 15. Causes Of Terrorism Injustice Politicians Poverty and Illiteracy Media ( Controlled By Politicians) Religious causes
  16. 16. Methods of Terrorism Firearms Explosive and Incendiary Devices Chemical Agents Biological Agents Nuclear Weapon
  17. 17. HOW TERRORISTS OPERATE ASSAULTS & MURDERS KIDNAPPING & SKYJACKINGS ARSON & BOMBINGS WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION
  18. 18. Purpose of Terrorism Fear Panic Disruption Demoralization Intimidation Embarrass Government Media Attention
  19. 19. Similarities Between Terrorist and Organized Crime Groups Hierarchy structure Operate secretly Underground network Control over the individual is strong front organizations (Businesses or Charities) Similar tactics
  20. 20. Differences Between Terrorist and Organized Crime Groups Terrorist  ideologically or politically motivated  seek media attention  Victimization is generally less discriminate  wish to compete with governments for legitimacy Organized Crime  profit-oriented  Do not seek media attention  Victimization is generally less discriminate  Do not do this
  21. 21. ISLAMIC EXTREMISTS AL-QAEDA AL-JIHAD AL-GAMA’A HAMAS HIZBALLAH AL-ISLAMIYYA AL-TAHID
  22. 22. Different Acts for Terrorism Terrorism Act 2000 Anti-Terrorism Act of 2001 Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 ANIMAL ENTERPRISE TERRORISM ACT
  23. 23. Prevention of Terrorism Primary Prevention Secondary Prevention Tertiary Prevention
  24. 24. Primary Prevention Education!!! Understand the differences in cultures, religions, beliefs and human behaviors Think of the peace, freedom and equality of all human beings, not just “my group of people” Eliminate the root of terrorism
  25. 25. Secondary Prevention Establish surveillance and monitoring system on terrorism attack Improve protective system for citizens
  26. 26. Tertiary Prevention Early detection of the sources Prevent the extension of impairments Rescue the survivors Console the rest of the population
  27. 27. Solutions for Terrorism Remove Poverty Justice Dealing with media Improving international behaviour

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